Onion-batun refers to the herbaceous perennials. It is cultivated solely for the production of fresh greens, which have a softer and more delicate taste, compared with onions. It is grown as an annual crop for a one-time collection of greenery, and as a perennial. It has fistulous leaves 40–60 cm long and about 2 cm in diameter. Developed bulbs, for example, like onions, it does not have. Instead, they form a thickening - false bulbs. They are not suitable for winter storage.
Batun onion is appreciated for early greens, ready to eat from the end of April, which is especially valuable during the period of lack of fresh vegetables. In addition, its advantages are:
- high frost resistance - young leaves can withstand a temperature drop of -8 degrees Celsius, and April variety - lower temperatures,
- large, compared with onions, the content of vitamin C,
- high productivity over a period of three to four years, although with good agricultural technology you can get a good harvest of greenery for 5-7 years. From one square meter one-time cut 2 kg of green onions, and in the summer season - up to 10 kg.
And although on the same bed a batun can grow up to 10 years, it is usually not practiced to grow it for longer than 4 years. During this time, he manages to deplete the soil, grow so that the bushes begin to interfere with each other. They should be dug and used for forcing greens.
Popular varieties Batun
From the large variety of batun varieties developed by breeders, one can choose suitable for ripening terms, yields, frost resistance and taste.
Onion batun Russian winter is frost-resistant, high-yielding, mid-season variety. It grows quickly, it can be harvested in early spring. The feather for the harvest for the entire season is cut down to three times. It has a medium hot taste.
Onion batun April is different early maturation. After regrowth, the first greens are cut off in a month. Of perennial bows, it is the most frost resistant, it can withstand frosts down to -10 degrees Celsius. Resistant to pests and diseases. It has a sharp sweetish taste, fleshy and juicy feather. In a vegetative way onion batun Aprelsky multiplies well.
Onions a batun Tenderness - an early frost-resistant grade, a crop gather in a month after cut. Grown through seedlings. It has a mild soft taste. Suitable for cultivation as an annual and perennial crops.
Emerald Batun onion is distinguished by a rapid increase in green mass. You can cut greens up to four times in one season. Excellent winters, resistant to many diseases. It has a soft semi-sweet taste.
Bunching onions: growing and care
Batun propagates vegetatively and seeds. When dividing the bush (planted at the end of August) next spring you can already harvest a crop of greenery. However, the lack of a vegetative propagation method is the increased formation of flower stems and, as a result, a decrease in yield. With seed multiplication this does not occur.
The onion batun can be grown as a one-, two-, or perennial crop. As an annual crop, batun are sown in early spring with seeds or seedlings, harvested the same year with a bulb. As a biennial or perennial, a batun is planted in the summer, as a rule, after harvesting early vegetables. Before winter he manages to form 2−4 sheets. Crop harvested in May and June.
Preparation of beds
The onion-batun likes cultivated, structural, high-fertile soils of slightly acid or neutral reaction. Choose sandy and light loamy soils for planting. For batun, areas with heavy clay soil, with high acidity, as well as flooded lowlands are not suitable. It grows well on sandy soils, but forms a lot of flower stalks, which reduces yields.
Observe crop rotation. You can plant a onion batun after squash, cabbage, pumpkin, potatoes, legumes, green manure, as well as other crops that do not leave behind weeds, under which organic matter was introduced. Do not plant it after onions, carrots, garlic, cucumbers - these crops litter the beds with weeds and leave behind pathogens of onion diseases and pests.
Since the onion-batun is a perennial and will grow at the same place for about four years, the bed should be well prepared for it. In the sour soil for 6 months before planting, add 0.5 liters of wood ash to each square meter, and fertilize poor soil for a fortnight before planting:
- humus - 3-5 kg,
- superphosphate - 30–40 g,
- ammonium nitrate - 25-30 g,
- potassium chloride - 15–20 g.
To improve the germination of seeds soak, but only in the event that they will be planted in wet soil. Soaked seeds in dry ground die.
Pre-soaking the seeds will accelerate the emergence of seedlings for 5-7 days. For disinfection they are treated for 20 minutes with a warm solution of potassium permanganate, and then soaked in water for a day. Water should be changed 2-3 times. When the seeds are slightly awkward, dry them to a flowing state. Control the germination of seeds to prevent the formation of too long sprouts - they impede planting.
How to plant a onion batun seeds
On open beds, a batun bow can be sown with seeds immediately after the snow has melted until June, and also before winter.
Growing up as a perennial onion-batun grows old after a few years, loses its presentation and nutritional value. Therefore, it is often cultivated in the form of an annual culture. Growing an onion-batun from seeds allows you to get a high yield of greenery of good quality, and planting is less susceptible to the disease by downy powdery mildew. A one-year-old onion batun is planted immediately after the snow has melted, that is, in February-March, and the crop is harvested in June-July.
In order to harvest the greenery in spring as early as possible, onion leaves in late July are cut, watered, fertilized, and the soil is loosened. By winter, the plants have time to recover and gain strength, and in the spring they produce a high yield.
Batun seeds are sown in rows to a depth of 1.5–2 cm, leaving a distance of 25–35 cm between rows. After sowing, the soil is slightly compacted and watered.
In early spring, beds are covered plastic wrap or lutrasil, which greatly accelerates the emergence of shoots. When the batun rises, the film is removed, and the lutrasil is left, as it creates a comfortable microclimate and protects the planting from pests.
Batun planting under the winter is carried out with the onset of stable cold, when the soil freezes to a temperature of -3 degrees Celsius (so that the seedlings do not germinate and die). Bed with crops batun mulch humus or peat, soil compacted and covered with straw, branches, tops and snow. When the snow melts, for rapid germination the batun is covered with lutrasil or film.
How to plant onion batun seedlings
The seedling method of planting a batun is practiced when it is grown in an annual crop to obtain a very early harvest. The harvest of greens can be cut off in a month and a half after planting seedlings in open ground.
For sowing seedlings they prepare a soil mixture: they take half a bucket of humus and soddy soil, two glasses of wood ash and 70 g of mineral fertilizers are mixed.
