The weather in spring is rather unstable. For example, temperatures can range from +20 ° C during the day to -5 ° C at night. That is why the gardener is faced with the feasible task of preventing either a plant burn, or freezing at night, or the occurrence of diseases. You must ensure the initial growth of the plant, as well as preparation for flowering. And do not forget that the spring should be treated with diseases and pests.
Comprehensive care of the plant in the spring includes the following components:
- trimming bushes
- watering roses
- spraying bushes from pests and diseases.
Only compliance with the rules of integrated care for roses will help to get a healthy and beautiful plant as a result.
The time frame for care is as follows:
- March: removal of winter cover, as well as the garter of plants and their wadding,
- April: the treatment of roses from pests and diseases, their feeding, reproduction and planting of new bushes,
- May: disease prevention, fertilization, trimming plants.
Removing the winter cover
The opening of roses in the spring can not be done immediately, it is better to perform this procedure gradually, gradually accustoming them to full lighting. It is highly undesirable when the soil is not completely thawed out under the influence of direct sunlight. This leads to the fact that water from this soil to the plant does not flow, but at the same time, evaporation occurs. The result may be a drying of roses. That is why in the first place you need to remove the film with insulating materials, and cover the shoots with a cloth that will create a shadow. This fabric needs to be removed only when the soil is completely thawed.
Also, do not open the roses in spring too early, because aggressive winds and low temperatures can damage the plants. But do not delay. Vypryanie bushes no better.
It is better to take shelter in the evening and in cloudy weather.
In March, the first main processing of plants is carried out, namely their breaking up. In this case, you must follow the basic rules:
- Unnecessary soil is desirable to remove completely or evenly distribute it throughout the rose garden.
- It is better to carry out the hilling process in the evening when direct sunlight does not fall on the site. This can also be done in overcast conditions with low temperatures.
- For hilling, you do not need to rake the already existing soil near the bush, it is better to fill in a new one. This will make the razukochivaniya process less painful for the plant.
Rules for pruning roses
How to prune roses in spring? First you need to choose the right time. It is better to do this in 3-4 days after the bushes were opened. The rose must be carefully examined and removed all the shoots that can harm the plant, namely, the sick, dead or those that grow inside. As a rule, leave only a small number of strong shoots with buds. If plants are properly maintained, the kidneys will awaken absolutely everything. How many kidneys to leave? Choose only you. As a result, you want to get strong shoots? In this case, it is better to leave a maximum of two buds. If you are satisfied and stunted shoots, the number can be increased.
When spring pruning, you must follow the basic rules:
- The cut is recommended to do over the kidney, which is facing outwards. The distance should be about 1 cm.
- The angle of inclination should be 45 °.
- Before you cut the roses in the spring, you need to carefully prepare the tool. To carry out the procedure can only be perfectly sharp scissors. This condition is necessary to obtain smooth cuts.
- As a preventive measure for diseases and insect colonization, the place of the cut must be thoroughly cleaned and all irregularities removed.
- All diseased, damaged and dry shoots must be removed. This applies to too thin shoots.
- Shoots that are intertwined or are located too close together are subject to removal.
Removal of all shoots that are undesirable contributes to good air exchange of the bush and its light. This is a guarantee that fungal and other diseases can be avoided.
Top dressing of roses in the spring
How to feed the roses in the spring to avoid their disease? When fertilizing, you need to take into account one fact: a rose is a rather capricious plant that does not like a lot of mineral salts.
Fertilizer for roses in the spring to choose carefully. Use requires aqueous solutions, and it is organic fertilizers. The treatment of roses in the spring from diseases and pests, especially fungi, by spraying a special extract, for which you need tansy and nettle, is very popular. To get rid of other types of diseases it is still better to use special chemicals.
Also, mineral or organic fertilizer for roses in the spring can be replaced with compost or manure. The latter must spend at least 6 months before use in a compost pit. It is desirable to do such feeding once every 2-3 years. Before feeding the roses in the spring, you need to calculate the amount of compost. It is very easy to do this: 6 kg of manure is required per 1 m 2 of soil. This volume should be mixed with the top layer of soil.
The quality of the soil should be given special attention, it should be quite wet and loose. Mulching can help in this. An additional effect will be weed control.
Roses are very demanding on the quality of the soil. It is necessary to ensure that its moisture was sufficient. If your area is loose soil, an effective method would be to use drip irrigation.
If it is impossible to organize drip irrigation, watering should be done manually. This should be done quite rarely, but at the same time, quite abundantly. For watering you need about 20 liters per 1 m 2.
Watering should be a special way. For water, you need to make indentations in the ground around the bush itself. It is in them and need to carry out watering. It is better not to touch the leaves, especially in those days when the air temperature is too high. If we neglect this, the consequence of negligence can be a thermal burn, and further death of still very young shoots.
Spraying the bushes from diseases and pests
The optimal time for treating roses in the spring from diseases and pests is the period when the plant begins to actively grow green.
