How to grow a date palm out of a stone at home? Growing the house of this woman of the desert not too difficultas it may seem.
You simply follow a specific procedure. And the first thing a florist should think about, who has set himself the goal of getting a date from a seed house, where to find suitable seeds.
Selection of seeds for sowing
Selection of seeds depends from florist goals.
If you want to get a palm tree of a particular variety, purchase seeds of factory production in a special shop for gardeners. The manufacturer usually specifies on the package detailed information on the type and variety of the plant, as well as describes its agricultural practices.
But factory seeds have a flaw - their the cost is quite high. When buying, pay close attention to the production date. The older the seeds, the lower their germination.
If the date palm variety does not matter to you in principle, you can get seeds much easier. To do this, go to the nearest supermarket and buy a package of dried dates (and better fresh). Take the dates packaged, as on the package you will find information not only on the date of production.
Remember, the fastest growing fresh seeds.
Start germinating seeds need fig March - April.
You will need about a dozen pits. Part of this amount will not rise, and some may die after germination.
Bone processing before soaking
By choosing the fruit for pitting, you it is necessary to process them before sowing. This is done in the following order:
- A bone is extracted from a date.
- Very carefully remove the remnants of the pulp and rinse well with warm water.
- Peeled bones are placed for 48 hours in warm water in order to save future plants from harmful microorganisms that can infect the soil and cause rotting of seedlings. Water should be changed daily.
- Pure seeds are dried within 24 hours.
- The pits of a date have a very dense shell, and in order to facilitate water access to the embryo it is necessary to break its integrity. This can be done in 4 ways:
- Rinse the bones with hot water (not boiling water!). Water temperature should be about 80 degrees.
- Carefully pierce the shell with a sharp object, being careful not to damage the seed itself.
- Sand the stone, thus removing a part of the shell.
- Slightly incise the bone with a sharp knife along the seam.
- Rinse the bones with hot water (not boiling water!). Water temperature should be about 80 degrees.
Seed preparation is almost complete. We proceed to soak.
The emergence of date palm seedlings depends on the quality of the seed and can last from 1 month to 1 year. To maximize the speed of the process, experienced growers have invented soaking the bones. This can be done simply by putting the seeds in water, but the best thing to do is to wadding.
- Each bone must be tightly wrapped in cotton, forming a cocoon.
- Each such cocoon is well moistened and spread on the bottom of a plastic container.
- At the bottom of the container with stones, pour a small amount of water and place it in a warm place, for example, on the battery. The temperature should be in the range of + 25-30 degrees.
Soaked bone for 2-4 days. During this time, monitor the humidity of cotton buds and, if necessary, add water. To reduce the evaporation of moisture, the container with stones can be covered with a piece of glass.
Create temperature conditions
Optimum temperature for seed germination is considered + 25-30 degrees. It is best to germinate seeds in a mini-greenhouse, where the necessary temperature and humidity will be maintained.
The soil for planting dates can be purchased at the store, but it will be better if you make it yourself, because it’s not at all difficult.
For sowing you need a soil of this composition:
- 1 part of steamed peat land,
- 1 part sand or perlite,
- 1 part raw sawdust.
The composition of the earth will have to change several times depending on the age of the flower.
The features of the date palm are such that in the early stages, the root grows at an accelerated pace. The date has a tap root system, that is, one root is the main root, the rest are subordinate.
A pot for such a plant try to select a deep and narrow, so that the date feels comfortable.
Initially, all seeds can be planted in one deep box.
Stagnant moisture date does not make, therefore, at the bottom of the pot or drawer be sure to fill the drainage layerAs which it is possible to use expanded clay, a broken brick, a pebble or charcoal.
Sowing and seedling care
How is a date palm planted from a pit? Date seeds are planted vertically to a depth equal to one and a half length of the stone.
Now the pot of seeds is necessary put in a warm place and vigilantly monitor the soil moisture, preventing excessive moisture.
If the seeds were fresh, the first shoots may appear within a month or two.
The most common recommendation - to carry out the first picking, when a young date will reach 10 cm in length. But experienced flower growers say that with such a late picking you will get a plant with one - two long and narrow leaves that look like a reed.
This should be done carefully.trying not to damage the spine. A sprout is transplanted into a new pot along with the mother seed, since the young plant is still receiving food from it.
Further, young date palms are transplanted every year, until they reach 5 years.
With such a picking scheme, by the end of the first year of life you will receive a plant that will have two or even three broad leaves. After a year, the date will begin to produce beautiful feathery leaves and will be more and more like a real palm tree.
Here you will clearly see how to make a pick.
Date fruit - photophilous planttherefore, it should be placed closer to the light on the east window, while carefully protecting the shoots from drafts. Putting a palm tree on the south window, carefully monitor the soil moisture, and protect your pets from direct sunlight.
Date fruit loves water very much. Plants can not be overdry, otherwise the leaves of your palm trees will dry out. Watering is better with warm settled water.
Now you know how to grow your own date palm from seed.
For more information about the care of date palm, read here.