Onion seeds are sown at the beginning of April in boxes filled with prepared soil mixture in rows with 5 cm row spacing to a depth of 1.5 to 2 cm with an interval between seeds - 2 cm. The temperature is maintained at 18-25 degrees Celsius. When the seeds have risen, the boxes with the seedlings are placed on a bright window sill with a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius.
There is the so-called “bouquet” method of growing seedlings, in which the seeds are planted in small pots with a diameter of up to 5 cm, 5–6 pieces each. In June, when three or four leaves form on the seedlings, they are planted in rows in a prepared bed, keeping an interval between them of 20 cm and a distance between plants of 10–12 cm.
Care for planting onion-batun consists of weeding, loosening, irrigation and fertilizing.
Loosening is an important agrotechnical technique that contributes to the preservation of moisture (it is not for nothing that they nicknamed it “dry irrigation”). Besides 60–90% of weeds are loosened.
The first loosening is attempted as early as possible. When sowing onion seeds, mix lettuce seeds (no more than 1%). Its quickly sprouting shoots will outline rows and save thin onion sprouts from damage during weeding. Salad, after some time, remove. In total, 5–6 loosening should be carried out during the summer season after rains or irrigations.
Spreading onion bushes require hilling, as lateral shoots lean under their own weight. It greatly facilitates the care of mulch beds. Mulch retains moisture and does not grow weeds.
Need watering regular and plentiful. The soil should be moistened to a depth of 20 cm. In dry weather, plantings should be watered every other day, and normally watered twice a week. Watered with warm water under the root. Systematic watering not only contributes to an increase in yield, but also prevents rifling.
- the first time the onion beds are fed with mineral fertilizer one month after the emergence of shoots (10–15 g of nitrophos, azofoski, etc.) are made per square meter,
- about a month before the onset of stable cold weather, 10–15 g of potash fertilizers are applied to one square meter, which facilitate the wintering of plants,
- In the spring, when the snow melts, nitrogen fertilizers are applied.
Systematic weeding, the destruction of weeds and loosening can not only increase yields, but also are preventative means of controlling pests and diseases of onions. Inspect the landing and take action at the first sign of defeat. In the initial stage, to eliminate the problem, it is enough to use folk remedies:
- from onion flies, spraying with a salt solution (1 tbsp. salt on a bucket of water), pollination with tobacco dust or wood ash,
- treatment of plants with a strong solution of mustard powder helps against inflammations,
- from diseases and pests - treatment, starting in early spring, with infusions of onion peel, potato tops and tomatoes.
If folk remedies have not brought the desired result, we have to use chemistry:
- Karbofos and Fufanon are effective against pests, however, onions cannot be eaten for some time after treatments with these preparations,
- with the defeat of fungal diseases using copper sulfate and HOM. It will take 2–3 treatments with an interval of 10 days.
Crop harvested when the size of the leaves reach 25-30 cm in length. If you are late with a cut, the bow will begin to shoot. The last time the greens should be cut until mid-August, so that before the start of wintering the plants can grow well-shaped leaves and accumulate nutrients for the winter.
Onion-batun harvesting can be carried out:
- once, receiving up to 2.5 kg of greens per square meter,
- three times - cut the greens produced twice and the third time removed along with the bulbs. The harvest for the season in this case will be 4–5 kg per square meter.
The onions, gathered together with the bulbs, are valued more expensive, since the shelf life increases and the presentation of the product is better.
How to collect seeds
At the end of the summer, leave some strong healthy plants with flower stalks. When the seeds ripen, scrub the bushes, tie, hang up roots in a dry, well-ventilated room. To prevent seeds from spilling out of the boxes, wrap umbrellas with a cloth. When the plants are dry, collect the seeds.
Store seeds in a warm dry place. Germination they save 2-3 years.
Benefits of the April Bow
Onion-batun "April" - a vegetable of high value. It has numerous properties that other members of the species do not have.
- Getting the earliest, very first vitamins. “April” onion appears literally from under the snow and provides vitamin products at the very beginning of spring, when there is an urgent need for it.
- If you grow it under the film, the plants reach full consumer maturity (feather length of 35 cm) in April.
- It contains ascorbic acid three times more than in bulb onions and two times more than in green feathers of other representatives of the onion family.
However, with long cultivation in one place, more than 3-4 years, the vegetable gradually loses its valuable qualities. The plant begins to give a lot of floral arrows, to the detriment of food characteristics and appearance.
Important! To improve the quality of products, the onion batun "April" and began to grow annuals. And it turned out to be effective.
One-year-old onion batun yields 1.5 times more yields
- gives yields 1.5 times higher than perennial,
- crop quality is improved by 80%
- at a young age, plants do not affect dangerous diseases.
For the cultivation of onion "April" most suitable plot of land with fertile sandy sand or light loamy soil. The plot should be available for regular watering, as the onions need moisture. At the same time, the ground should be drained.
Ancestors - all melons, cruciferous, potatoes. These plants leave behind a weed-free ground. Under them is usually brought organic.
Onions grow well in soil with humus
For enrichment is good to make humus. In addition to organic matter, a vitamin vegetable will also need mineral supplements in the form of ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, and superphosphate. This trinity must be made under sowing at 30/20/40 grams per square meter. While organics will be more useful to make the autumn sometimes.
In the autumn the ridge is prepared for both the annual and for the long-term "April" onion - the introduction of organic matter in combination with the autumn processing of the site. This means a deep digging on the spade bayonet minimum. Harrowing is carried out in the spring (to preserve moisture in the soil for a longer period), loosening to a depth of about 12 cm and filling with mineral granules.
Sowing on the garden
The soil when sowing should be well moistened.
The seeding rate of the “April” baton for perennial cultivation is one to two grams per meter, for the one-year-old one it is possible to raise the rate to three grams. This will give a gentle feather and increase yields.
There are two ways of placing a batun on a bed:
- three double rows
- five double rows.