The rose is a beautiful flower that is loved not only by people, unfortunately, but also by various kinds of insects and fungi, as well as various diseases. That is why every spring these bushes need to be processed in order to get rid of various parasites that could spend the winter with the plant.
It is better to perform the treatment several days after the main treatment, when the rose begins its active growth. It is recommended to use special chemicals.
Copper sulfate - a universal remedy
Particular attention should be paid to how the roses should be treated in the spring with copper sulfate. This measure is optimal, because, according to experts, this tool causes harm much less than others, if done according to all the rules. Before processing the roses in spring, you need to prepare a solution of copper sulphate. Containers should be taken exclusively glass or plastic. The solution should be a certain concentration. This is usually 1% or 3%. It is the latter value that is necessary for the spring processing of roses. When working with this tool you need to carefully monitor the observance of precautions.
Diseases Affected Roses
In order for the cultivation of roses to bring you only healthy and beautiful flowers, knowledge of possible plant diseases, as well as methods of control and prevention are required.
Most pathogens that these plants are exposed to have one negative trait - they can persist for quite a long time even on dead parts, for example, cut shoots or dead leaves. That is why the removed parts need to be burned immediately.
Roses in early spring are subject to various diseases. The most common are:
- Rose rust is the result of fungus life. Arises, as a rule, on weakened plants in spring. The main symptoms are rust stains, which are located on the top of the leaves. These spots gradually turn black, after which the infected parts disappear.
- Black spot is the result of a parasitic fungus. The attack is due to overmoistening of the soil or with a lack of fertilizers at the end of the spring period. However, the disease manifests itself only in late August and early September.
- Mealy dew - the name is due to white bloom that appears on various parts of the plant. It resembles flour, and when aging a spore, a liquid is released that is similar to drops of dew. The disease can easily move to neighboring bushes. Shrub affected by powdery mildew dies. However, it is this disease that is still easier to prevent than to cope with it later.
Causes of disease
Today, a number of main reasons for which the rose begins to hurt are known:
- Non-compliance with the rules of pruning, and not only in the spring, but also during the preparation for the winter. The main mistake is the wrong handling of the cut, after which the escape does not heal.
- Watering the plants in the evening, when the excess water just does not have time to evaporate.
- Location in close proximity to an already infected plant. Most often from other bushes can pass the disease of fungal origin.
- Climatic conditions unsuitable for growing roses. Humid cool climate can only provoke the spread of fungal diseases.
- Non-compliance with the rules of watering. There may be too much water or, conversely, too little.
- Insufficient feeding. Insufficient nutrients in the soil can contribute to the disease.
Rose treatment methods
The choice of treatment method depends entirely on the cause and nature of the disease:
- Fungal diseases are usually treated by removing infected leaves and sprouts of a rose.
- Sulfur or the drug Funginex can be used against mold.
- Bacterial disease can also be cured by removing diseased parts of the plant.
- Spraying the plant with horsetail extract or sulfur solution with hydrated lime will help against rust and black spot.
- Precautionary measures, in particular, the elimination of nitrogen-containing fertilizer, will help protect the rose from powdery mildew. To cure an already diseased plant will help ash in combination with manure.
How to handle roses in the spring to protect against pests? The main drugs are:
- soap solution
- iron or copper sulphate,
- infusion of nettle.
Preventive measures are always more effective than the immediate fight against the disease. Now you can grow roses in the garden. “How to care for them in order to get beautiful and healthy flowers?” - this question may become a problem for you. Answers to it can come with experience.
Work with a rose when landing
To fight pests, you need to correctly determine the landing site. Land well prepared by providing it with drainage. The distance between the bushes must comply with the norm.
When planting, the variety that is most resistant to diseases is chosen, because many varieties cannot withstand pests.
Rose bushes have two types of resistance:
- Phenotypic. The plant has good resistance to disease in a particular climate.
- Genotypic. They contain genes that are not affected by climatic conditions.
Therefore, choosing a variety, you need to bind it to the climate of the area.
How to handle roses
Insects cause great damage to the plant, so in early spring it is necessary to process and spray it. Depending on the climatic zone, the spraying time may vary. In the middle lane, work is in April. After pruning in the spring, the treatment is carried out with copper sulfate, which will prevent the rose from an infectious burn.
At the end of the first flowering treatment is carried out with iron sulfate, during the summer once. In the case of defeat of two shoots, it does not make sense to process such a bush; it must be cut and burned.
After spraying the rose with copper sulfate, after 2 weeks, they are treated with universal preparations, which include insecticides and fungicides. The plant will be protected from powdery mildew. This treatment should be carried out with a frequency of once every 2 weeks. This procedure will prevent the formation of rust stains on the leaves and prevent the appearance of aphids.
Copper sulfate is considered a universal remedy. If all plants are treated according to the rules, then it causes much less harm than any other preparation. It is important that the spray tank be made of glass or plastic, and the concentration of the solution is 1 or 3%.
Diseases and control of them
The rose is susceptible to two types of diseases - fungal and non-infectious. The former are caused by viruses and bacteria, and the latter by poor climatic conditions or errors during planting and in the process of cultivation.
The types of diseases include:
- Mealy dew. This is a fungal disease that develops in conditions of high humidity, at a temperature of +20 degrees. The leaves are touched first. Red spots appear on the surface, then a cloudy layer forms on top, the leaves shrink and fall. During the season, outbreaks of such a disease can occur up to three times. An excess of nitrogen in the soil and high shrub density contributes to this. For the purpose of prophylaxis, spraying of a mullein solution is carried out once every 20 days. Proportions with water 1 to 3. Infusion time 10 days. During the season, are treated with fungicides. Fumigation with sulfur fumes is allowed.
- Rust. Refers to fungal diseases. It affects the upper part of the plant. At the end of spring, shoots, buds and leaves on which spots of yellow color are formed touch. After 2 months, spots get rusty color. When squeezed, they crumble. Contributes to this disease high humidity. With dryness and heat, the development of the disease slows down. As a preventive measure, in the early spring, mancozeb should be sprayed from this disease. In the future, lead spraying of iron vitriol. If the rose bush is impossible to cure, then it must be cut and burned.
- Gray rot. The disease is fungal in nature, dangerous for growing shoots. Develops in conditions of high humidity. The plant is covered with a fluffy bloom. The development of the disease comes from the top down. Protection against this disease is spraying with fungicides once every two weeks until the plaque disappears. If you fertilize a rose with a solution containing manganese, then it increases its resistance to such a disease. In the spring, infected shoots are removed, and the bushes are treated with basezol for the first time and again in two weeks. To get rid of gray rot, you need to reduce watering and fertilize the plant with manganese microadditives.
- Marsonina or black spot. The fungus infects the leaves and the growing shoots. Initially, small spots are formed. Then merging, they grow to 15 mm. Spores located on the spots are carried by the wind and infect other areas. Diseases of temperature and increased humidity contribute to the disease. On the affected rose bush, the leaves remain unbroken. Prevention of this disease in the spring can be a treatment of infusion of mullein or zinc-containing drugs. It is advisable to spray the soil with copper sulphate.
- Burn. The source of the disease mushroom Conistirium. First, the disease appears as red spots, and then the plant dies. If the disease struck slightly, then this place can be cleaned up to healthy tissue and treated with a solution of runnet.
- Chlorosis. With this disease, the leaves of the rose turn yellow, but the veins remain green. Then they get a marble shade and die off. In this case, more organic fertilizer should be added to the soil.
Particularly dangerous pests in the spring, during the active growth of shoots, buds and buds.
These insects include:
- Sawfly. May be on the flower the entire period, from early spring to late autumn. Caterpillars and larvae have a light color. The insect itself is brown in color. Eat the pulp inside the leaves, gnawing cavities in the stems. Eat the buds.
- Bronzovka. Most active in the late spring. After laying the larvae in the manure, they pupate, bugs come out of them, which remain there. Have a length of 20 mm. The top is greenish and the bottom is coppery red. The damage to the plant is done the same as the sawfly.
- Olenka. This is a black colored beetle with bright spots. It has a length of 12 mm. It feeds on the flesh of a rose, like the previous insects.
- Aphid green. At the end of summer, it lays eggs, and in early spring, larvae hatch from them. The appearance of aphids is accompanied by ants who drink the juice they excrete. Тля ослабляет растения, высасывая из него питательные вещества.
- Spider mite. Ранней весной самки на листьях откладывают яйца. Затем из них выводятся клещи, которые живут весь сезон. Форма насекомых овальная, длиной 0,5 мм . Цвет тела желтый, по которому идут черные пятна. Клещи высасывают из молодых побегов листьев соки. Кусты розы слабеют.
- Drooling pennitsa. Appear with the onset of spring. After 50 days, they turn into adults and live all summer until the end of autumn. Insect length 6 mm, color gray. They eat the whole rose, leading it to death.
- Thrips. They also live from spring to late autumn. Placed in the buds. Have a size of 3 mm. Juice is sucked from the sprouts, especially in drought and heat.
- Sheet wrench. Appears in the spring in early May. Brown butterfly Life time -2 weeks. Wingspan - 2 cm. The resulting caterpillars feed on leaves, buds and shoots.
For the purpose of prophylaxis, the treatment of rose bushes with insecticides is carried out in the spring:
- From ticks, the drugs acrexyl and isophene, which are used for leaf spraying, have effectively proven themselves.
- The use of a solution of nitrophene. It is effective against pennits and listworms.
Greater difficulty is the struggle with thrips. These pests do not affect drugs. Over time, they become immune to spraying. In the fight against such insects need to alternate insecticides and soap solution, changing their number.