Three rows are preferable - this placement makes care much easier.
Sowing onion "April"
Sowing takes place in small grooves, no deeper than 2 cm. After sowing, powdered groove should be compacted and watered.
If sowing occurs very early, with the probability of extreme cold, you can cover the bed with a film or a covering element (lutrasil, spanbond). Especially need shelter at night. Beneath it, the temperature will be 5 degrees higher than the outside, which will accelerate the germination.
Tip! As soon as the first shoots appeared, the polyethylene should be removed immediately, but the lutrasil and other nonwoven material should be left. It will create comfortable conditions for further germination and will protect delicate shoots from the pests that are prone to young greens.
Care for the baton "April"
In the crop year, if the culture is grown by perennials, care arrangements are simple.
Loosening is a compulsory procedure for the "April" bow. It must be held for the first time as soon as possible, literally immediately after the emergence of shoots. There is a small trick, how not to damage the thin onion sprouts, carrying out the first loosening. During sowing, the seeds of the onion batun need to add (mix with them) a few seeds of early lettuce or another crop that quickly grows and becomes noticeable in the garden. For this “lighthouse” culture, loosening of the grooves is carried out strictly between the rows.
Loosening is a mandatory procedure for the "April" onion
Loosening for the season should be at least six. They are carried out after watering.
What is useful loosening
- When loosening, weeds are destroyed by 90%, which would otherwise have to be manually weeded out.
- It promotes better conservation of moisture at the roots.
- The destruction of the soil crust improves air exchange in the soil.
Top dressing for the first time carried out thirty days after germination. There is a complete mineral fertilizer in grams - 15 per square meter (azofoska, nitrophoska, nitroammofoska). The second time is fed in two months - with potash fertilizer at the same rate. The first feeding promotes growth, the second is designed to help a good winter.
Onion feeding for the first time is carried out thirty days after germination.
In the second year, as soon as the snow began to descend, all the plant remains of the onion batun are removed from the ridge, the soil is fertilized with nitrogen, the bed is covered with covering material.
Tip! Shelter is able to accelerate the shoots of batun in the second year to ten days. If you pour warm water under cover of the soil, shoots will appear earlier for another week.
With regard to irrigation, the dryness of the soil onion-batun "April" does not contribute as much as zakamano. Dry soil will dramatically reduce product quality, the batun will go to the arrow. Therefore, the humidity constantly need to monitor, controlling its level.
The onion-batun "April" does not tolerate dry and swampy soil
Meet the onion batun
Лук-батун, более известный в народе как китайский или дудчатый лук — многолетнее травянистое растение из рода луковых. Его родиной, как и большинства видов лука, считается Азия. В Сибири, Китае и Японии до сих пор можно встретить посадки дикого батуна.
Растет на одном месте 3-4 года, а при должном уходе может «дотянуть» и до 6-7 лет. Хорошо растет как в открытом грунте, так и в теплицах. Луковицы неразвитые или слаборазвитые. The food is used mainly greens batun, although it is edible all parts.
There are several subspecies of onion batun:
- Russian winter,
Propagated by seed and vegetative way. Bulbs in our usual understanding of the onion-batun does not form, in the soil grows so-called. pseudobulb. Depending on the subspecies, the plant can withstand temperatures up to minus 30 °, and its green feathers - up to minus 6 °. The most frost-resistant is the Russian subspecies.
When grown on a perennial crop, the onion-batun begins to vegetate as soon as the temperature rises above 2 ° C. In fact, vegetation begins at the moment when the snow melts on the plot.
Methods of growing onion batuna
Batun onions are grown in 2 ways:
- through seedlings,
- sowing seeds in open ground.
Growing a batun through seedlings allows to accelerate the maturation of plants, respectively, and to get a harvest earlier. In addition, when grown on seedlings, onion-batun practically does not suffer from diseases, primarily from powdery mildew.
Cultivation of direct sowing of seeds in the ground also has its advantages: the plant grows for several years and bears fruit in one place almost without the participation of the owner. Yes, and the maximum yield of onion-batun gives for 3-4 years after planting.
Growing through seedlings
When grown through seedlings, batun is grown as an annual plant. Seeds of batun for seedlings are sown in April, planted on a flower bed in mid-June, and the grown crop is harvested in September. Harvested greens and onion stalks right with false bulbs.
For seedlings need to prepare in advance the soil mixture. To do this, the turf ground is mixed in equal parts with humus, additionally adding to this substrate 2 cups of wood ash and 70 grams of nitroammophos for each bucket of the mixture. Before planting, the soil mixture is disinfected by watering it with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate or keeping it for 1 hour in a microwave or oven.
Seed preparation is similar to the preparation for sowing in open ground. Sow the seeds in shallow (0.8-1 cm) grooves, or 5-6 pcs. in small pots. Sown seeds are lightly sprinkled with earth, and 2-3 cm of sand are poured on top, after which the containers with seeds are watered, covered with film or glass and left to germinate at a temperature of 18-20 °.
After the emergence of shoots, the temperature is reduced by a week to 9-12 °, and then in the daytime it is not raised to 13-15 °. If it is impossible to reduce the temperature at night to at least 12 °, the room is often aired, trying to maintain a stable temperature of 12-13 ° in it.
Onions-batun refers to the plants of a long day, so when grown through seedlings, plants will need light. For its organization they use phytolamps or diode light sources, placing them at a height of 30-35 cm above growing plants.
When watering, you must observe moderation and do not flood the plants. During the cultivation of seedlings, two additional feeding of plants is carried out: the first - a week after the emergence of shoots, the second - 2 weeks after the first. Mineral fertilizers are used for fertilizing, diluting 20 g of superphosphate and potassium salt in 10 liters of water.
When forming the first real leaflet, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving an interval of 2.5-3 cm between the plants. For a week - one and a half before planting, the seedlings are subjected to a hardening procedure.
Onion seedlings are planted on the same principle as other plants. It is planted in a permanent place when the threat of frost has passed, and the soil warms up well. Each plant is planted in a separate hole, digging them at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other. The distance between adjacent rows remains the same as when sowing seeds - 18-20 cm.