Folk remedies for pests
Take 300 grams of onion or garlic, 400 grams of tomato leaves. All is placed in a three-liter jar. Water is poured in and the mixture is placed in a warm place for 6 hours. Then it is filtered and water is added to the solution up to 10 liters. To the drug adhered to the leaves, it adds laundry soap. Apply the solution should be 5 times during the week. It is effective against most parasites.
Pests such as caterpillars, beetles or butterflies can be harvested by hand in the early morning and immediately destroyed. At this time, they are still sleepy and do not run away. Very good at fighting ladybugs. For them, this is the best food.
It is effective to attract birds to the garden: starlings and blackbirds. For this purpose, birdhouses are installed on trees.
Sometimes they make traps, where they put a sticky mass in the form of grease or glue. Below is a lamp lighting that attracts insects.
Rose is considered the queen of flowers. And indeed it is. Hardly any flowers can compare with her beauty. But to plant and grow it can only be subject to proper care for her. The rose is susceptible to various diseases, and this should be monitored from early spring, regularly sprayed, so that the blossoming flowers are pleasing to the eye throughout the summer.
The importance of preventive measures against diseases and pests for roses
It is known that any disease is better to prevent than to treat. It is important to caution the garden beauty against all sorts of diseases and pests. To do this, you need to conduct a series of preventive measures. The first is the treatment of roses from diseases and pests.
Is it possible to spray roses
Since old times, it is known how to spray roses: a tablespoon of baking soda was diluted in a glass of water and the bushes squirted five times a season. Also, according to the popular method, infusions of ash or mullein were made in a ratio of 1:20, which were used every week as a preventive measure against fungal pathogens of the flower, and also as an outside root feeding. At the moment there are many chemicals than to spray roses for the prevention of various diseases and insect pests, but they must be alternated, as pathogens can become resistant to therapeutic chemicals over time.
How to treat roses for the prevention of disease
Note! The most popular tool that brings the desired result in the fight against garden beauty diseases, which has long been popular with professional flower growers, is the Bordeaux mixture.
Its universal composition of copper sulfate and hydrated lime effectively fights all sorts of fungi and bacteria that can suddenly appear on beautiful shrubs and provide maximum care for roses in summer. The main component of the solution - copper contributes to the intensive growth of bushes.
The solution after the treatment of roses for a long time keeps on the foliage, which contributes to its longer effectiveness. It is impossible to make mistakes when preparing Bordeaux liquid, since its strong concentration can burn the leaves of the pet.
In early spring, when the shrub is freed from winter shelter with barely swelling buds and in late autumn, the roses are treated with a more concentrated 3% solution to destroy various bacteria and fungi. In late spring, summer and early autumn, a treatment with a 1% solution of Bordeaux rose mixture is sufficient in connection with preventive measures of flower diseases.
Bordeaux rose liquid in summer during flowering is not desirable because of its toxicity. To treat bushes with this tool, in order to avoid burns of foliage, it is necessary in the evening or in dry cool weather. At the moment it is the most effective tool in the fight against various fungi and unwanted microorganisms.
How to treat roses from diseases during flowering
During the flowering period, rose bushes require additional attention. Nitrogen, in which the plant needed in spring and early summer, should be eliminated and emphasis should be placed on potassium containing fertilizers necessary for budding and lush flowering.
Wood ash (1 cup per 10 liters of water), calcium nitrate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water for one bush), and potassium sulfate (30 g per 10 liters of water) are perfect for this purpose.
A solution of baking soda (40 g per 1 l of water) is used every week 2-3 times, sprinkling flowers for the prevention of disease.
You can spray the bushes in the evening or in calm weather with vegetable broths: nettle, garlic, horsetail, horseradish. Spraying the infusion of wormwood with household soap (1 piece per 10 liters of water) or a decoction of hot pepper (5 pods per 1 liter of water) will adequately handle aphids and larvae of larvae.
Baking soda solution
Diseases of roses and pests in the country, care for roses in the summer
The most common disease of roses is powdery mildew, the causative agent of which is the mushroom sphere library (Sphaerotheca pannosa). Powdery mildew occurs with abundant watering during hot, humid weather, frequent fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizers and a lack of minerals. Manifested in the form of powdery plaque white or gray on young leaves, shoots, buds of the plant.
With small spots can grow and cover large areas of flowers. Prevention of the disease is to maintain cleanliness on the site, remove the affected shoots, burning fallen leaves. Watering in early spring with 3% copper sulfate and spraying with copper-containing preparations (Ridomil gold, oksikh, sodium polysulfide, etc.) gives a significant result. From folk remedies effective mixture of manure and wood ash.
To spray the roses with a solution, you need to pour 300 g of ash with boiling water and let it brew for half an hour. Spoon 5 rotted manure diluted in 1 liter of water, mix with a solution of ash, add water to 10 liters, 50 grams of grated soap and weekly spray rose bushes. If the plant is heavily damaged by powdery mildew, you can spray it with a solution of soda (50 g per 10 liters of water). Potassium fertilizers increase the immunity of roses to disease.
If black-brown spots have formed on the beloved, it means the plant is infected with the fungus Marssonina rosae (Lib.) Died, which appeared and overwinter on uncircumcised leaves last year’s leaves and shoots. Typically, the infection appears in July and August in the form of dark brown spots of various sizes. How to sprinkle roses to prevent this disease? To do this, every 10-12 days, spray phytosporin solution, a mixture of 1 hl Kemira Lux with 5 drops of epine per 5 liters of water or sulfuric solution (100 g per 10 liters of water).
The next common rose disease is peronospora, in other words, downy mildew. The causative agent of pseudo-mushroom-Oomycete from the family Peronospora (Peronospora). It affects leaves, shoots, peduncles, in a rare case, buds and flowers. The leaves shrivel, becoming covered with brown-red spots without rims, on the reverse side a grayish bloom forms, dries and falls from the top shoots. Cold at night and hot weather during the day contribute to the development of the disease. With round-the-clock stable hot weather, the illness gradually recedes.
Note! All summer procedures, in order to avoid leaf burns, are carried out at air temperatures below 18 degrees Celsius or in hot weather reduce the level of solution concentration (40 g per 10 liters of water). If the above methods are not effective, start spraying, which is produced several times per season, with more powerful drugs: Ridomil Gold, Previkur Energy, Scor, Topaz, etc.
Disease prevention consists in spraying the bushes with skim milk with iodine (1 l milk and 10 drops of iodine are diluted in 9 l water). It also helps the mixture 1ch. Kemira Suite and 5 drops of epine per 5 liters of water. 1 cup of ash should be poured over 2 liters of boiling water, after 2-3 hours add up to 10 liters of water and spray the affected areas. Also in the fight against the disease are popular drugs: Topsin-M, phytosporine paste, Topaz, Bravo, Previkur, Scor, Revus, Strobe, Profit Gold, Garth, Acrobat MC, etc.
The causative agent of dangerous rust of roses is a fungus of the genus Phragmidium (Phragmidium disciflorum, P. tuberculatum, P. rosae-pimpinellifoliae), which is easily tolerated in open air in planting areas from pathogens to healthy shrubs. A sign of the disease is a round orange-red spot on the representatives of the flora. Inside the plant, all life processes cease, the stems bend, die flowering buds and yellowed leaves fall off and fall off. Flower disease is successfully treated with a broad-acting drug Falcon.
If the garden darling was covered with a variety of yellowish-brown spots bloomed - this is a disease gray mold. It is caused by the imperfect mushroom Botrytis cinerea Pers and affects mainly weakened plants, the buds of which gradually fade, leaves fall, and the stems overgrow with the gray-brown moss of the fungus.
Important! In the preparation of bushes for the winter with the preventive purpose of rust produce a spraying of 3% solution of iron sulphate.
Tips experienced gardeners
For the prevention of all the aforementioned ailments of the southern beauty, experienced flower growers and summer residents recommend first of all maintaining perfect cleanliness on the land planted with flowers, timely removing and burning the diseased foliage, cutting off infected patches of stems and inflorescences, improving plant immunity by spraying and irrigating with necessary fertilizers.
When planting flowers, keep sufficient distance for airing. Provide protection from rodents and pests.
Observing all the rules for the care of plants, a blooming garden will delight as long as possible.
Question number 2. The shoots of roses under the winter shelter were covered with spots of a reddish-brown color. What is it and how to deal with it?
It looks like an infectious burn (aka stalk cancer). Unfortunately, this condition is almost impossible to treat. In the affected areas, the bark will dry, crack and escape will soon die. Therefore, trimming is inevitable. It is necessary to cut all the affected areas to a healthy tissue, then treat the bush with the Kuprolyuks preparation solution.
If there are few spots and they are small, you can try to save the lash in the following way: clean the place of the burn with a sterile garden knife, rinse it with a strong solution of potassium permanganate and smear it with pharmaceutical tetracycline ointment. After that, seal the sore area with a plaster. The experience of a number of rozovodov shows that this can save a good productive shoot, if the area and depth of the lesion was small.
Question number 3. Is it possible to spray roses with a fungicide and insecticide one day?
If the processing time from fungi and insects coincided, you can do it at the same time. The main thing is to choose compatible drugs. For example, Bordeaux mixture containing lime is not compatible with other products. The same is said in the instructions for the drug "Oxy". Therefore, in this case it is better to take money with another active ingredient. For example, the fungicide "Ridomil Gold" and the insecticide "Aktara" combine well in a tank mix. Acrobat MC, Skor, Strobe and Topsin fungicides can also be mixed with Aktara. But before using these pesticides, you should familiarize yourself with the list of diseases against which they are active.
We remove winter shelter from a rose
In a climate where the air temperature drops below –5 ° C in winter, all rose bushes, without exception, need shelter. However, in time to remove the shelter - no less important than to establish it in a timely manner. It is necessary to linger - and the plant will begin to vypryvat.