It is worth making a reservation that I don’t see much point in such a laborious way of growing onion-batun. Accelerate its ripening for 2-3 weeks is quite realistic and seedless way, simply building a skeleton over the garden bed and covering it with plastic wrap to initially provide the optimum temperature for seed germination and plant development. With the advent of heat, the shelter is removed: first, only for a day, and then completely.
Selection and preparation of the site for planting
Regardless of the method of landing, it is important to choose and prepare the site. For a normal growth, a batun need only one condition: fertile, humus-rich soil with a slightly acidic or neutral pH. What is important, even if the parameters of your site do not meet these conditions, they can be organized "manually."
The only exception is that on the clay the batun simply does not survive. Otherwise, it will grow on any soil, if it is supplied in the right quantity with fertilizer, mainly nitrogen. Acidic soils before planting need to be pre-deoxidized, making crushed chalk, fluff or dolomite flour.
When choosing a plot when growing a batun as a perennial crop, you need to take into account that he likes moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water. Therefore, it is better to plant it on the gentle southern or south-western slopes of the hills, so that excess water is self-flowing away from the site. But the slope should not be steep, otherwise the water will wash and carry away onion seeds as well.
If possible, the bed with a baton should be placed in the penumbra so that the sun draws less moisture from its leaves. But, if this requirement cannot be fulfilled, do not be discouraged: you just have to water and loosen the bed more often.
Site preparation for the cultivation of batun is deep loosening of the soil (on a full bayonet shovels) and the introduction of organic fertilizers. It is better to perform these works in the fall: in this case you will have the opportunity to seal organic fertilizers on the site.
Bring them in at the rate of: 1 bucket of humus or compost and 1 cup of wood ash per m² plot. On soils poor in nutrients, in addition to organic soils, a full complex of mineral fertilizers is needed: 25 g of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride for each m².
Greens, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, and radish will be the best predecessors for the onion batun. The worst option is to sow the bamboos in the area where onions, shallots or leeks grew last season. Batun onion and garlic and carrots are not very “friendly”, so after these crops it is also better not to sow.
When to plant seeds?
There are no specific dates for sowing seeds of onion batun in open ground: they can be sown in early spring, and in summer, and late autumn.
When growing a batun as an annual crop, sowing seeds should be done as early as possible: as soon as the earth thaws and you can “climb” onto the plot without any particular problems. In this case, the bow must be completely removed from the site by winter.
In addition to spring, it is possible to sow seeds in the first half of summer, so that before winter the plants grow stronger and develop well. You can sow them in the fall, but here you need to podgadat with the terms so that before the onset of cold weather the plants did not have time to germinate, otherwise the poorly rooted young shoots will die from frost.
How to plant a bow batun? Features of growing
A batun onion is planted in advance furrows of about 3 cm in depth. The recommended seed depth is about 2 cm. I dredge them in the entire depth of the furrow - 2.5-3 cm: they germinate longer, but they are better protected from both heat and frosts.
There are two schemes for cutting furrows in the area. With the one-year cultivation of the batun, the distance between the furrows is made in 18-20 cm. When growing it as a perennial crop, the distance between the adjacent furrows is better increased to 25-30 cm.
In autumn, and especially in summer sowing, the furrow needs to be watered: approximately 4-5 liters for each running meter of the cut furrow. If this is not done, the seeds will lie in dry soil for an indefinitely long time - until the first good rain.
The recommended seed rate is about 2 grams per 1 m², and in areas with severe winters it can be increased to 3 grams. But from my own experience of growing onion-batun, I can judge that blindly following such recommendations leads to thickened crops, and some plants will have to be removed.
It is better to reduce the sowing rate by a quarter, or even by half. Then 60-80 onion seeds will fall on every seeded meter of you and, taking into account their germination, 40 to 60 plants grow on it.
After sowing the seeds, the bed of onion batun is recommended to be covered with a layer of humus about 1.5 cm. I didn’t do this when sowing: partly I didn’t know about it yet, partly because a layer of mulch of such thickness still wouldn't save us from the weeds, but it’s great to prevent the onions from sprouting. As for me, it is better to mark the cut furrows when planting, so that after that you can water them once more and gently loosen them.
The soil at the depth of embedding seeds should be kept wet until germination. For this reason, it’s preferable to have an early date for sowing seeds: there is a lot of moisture in the ground during this period, and seed germination will be high, while there is almost no need to bother with watering.
When growing a stick as a perennial crop, thinning of seedlings is necessary. Perform it when the plants form 3-4 true leaflets. In the first year, the interval between the plants in the row is left at 2-3 cm, in the future it is increased to 4-6 cm.
When growing as an annual, the crops of batun can also be thinned: the growth of green leaves will be more, but the stems will become firmer and not so juicy. Therefore, many gardeners refuse thinning, not without reason, believing that even without it, the total yield from the site will be at least not less.
In the spring, as soon as it becomes possible to work in the garden, you need to gently loosen the soil in the garden with a baton bow. In the future, when the onion begins to grow, the plants that have died in winter need to be removed from the plantations and once again loosen the soil. In the same period, you can feed the plant ammonium nitrate.
Further care of the onion-batun plantings is reduced to maintaining soil moisture, loosening the top layer of the earth and removing weeds. Watering of onion-batun plantings should be carried out 1-2 times a week, depending on the weather and air temperature. In dry periods, experienced gardeners are advised to switch to the 48-hour irrigation scheme, i.e. water the beds every other day. The consumption rate of water is 1-1.5 buckets for each m² of beds.
After each harvest of leaves, the plant must be fed with a solution of mullein diluted in water at a ratio of 1: 6, and wood ash should be added to the soil at the rate of: 1 cup for each m² of bulbous beds.
Diseases and pests
Like other bulbous species, the onion-batun can be affected by a large number of diseases and pests, of which the onion fly, the onion moth and fungal diseases deliver the most troubles to the gardeners.