In early spring, roses are hardened little by little, opening them only from the north side to avoid burns. The winter shelter is completely removed as soon as the stable positive temperature is established in the yard. If you live in the middle lane, most likely, you have already removed winter "clothes" from your roses.
The first spring pruning roses
The rose is one of those plants that must be cut at least twice a year: in spring and autumn. Optionally, you can spend and summer sanitary trim.
On how you cope with the first pruning of a bush, depends on the pomp of its flowering. Spring pruning is considered more important than autumn. If you carry out the main work at the beginning of the season, and not at the end, it will be easier for the plant to winter.
The pruner you intend to trim must be clean.
So, you have a pruner in your hand. What to do next?
- First ruthlessly get rid of all damaged, frozen, dried branches.
- Further remove all fat shoots and branches that are directed inward.
- All other "promising" branches with healthy strong buds must be trimmed. Central branches cut at a level of 2 cm above the selected strong kidney. The rest - so as to form a beautiful, harmonious crown.
Rose Forming Pattern
How much it is necessary to shorten the branches of a rosebush depends on the climate. The farther south, the more the bush is trimmed. This is due to the fact that in the middle belt roses grow more slowly.
How long should roses be shortened?
Standard and climbing roses do not need large-scale pruning. In the spring, only sick, fattening and growing inward branches are removed.
Treatment of roses from pests and diseases
Roses are highly susceptible to fungus, often suffer from insect pests, so it is important to timely process them.
In early spring, before the rose bushes start to grow, they are treated for microorganisms and insect larvae. Specific dates depend on the weather and climate zone, but in the middle lane this period usually falls in April.
The fungus that infects roses, winters not only on the plant, but also in the soil, so it is important to process not only the rose, but also the near-stem trees
Immediately after trimming, the bushes and the soil around them are sprayed. 1% copper sulfate solution. This will prevent the development of rose stem cancer (infectious burn).
To prevent plants from being affected by powdery mildew, black spot and gray rot, they must also be treated. 3% solution of ferrous sulfate. Such preventive treatments are carried out at least once more in summer, after the first wave of flowering.
If the rose is heavily damaged by the fungus (there are lesions on more than 2 shoots), it must be burned. Unfortunately, to save such a plant is no longer possible.
Two weeks after the first spraying of vitriol it is necessary to process the roses. universal preparation, which consists of insecticides and fungicides. This will protect plants from rust, powdery mildew, and aphids. Such procedures should be repeated every 2 weeks (without fail - after the first and before the second flowering waves).
If you plan to harvest rose petals for culinary or cosmetic purposes, of course, you should refuse from “chemistry”. Use only vegetable fungicides.
Most types of roses require additional support. Tie up plants about a week after the first treatment, when the buds begin to grow. The best option is to attach the roses to the support with soft garden wire, so as not to damage them.
There are many interesting options for garter roses
Spring dressing roses
The main minerals for this culture are nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. However, we should not forget that, for example, an overdose of nitrogen makes roses more vulnerable to fungal damage. Therefore, it is advisable to feed the plants with complex fertilizers for roses, strictly following the instructions on the package.
Spring dressing of roses - the main. It affects the health of plants and the beauty of flowering. When using fertilizers of prolonged action after the first wave of flowering roses are fed a second time.
In the fall, fertilizing is not worth it, especially in the middle lane. Plants do not have time to enter into a state of rest and can endure the winter badly.
On how well you spend the first feeding, depends on the splendor of flowering roses
To make your roses feel good and look great in the summer, they need not only mineral complexes, but also organic fertilizers: rotted manure or chicken manure. Chicken droppings are made with minerals in a 1: 1 ratio. Manure is made at the rate of 1 scoop under a bush.
All fertilizers must be applied to moist soil. Before dressing roses must be watered well.
В качестве мульчи для роз используют кору, гравий, сухой хвойный опад
После проведения подкормки розы необходимо замульчировать. Это поможет сохранить оптимальный микроклимат почвы и предотвратит вымывание из нее питательных веществ.
Before mulching, it is advisable to add a bucket of rotted compost under each bush, and after filling the soil around the plant with mulch.
Mulch should not touch the base of the trunk.
Naturally, it will not be possible to carry out all these works in one day, therefore we recommend distributing all stages of spring care for roses for several days. The main thing - do not miss the moment, while the plants are not moved in growth.
Copper sulfate - a universal remedy
Particular attention should be paid to how the roses should be treated in the spring with copper sulfate. This measure is optimal, because, according to experts, this tool causes harm much less than others, if done according to all the rules.
Before processing the roses in spring, you need to prepare a solution of copper sulphate. Containers should be taken exclusively glass or plastic. The solution should be a certain concentration. This is usually 1% or 3%. It is the latter value that is necessary for the spring processing of roses.
When working with this tool you need to carefully monitor the observance of precautions.