However, it is more difficult to protect the onion batun plantings than, for example, onions. Batun is planted on greens, so spraying it with any tincture, not to mention chemical remedies, is highly undesirable.
To protect against pests, many gardeners use the old, time-tested method: Sprinkle the soil between the rows with mustard powder. Its smell frightens many pests away from the bed with onions, although this method of protection cannot be called particularly effective.
Therefore, in the case of a batun, the best way to combat diseases and pests is to prevent them from appearing on the garden. To do this, it is enough to observe simple agrotechnical rules of cultivation: do not thicken the planting, do not flood the plants during irrigation, loosen the soil in time and remove weeds.
Features of the harvest
Harvest time is directly dependent on the timing of sowing seeds or transplanting. When sowing seeds in early spring, the crop is harvested in the fall. When sowing seeds in June-July, the harvest will be ready by the beginning of May next year. And when the autumn sowing will have to wait until the harvest until next July.
But personally, I prefer to plant a bat onion as a perennial. Batun is one of those plants that grow according to the principle: they beat us and we grow stronger. When growing not greens, it can be harvested several harvests per season. Moreover, the more he cuts off green feathers, the more intensively he gives a gain of green mass, respectively, the higher is the overall yield.
But from year to year such results can be achieved only if three rules are strictly followed:
- Harvest the first crop can be no earlier than one year after sowing the seeds.
- The length of green shoots to be collected must be at least 20 cm.
- The last harvest of green feathers can be collected no later than a month before the onset of cold weather.
If the failure of the first two points threatens a significant shortage of the crop, but the plants themselves will still grow and develop, the violation of the third will lead to the death of the plants, because in the winter they will enter greatly weakened.
If the harvest is carried out in dry weather, for 2-3 days before harvesting the bed must be thoroughly watered - then the plants will have time to “pull” moisture into themselves, and their leaves will be juicier. Even the plants themselves, with a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil, will more easily prune.
Gather the young leaves of the onion batun with a sharp knife, carefully cutting them off at the very stem. For each plant during the growing season, 2-3 flower arrows should be left for seed ripening.
Based on my own experience of growing this vegetable crop, I can assure you that the bat onion growing in the garden will not only diversify your diet, but will also surprise you with its possibilities for growth and development.
The main characteristics of onions
Batun like onion bulb. But on closer examination it can be noted that its leaves are much larger, and the bulb cannot be found, instead there is only a thickening of the stem. The leaves of the plant are longer and thick. For the first time this unique green culture appeared in Asia. As wild plants it is found on the territory of Mongolia and China. In Russia, the onion-batun is grown everywhere, none of the climatic zones of the country contains obstacles to the growth of batun. This type of onion is grown on garden beds for greenery. The batun contains a number of useful substances:
- elements of magnesium, iron and potassium,
- essential oils.
Onions contain riboflavin, which helps preserve beautiful skin, strong nails and silky hair. Thiamine normalizes the state of the nervous system, helps preserve memory, helps improve the body's immunity.
Vegetative reproduction and propagation by seeds is completely suitable for this plant. It is important to monitor the quality of the soil and care for this culture.
Planting in open ground
This crop has several varieties. Each of them has its advantages. Early varieties are not afraid of snow and frost, and April is not susceptible to onion diseases. Vegetable growers prefer to have in their beds not only early, but also late variety. These include bow-batun Maisky. Onion seeds are sown in any summer month. First you need to choose a place where the batun will grow. He does not like peat and acidic soil. Chernozem and loam fit best. The site should be well lit. It is necessary to prepare it in autumn:
- make humus
- add fertilizer
- mix with compost and manure.
Gardeners know that crop rotation is of great importance in growing crops. But the onion-batun likes to be on those soils on which potatoes with cabbage or tomatoes and cucumbers grew before. Before planting, the ground should be dug up.
Fertilizer is applied to the soil that has been dug up before sowing. Seeds are pre-soaked in a special solution containing trace elements. Seeds should not turn. It is recommended to water the beds, and sow each seed to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. The aisle is 25-30 cm. The first shoots should be waited after two weeks. If the air temperature is above moderate, the first feathers will start to appear earlier. Watering should be carried out regularly to avoid drying out of the soil.
You should know that the batun is a perennial culture, but sometimes it turns into an annual plant. In this case, it completely changes its place of growth on the site.
After the seeds are sown, need to care for emerging shoots. It is necessary to remove weeds from onion beds. Otherwise, the weed will overwhelm the tender leaves of the onion. Extra shoots are recommended to thin out, leaving between them a distance of 5−6 centimeters. This procedure is carried out only for onion-batun, if it was sown as a perennial culture. Annuals can not thin out.
By mid-July, only the youngest leaves are left; cutting off everything else, they harvest two crops. With the departure of winter, it will not hurt to feed the bed with onions with fertilizer. The soil is loosened, so as not to form a crust on the soil. This will facilitate the ability of useful substances from the air to reach the roots of the batun.
Why exactly batun bow?
I chose the onion-batun based on the following characteristics of this variety, a list of which is given below:
- The plant boasts a high frost resistance, which is superior to other varieties of onion, which we are used to. Even young “feathers” are resistant to temperatures down to -8 ° С, and the onions themselves tolerate winter frosts down to -30 ° С,
- Растение крайне устойчиво к повышенной влажности грунта, что актуально для регионов с холодной и влажной весной, а также дождливым летом. Помимо этого, батун отлично произрастает в местах с близким расположением грунтовых вод,
- Растение славиться мягким вкусом, а также нежной структурой самих зеленых «перьев», несмотря на их крупный размер. Именно размер «перьев» данного лука отталкивает большинство новичков, так как сами перья выглядят перезревшими, что на практике совершенно не так,
- The onion-batun steadily yields a harvest of about 7 years, which is a record among other varieties of onions,
- The plant is suitable as an annual, as it brings a bountiful harvest for the next season,
- The plant has succulent shoots, the size of which is 2 times larger than ordinary onions,
- Onion-batun has many varieties, and every gardener will find exactly what he needs.
Basic description and features
The onion-batun has several obvious differences from the standard varieties of bulb onions, the main of which I have indicated below:
- The onion-batun does not have an onion similar to a bulb onion, and is only suitable for use in a green form. The variety has a false bulb that is unfit for human consumption,
- The bow batun boasts “feathers” up to 40 cm high and up to 3 cm in diameter. Most often, the diameter of the “feathers” is 2 cm,
- Onion-batun contains 2 times more vitamin C than its bulb-on counterpart,
- Onion-batun has a developed root system, the length of which can reach 35-40 cm,
- Onions batun breeds not only seeds, but also division of a bush.
Cultivation and care
If you wish to grow a bat onion on your own plot, but you have no experience regarding this culture, simply follow the following points:
- If you need a onion batun as an annual plant, start sowing seeds in early spring as soon as the snow melts. If a bat onion is needed as a perennial plant, sow the seed from June to mid-July. After planting seeds in any of the specified time ranges, the harvest should be expected in the next season,
- Find out what soil prevails on your site. If the soil is heavy, the onion seeds are sown in beds up to 1 meter wide, in rows with a distance of about 20 cm from each other (we recommend making 5 lines per bed). If the soil is light, sow the seeds on the beds, making 5 lines each, with distances of 25-30 cm. The next 5 lines are made at a distance of 50-60 cm from the previous seed area,
- Prepare the soil for planting. A few weeks before planting the seeds, the soil should be fertilized with compost, wood ash, or perepremny manure. Concentration of fertilizers does not play a special role, it is enough just to dig a plot to a depth of 15 cm, and add one of the fertilizers listed above. The layer of fertilizer should not exceed 3 cm. The place for planting onions should be in partial shade, as the direct sunlight makes the “feathers” yellow and they age quickly,
- Having chosen the place and time of planting, proceed to the preparation of seeds. Preparation takes place by soaking the seeds for 1 day in warm water (it should be changed at least 3 times a day), or by soaking the seeds in a growth activator, in the order of 3 hours (in accordance with the instructions on the packaging of the activator). Prepared seeds are planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. Seeds can not be prepared, but in this case, the seedlings will appear later, especially if the spring is cold. When planting in spring, the seeds do not need watering before germination, if the seeds are planted in the summer, watering is mandatory, since the crop will be only for the next season, but the bulb itself, the root system, and the first sprouts will begin to form already this season. A place with planted seeds should be watered abundantly at least 10-15 times over the entire summer, not allowed to dry out the soil, and remove all weeds,
- If you sowed a bat onions in June, you can harvest the first crop in May. If you sowed onions closer to autumn, the first harvest awaits you in July. After harvesting the first harvest, the next will be in 1.5-2 months. If it was found that the sowing of seeds was too dense, and the seedlings began to intertwine with each other, they should be thinned every 5-8 cm from each other. If the seedlings are not thinned, they will be numerous and small. The more the area grows, the smaller and thinner the onion harvest will be.
It is important to note a few points when planting seeds of this onion. So, immediately after planting the seeds, the soil around them is mulched with humus, by spreading it across the ground with a layer of 1.5 cm, after which the soil is not loosened, but slightly tamped. Every spring, beds with onions are abundantly supplied with mineral fertilizers.
Important: If you plant a bat onion in clay or sandy soil, its “feathers” will be rough and unpleasantly bitter in taste. Onions are able to accumulate nitrates from the ground, and therefore should not be carried away by its processing with pesticides. Mustard powder is used to repel pests. Mustard powder does not affect the taste of onions, as well as completely safe for humans.
Having dealt with how to grow onion-batun, you can talk about measures to increase its productivity. So, in early March, when the snow had not yet melted, the place where the batun was sown was covered with a thin layer of peat, straight on the snow. When the snow begins to melt, peat will create a kind of film on the ground, and in such conditions, the batun bowel will not only taste more tender, but will bring the first crop by 2, and under good conditions, 3 weeks ahead of schedule.
After each harvest, the cut sites should be fed with a slurry solution (1: 6), to which 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate, and also 20 g of potassium chloride are added. The last harvest should be carried out no later than the first decade of September, in order for the onions to recover and prepare for winter.
If you wish, you can sow onion seeds at home at the beginning of winter. Seeds will rise to the beginning of spring, when the temperature of the soil stabilizes at + 10-15 °, they can be transplanted to the garden bed. This method will speed up seed germination by at least 1 month.
Early harvesting also contributes to the covering of the growing place of onions with plastic wrap, which is placed in the first half of April, and is removed after harvesting the first harvest. This method will accelerate the maturation of "feathers" for several weeks.
Little tricks everyone should know about
Planting and subsequent maintenance of the onion variety presented is a fairly simple task available to every newbie. Despite this, experienced gardeners advise not to neglect the recommendations of the following types:
- Bunching onions grow best in the beds, where tomatoes, potatoes and carrots used to grow,
- It is undesirable to plant onions batun on the beds where other varieties of onions have previously grown, since the soil after them may contain various fungal and bacterial pathogens, and generally have an unfavorable chemical composition throughout the year,
- Despite the fact that the onion-batun is resistant to moisture, regular overflow can lead to oxygen starvation, and in some cases to death. Water onions should be abundant, but do not turn the garden into a swamp,
- Onions plentifully water for 3 days before harvesting. Watering will allow you to get "feathers" the most attractive presentation,
- As a planting material for greenhouses, mainly used 2-3 summer plants, which are dug in the middle of autumn with the root system and false bulb.
Batun onion will be without exaggeration one of the best onion varieties that can be grown in the open ground of our latitudes. Caring for this variety is extremely simple, making it the best choice for a beginner.
As for the variety of varieties of this onion, when choosing a seed, carefully look at the photo located on the package, as well as carefully read about each specific grade. The fact is that all varieties have their own characteristics, for example, increased resistance to pests, cold, drought, early precocity, and t / d. Detailed information on each individual grade, read the specialized sources of professional level!