Care of roses in the spring in the country - the rules of spring processing roses
Rosehips are the most beautiful flowers ever cultivated by man. It is not easy to find a summer cottage where at least a few rose bushes do not grow. Roses are loved by many growers. They do not require constant monotonous and scrupulous care. They are hardy enough, resistant to growth conditions, climatic, other.
But there is a list of mandatory measures in the care of roses, without which these flowers cannot be successfully grown. Large-scale care measures twice a year, and interim - during the vegetative period - are necessary to carry out the rosewood. The first treatment of roses in the spring is the most important event of the new floriculture season.
Spring care in the country
Care events - when and what
Usually, the roses are taken care of immediately after the winter, with the arrival of the first spring thaws. In determining the timing of the occurrence of which it is time to do roses, you need to take into account your place of residence in terms of climate and location of the site. It is very important to start caring before the day when the roses release their first buds and start growing.
- The very first care event of the year is the removal of shelter from rose bushes.
- Then comes the early spring formative pruning.
- The third point of the program is the treatment of the first pests.
- The next mandatory event is mulching.
- The fifth point is fertilization.
- Then it remains to mount the supports and a garter to them.
Formative pruning roses
After that, you can take a break and admire the results.
In our region, roses in winter need shelter (the temperature that rose bushes can endure painlessly, -5 ° C, at lower temperatures should be covered). Roses are afraid not only of cold weather, but also of heat. Especially the first spring, when they are under caps of covering material, heaps of wet leaves, coniferous branches and other heaters.
As soon as the spring temperature is above zero, the rose bushes are freed from the covering material. Slow down and wait for the onset of hot days should not be - a delay can lead to the blooming of rose bushes, after which they can not be restored.
As soon as the spring temperature is above zero, the rose bushes are freed from the covering material.
The first pruning of roses
Roses globally pruned twice - in spring and autumn. Sanitary pruning is possible during the growing season, but this is desirable. Spring and autumn pruning are required. Spring pruning is “more important” than autumn, especially in areas with cold winters. If the main pruning is carried out at the beginning of the season, the rose bushes have a chance to successfully winter.
Cut roses in spring should be as follows.
- First, dried and broken branches are removed.
- Then the bush is inspected, and two main central shoots are selected, on which there are healthy buds.
- They are shortened to your chosen kidney (two centimeters higher).
- Then the branches growing deep into the bush, “fattening” stems are removed.
Proper pruning of roses
The purpose of pruning is to form a regular-shaped shrub with an open center.
How much the main branches of the bush should be shortened depends on the local climate (the cold climate does not allow roses to grow quickly), on the plant variety and the place where it is planted.
Norms of spring pruning roses
The main stages of care
Spring care for roses is not so simple. There are several steps in which you can expect beautiful flowers that are not affected by pests.
Spring Roses from diseases and pests - the main stage. Do not neglect them.
Of course, care for the plant should be throughout the year. However, at the end of winter is required:
- To carry out competent watering.
- Properly fertilize.
- Form a crown of bushes and pruning.
- Treat plants for diseases as well as pests.
It is in March that you should start caring for these plants. At this time, carry out the removal of the winter shelter from the bushes, establish special supports, carry out garters and, of course, hilling.
April roses needs to be sprayed in order to prevent. Otherwise, the plant can get sick. It is worth considering that the soil around the bushes is also subject to treatment. During this period, you can also do plant reproduction. New roses, planted in April, will be better.
In May, another preventive spraying should be carried out. Top dressing is also introduced at this time, and bushes are trimmed.
In warm latitudes, work should be started at the end of winter. The main thing is that the site has already snowed, and the weather has become drier and warmer. Primary treatment of roses should be finished before the vegetative growth begins.
How to cover the roses
If you live in a cold climate, the rose bushes for the winter is better to cover. Otherwise, these delicate plants will die from the cold. Usually, roses are covered in November, when the air temperature does not rise above -5 ° C.
If you miss this moment, the roses may die. Temperatures below the specified limit for them is destructive. However, do not cover the flowers even in warm weather. Roses can snuff and die.
After removing the dry leaves and withered buds, the plants take cover warm material. As a rule, they use burlap or spunbond for this. After that, the construction is made of wire mesh or plastic.
Its walls should be located 25 centimeters from the bush. The design is filled with fallen leaves or straw. Outside it is better to wrap the ruberoid. You can also use plastic wrap. The design should be done 10 centimeters above the plant.
How to remove the shelter
When spring comes, the roses must be gradually revealed. After the snow melts, you should open the ends. Roses should be well ventilated. Otherwise, the plants will begin to sing and then rot. At night, the first time roses should be closed.
If the temperature is very low, then the plants should be covered during the day. With increasing temperature, the layer of roofing felt should be gradually removed.
Straw and fallen leaves do not immediately cleanbecause the air temperature is low at night. In the daytime, the twigs of plants can burn in the sun. Open the bushes is best in cloudy and windless weather. If this is not possible, then it is worth creating a shadow.