From where roots of onion grow
Despite the fact that the onion batun rarely grown, among true connoisseurs of green onions, it is popular. You may have heard some gardeners talking about Chinese onions and fiery onions. So here we are talking about the same bow - batun. In common people they call him that because of his history of origin. Onions batun for many centuries grown on the Asian territory of China and Japan. On the same territory, including the territory of Siberia, one can still observe wild planting of a baton, which was propagated according to the principle of self seeding. The fact is that this type of onion is considered to be multi-year. If onion batun constantly care for, then it gives good yields. If you abandon, it will multiply on its own and begin to run wild. That will lead to a significant reduction in yield and loss of presentation.
Useful video about onions batun, watch to the end!
Growing onion batun
Growing onion batun can be produced in several ways. Like many varieties of onions, it can be grown through sowing seeds in open ground and through seedlings. The seedling is sown in a greenhouse in early January. If the goal is to get an early harvest, then the cultivation of batun is definitely worth producing through seedlings.
But if there is no rush in the timing or no conditions for growing seedlings - sown with seeds. Seeds of onion batun need to be sown in open ground as soon as the weather and soil structure will provide an opportunity to perform planting work. In that case, if the onion is sown with seeds, then the maximum yield will come only after a couple of years.
How to grow onion batun seedlings
To obtain an early harvest of onion batun, it is planted through seedlings. Seeds on seedlings are planted in early January in the greenhouse and in July you can start harvesting. Resorting to such agricultural technology, the batun is not considered as a perennial plant and the crop is harvested completely with a bulb. Also, as is the case with the usual cultivation of green onions from seeds.
Before sowing seeds for seedlings, you need to prepare the substrate. In principle, its composition is no different from what is required for the cultivation of seedlings of other crops. To do this, you must use: 50% of ordinary soil, 30% of humus or compost, 10% of overfilled sawdust or hydroperlite, 10% of sand. Add any chemical fertilizer is not washed away. First, all the essential nutrients are in humus or compost. Secondly, when growing seedlings, onions use seed stocks and practically do not use top dressing from the substrate.
After the substrate is prepared, batun seeds should be sown. Pre-prepare the seeds of one of the above method. The container in which the growing of seedlings of onion batun will proceed should be provided with openings at the bottom for quick removal of excess water after watering. I recommend growing seedlings not in cups and pots, but in long baths. Pre-prepared soil is poured into the container and watered. After a couple of hours, when the soil has accumulated moisture, and excess water is drained, make grooves with a pencil. The depth of the grooves should be no more than three centimeters. Onion seeds are sown in the grooves and sprinkled with humus or sawdust. After the seeds are sown and covered, the grooves are slightly rammed. This is done to better seed contact with moist soil.
Growing seedlings onion batun
Growing seedlings of onion batun should proceed at a temperature of +6 - +12. Too high temperature hurts. At high temperatures, the seeds will sprout faster, and also the seedlings will grow faster, but the quality will be unsatisfactory. In order not to resort to additional lighting of seedlings and further hardening, seedlings should grow at a temperature not higher than +12. Then, exactly by April, it will be powerful and will start quickly after transplantation into open ground. In certain conditions, the container must stand at all times. As soon as the seeds germinate and flatten themselves to the form of "needles", it is necessary to thin the grooves, leaving a distance of 1-2 cm between the "needles". Watering is often not necessary, only as needed.
Site preparation for onion batun planting
Some gardeners in vain consider this culture capricious. Batun gives good results, provided that the preparation of the plot for planting onion batun made correctly. For fruitful cultivation, fertile soil is needed, which contains balanced nutrients. It is also worth noting that this plant reacts poorly to acidic soil. Before planting a batun onion, lime or dolomite flour must be added to the soil. Nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium are introduced into the soil as nutrients. After all the components are in the ground, the soil is dug up or milled.
In the process of preparing the soil for the onion batun, which is planned to grow for several years in a row, special attention is paid to soil aeration. Open ground should be well structured and crumbly. This quality of the substrate prevents the water-logging of the soil in the process of watering the baton - which he loves so much. It is possible to achieve a crumbly soil structure by introducing horse manure or re-melted softwood sawdust. Remember one rule - "the bow of the batun likes hoe". In the process of growing onion batun, beds must constantly loosen. Loosening of the soil is made every two or three watering.
Despite the fact that the soil was properly prepared, during the growing season, the onion of the batun takes nutrients from the soil and needs to be fed with nitrogen and potash fertilizers. In winter, the onion batun must be sent fertilized. To do this, manure and phosphate fertilizers are introduced into the aisle, after which everything is dug up. That manure, that phosphate fertilizers during the winter will give nutrients to the soil and in the spring onions batun receive high-quality feeding.
Planting seeds onion batuna
It is worth noting that planting seeds onion batuna is universal in terms of seeding. The only exception is winter. And so, the seeds of batun can be sown at any time of the year and in any month. Of course, if you are sure that you can, for example, in July, with a strong heat, ensure planting with constant watering. If not, the seeds simply do not hatch and steamed under the crust of the soil. The optimum and more simple term for planting seeds of onion batun is traditionally spring or autumn. What is in the first, that in the second variant, the soil is saturated with moisture and the seeds germinate well and quickly.
Onion seed seeds are planted in shallow grooves, just like any onion seeds grown on feathers. Usually the depth of the furrow is 1.5-3 cm. Before planting the seeds of a batun, if you are not using precision seed planters and are going to sow manually, I recommend mixing the seeds with sand 1: 1. This will allow you to sow the seeds more evenly and not so thickly. upon completion of sowing, I advise you to sprinkle the seeds with peat, humus or sawdust. After that, plenty of water. After careful watering, the upper substrate is saturated with moisture, the seeds of the onion batun will quickly turn and sprout.
Do not ignore the width of the beds. It should be at least 35 cm., Which will allow you to easily take care of the batun and there will be a sufficient row-spacing that digs into the winter. Further, when the seeds have risen and the beginning of the formation of the first true leaves, the thinning of the beds is carried out. A distance of 3-5 cm is left between each plant. While the onion of the batun is gaining strength, it requires care in the form of constantly watering. If the seeds were planted near the end of spring, watering is done in the morning and evening every day. But! - no waterlogging is allowed.