If the plants were covered with agrofilm, then in spring this material can not be removed, since it does not accumulate condensate and allows the roses to breathe. In order to warm up the soil around the bushes, roses need to be tucked up and the peat layer is peeled off. However, do not rush to fully open the radical neck of the plant.
How to prune
So, how to care for roses in spring? As many believe, the main pruning of roses should be carried out not in autumn, but in spring. This ensures that the plants will feel great in the winter.
Exists several general rules pruning for both decorative and fruit roses. They should be guided by this procedure:
- Removing the branches that dried out during the winter. It is also worth removing the damaged areas.
- It is necessary to carefully examine the bushes. A few strong branches should be found on which healthy buds can be seen.
- Strong branches need to be shortened to the first healthy kidney.
- It is necessary to remove all the shoots growing inside the bush, as well as the branches that will not grow. They will only consume the nutrients of the plant.
- After that you should form a crown of a rose. In this case, the center of the plants should be open.
When pruning roses should take into account several key factors. First of all, the climate is important. In cold regions, plants do not have time to grow much during the summer. In addition, an important role is played by the variety of roses.
For example, studded varieties are recommended to be shortened by about 10-30 cm, tea, standard and simple eyes - up to 100 centimeters, in floribunda and tall legs - up to 50 cm.
Spring care for roses is very important for the normal growth of these plants. In the process of pruning should follow some recommendations. First of all, you should choose a very sharp tool. The best thing use pruner. So, a few tips:
- branches should be cut a few millimeters above the bud,
- the cut should be made oblique, it should be sent to the same direction as the kidney,
- if, after cutting off the shoot, healthy white wood is not visible, then it should be cut again, it should be done until healthy tissue appears,
- Finally, it is necessary to form the crown of the bush only after the shoots grow by 5 centimeters,
- if several shoots have grown from one bud, then one must be removed,
- at the end of pruning all bushes should be treated with a solution of copper sulphate,
- if at night frosts are noted, then the roses should be covered with a film.
Spring care for roses is not just pruning. It is important to install backups in time. Experts recommend using permanent and sturdy designsthat allow you to tie up roses without much difficulty.
Every spring should check their safety. With any breakdowns should do their repairs. Otherwise, the damaged backup will simply not sustain the severity of the branches. For the garter, use a green, self-locking garden wire.
Fertilizing and mulching roses
In order for roses to grow well after winter, you need to feed them. Fertilizers for such plants should contain phosphorus, magnesium, nitrogen and potassium. You can buy such tools in any specialty store.
This does not cause much difficulty. The range of this fertilizer is very large and if you can not choose, then you should pay attention to the components.
These compounds can be fed plants several times during the year. In spring, this should be done during the period when the active phase of growth begins. Fertilizers should also be applied in the summer after the first flowering.
It is necessary evenly distribute on the surface of the soil 28 grams of the drug. After that, the soil should be treated with a hoe.
Fertilizer should be applied only in wet soil. If the soil for some reason remains dry, then it needs to be moistened. Enough pour the soil around the bush. You can leave a rose near the rose with a small trickle. After a few hours, the soil will become sufficiently moist and fertilizer can be applied.
After pruning and fertilization, it is necessary to carry out mulching bushes. To do this, evenly distribute garden compost around roses. Under each bush must be placed on a bucket of this composition. Top compost should be sprinkled with a layer of sawdust or wood chips.
It is worth noting that the material used for mulching roses should not cover the base of the stem. Otherwise, the access of moisture and heat to the roots of plants will be limited.
Proper Mulching will ensure the safety minerals, heat and moisture in the soil, as well as protect the root system. Due to this, the appearance of roses will be significantly improved.
Pest and disease control
Roses are delicate plants that are often exposed to all sorts of diseases, as well as insect attacks. Most often, these plants suffer from beetles, aphids, ticks, caterpillars, and so on.
After the first buds begin to bloom, to process plants from pests and diseases. For this it is better to use special preparations. They can be purchased in specialized stores.
If necessary, the seller will tell you which drug will help protect roses from one or another misfortune. For processing should use a combination of tools such as insecticide and fungicide.
This will significantly save money, as well as protect the flowers from black spots, aphids, rust on the foliage and powdery mildew. To carry out the processing of roses should be in a dry windless weather in the evening.
Spray roses should be every two weeks from the moment the active phase of growth began. Many experts argue that you can do with two treatments. One should hold in the spring, and the second - in the summer after the end of the first flowering.
If you grow studded roses on your plot, which bear fruit, then you should not treat them with synthetic pesticides and insecticides. In this case, better use natural preparations, preferably fungicides of plant type.
Caring for roses after winter is a time consuming process that requires patience, as well as certain skills. Despite all the difficulties, many people want to grow these plants in their area. After all, such plants are real decorationwhich surrounds itself with a pleasant and delicate aroma.