Harvesting onion batun
Well, I got to the most pleasant moment - harvesting onion batun. Onion batun grows on average half a year. If it was planted in early spring, then in the middle of autumn you can remove the batun. But if the onion batuna was planted at the beginning of summer, then the harvest will be possible only next spring. Therefore, before planting onions, think about the period of harvest.
Harvesting is to cut the young leaves of batun. As a rule, leaves are cut from the bottom up, well-sharpened tool. The cut must be done at the base of the leaf, without damaging the stem. To the leaves of onion batun were elastic and juicy, before harvesting, onions from the evening is watered. during the night all the leaves will get moisture at low night temperatures and will be "fleshy".
So I shared with you how to grow onions batun from seeds in the open fieldhow to care and collect a good harvest. I hope the note was useful to you, write comments and share on social networks.
Have a good harvest of onion batuna!
Description and characteristics of onion batun
Externally, the batun is difficult to distinguish from onions. It has the same leaves with a pipe, but its size is larger and longer. The bulb of a batun is not the same as that of bulb onions, but a false bulb (small thickening). therefore grow it just for the green.
Batun is the source:
- essential oils
- salts of iron, potassium and magnesium.
Varieties for growing and planting in open ground
The most famous varieties are "May", "April", "Tenderness" and "Salad-35".
The last three are early varieties. They even survive snowless winters. April strongly branched, in May large bright green leaves begin to grow. Not susceptible to disease.
May - late grade. Also frost resistant. Shoots appear late. Excellent branches. Сбор урожая — с мая по июнь.
Сорт русский зимний также морозоустойчив и дает высокий урожай. Примерно 30 дней проходит от всходов до урожая. Посев на рассаду проводится поздней осенью или в апреле/мае. Сажая семена чтобы рассадить каждые 14 дней, будете постоянно иметь зелень на столе.
Сроки посадки из семян весной
В средней полосе начинают сеять в июне-июле. Это очень подходящий интервал времени для посадки.Shoots will be friendly and fast, the plants will survive the winter safely. With proper cultivation in the open field, the crop will be as much as you want.
And when sowing in early spring in July-August, the batun will delight with its green leaves.
Site selection and soil preparation
To grow it needs fertile rich soil (sandy loam, loam, black soil) and a lot of sun. The plot before planting or sowing is prepared in the fall. Mineral fertilizers, humus, manure and compost are applied.
Onions grow well and will sprout well if the soil is nutritious and contains a lot of humus, as well as in those areas where they previously grew potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage.
If the soil is nutritious and loose - onion batun grows well
Earth must be well dug before planting.
How to plant and sow seeds
Soil dig deep before sowing, the remains of vegetation and roots of weeds are removed, fertilized, the seeds are soaked in a solution of micronutrients. Seeds will germinate more easily and yield will be higher. Avoid seed sowing - this will make sowing difficult.
The prepared beds abundantly moisten and deepen the onion by 1.5-2 cm. The row spacing should be 25-30 cm.
At moderate air temperature, the first shoots will spill in 14-18 days. At warmer temperatures, they will appear earlier.
If the onions are planted or sown as an annual plant, sowing is carried out in early spring, and by next year the plants are completely removed. But you can plant in summer and autumn. The main thing that the onions did not start to sprout in the winter, and that will perish. You can harvest at different times, depending on the time of planting. Perennials are planted in the fall.
When the soil warms up up to 5-10 degrees sow onions. The soil is gently compacted. The beds can be covered with something that retains heat, for example, with a film.
After 8-10 days, the first shoots appear. Conduct the first loosening. So that the thick shoots do not interfere with each other, they must be thinned out. Plants should divide 6-9 cm.
Care after sowing seedlings
After sowing seeds and sprouts you need regularly remove weeds and moisten the soil. For perennials, when there will be 3 leaves, remove excess seedlings. We leave those that share a few centimeters. We repeat the procedure until there is about 5 cm between shoots. Thinning is not done for annuals. At the same time, onions are fertilized and watered.
Not later than mid-July, everything is cut except for young feathers. Until full recovery by September, cut the leaves is not recommended. By winter, leave the beds with feathers. The first crop is cut in 25-32 days, and again - after 55-65 days.
Harvesting feathers as greenery
You can clean at the end of May, when the feathers will grow up to 25 cm. The following cuts are made at intervals of 3-4 weeks.
Heap shoots of young onions are green feathers with excellent taste. If the batun starts to shoot arrows, his taste will deteriorate. Therefore, it is better not to allow this.
You can remove the bow when the feathers reach a length of 25 cm
If a batun is grown as an annual (sowing seeds in spring), then in a year (March-April) the whole plant is removed. If he is a perennial, then usually cut off the leaves in the spring and autumn once or twice.
Although it is recommended to change the batun land every year, it can grow in one place up to 10 years. However, after the fourth year, the yield drops and it is better to transplant or rejuvenate the onions with new crops.
The leaves are cut off at the root when they reach 20-30 centimeters in length. Feathers are tied up in bunches and stored in the refrigerator.
The fly lays eggs, from which the larvae hatch in mid-June. They penetrate young bulbs and devour them from within. Batun turns yellow and dies.
Trips or thrips - small insects (up to 1 mm in length) of a pale color. Not only harm onions and garlic, but almost all garden plants. The larvae feed on sap from the stems and leaves of plants.
Potato and winter scoops
Scoops are small pale butterflies. Their caterpillars eat roots, leaves and stems most garden and even flower crops.
Pest Control Tips:
- observe crop rotation (choose a new site away from the last year's site),
- dig deep in the fall
- pest-infested plants
- loosen the soil to a depth not less than 10 cm (during this procedure most of the pupae will be on the surface and will die),
- process with salt and various infusions that repel insects.
Onions a batun - a source of early vitamins and a tasty additive to our table.