Here is a video on how to plant and grow a date palm from a stone at home.
Bone date palm trees: photo sprouting.
This plant is light-loving enough, so for it should be organized as much light as possible throughout the year. It requires a room with good ventilation, as it does not tolerate air stagnation. In the summer, when it's warm outside, you can take a date palm to the balcony or set it in the front garden where it will feel good. In winter, the temperature will be normal for her. + 10- + 15 ° С but at the same time, there must be enough light. In order for the plant to grow evenly, it must be constantly rotated relative to the incident rays of light. The top of the palm on which the young leaf is formed should always be directed deep into the room, and not towards the light source.
In the summer period, the date palm requires abundant watering, like all representatives of warm countries. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that there is no stagnation of moisture, otherwise the process of rotting of the roots may develop, and then, if you start this process, the plant may die. If in the pan, after watering appears water, then you need to immediately drain. A signal that watering should be reduced is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. If the whole plant began to darken, then it is better to transplant it immediately into a pot with fresh earth.
In the case of overdrying earthen coma, palm may lower the leaves, which does not return to its original position.
This plant does not impose any special requirements on air humidity, but overdried air can cause the ends of leaves to dry. In this case, it should be sprayed more often, especially in very hot periods.
For irrigation it is better to use soft water: in the summer - rainwater, in the winter - snow, but always at room temperature.
If the lower leaves darken and die, then it is most likely a natural process.
Young date palm requires an annual transplant during the first 5 years of life. After that, the palm tree is transplanted as needed, in case the roots have occupied the entire pot volume. In the case of such an expansion of the roots, you can, without any problems, cut off some of the roots. Land for transplanting can be bought at a flower shop, but you can also prepare one of the following components:
- 1 part turf land.
- 1 part of the humus.
- 1 part compost.
- 1 part of sand.
In any case, you should equip an effective drainage.
Date palm propagated by seed. As a rule, this is a common bone of a well-known date. The process is quite long and can last from 3 to 6 months, and maybe more. It all depends on the conditions in which the germination of the bone. It is very important to provide a temperature regime that should be within + 25- + 30 ° С and normal humidity. In a dry place, the bone does not germinate. It may happen that the bone may not germinate until the very cold, but the temperature should be maintained until the young sprout appears.
Stone can be planted in peat, perlite, sand or sphagnum moss. The main thing is that the material can retain moisture.
In order for the bone to grow, it is necessary to break the integrity of the shell with any available object: a needle file, a knife, a hacksaw, etc. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the core.
The bone is planted vertically. The distance from the ground surface to the top of the pit should be no more than 1 cm. As soon as a young sprout appears, the palm tree can be transplanted into a pot and moved to a bright place.
Top dressings, fertilizers
For the normal development of a houseplant, such as a date palm, it is necessary to produce regular, 1 time in 10 days, top dressing, during the period of active growth, the presence from spring to autumn. In winter, when the palm tree is at rest, fertilizing is reduced to 1 time per month. Palma likes organic fertilizers most of all, which you can both buy and cook yourself. In the summer period, 1 time per month, it is necessary to provide dressing of potassium nitrate, at the rate of 1 g of nitrate per 1 l of water.
Pests and diseases
Pests and diseases affect the date palm as a result of improper care and violation of conditions of detention. These may be scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites, etc. The main condition for effective control of diseases and pests is the correction of the mistakes that were made as a result of cultivating date palm at home. Remove pests, as well as traces of their vital activity by mechanical means. To do this, take a solution of liquid soap (15g diluted in 1 liter of water) and wipe palm leaves with it. If these efforts did not give anything, then the procedure is repeated in a week. At the same time, measures should be taken so that the soap solution does not fall into the pot with the ground, since this solution may eventually penetrate to the root system. If the infection is strong enough and such simple and affordable tools do not help, then the date palm is better treated with insecticides, such as aktellik.
The palm tree is not only affected by pests, but it can also become sick with diseases, such as pink rot, affecting all parts of the plant and spotting that can disfigure the leaf plate. As a rule, such diseases affect only weak and neglected plants. Therefore, you can make the only-correct way: to prevent this from happening, a correct and regular care is needed for a date palm.
If the moment is missed and the palm tree is sick, then the tree should be treated with a fungicide, which consists of mancozeb and methyl thiophanate. At the same time, two treatment sessions with a week break are performed. But the most important thing is to analyze and find out the cause of the occurrence of such a disease, otherwise it will be able to recur after some time.
Representatives of the genus - palm trees with several or one trunk, which can be of different heights with a crown of leaves, leaf sheaths, or remnants of petioles on top.
Large, curved, odd-pinnate leaves consist of linear-lanceolate rigid leaves with a solid, pointed edge at the apex, arranged evenly or in a tuft. Petioles are short, often covered with strong spines. In the axils of the leaves are panicled inflorescences, consisting of small yellow flowers.
They grow a date both as an ornamental plant and as a fruit crop (date palmate). Date fruits are eaten in any form, as well as camels and horses are fed by them. From the juice of some species make wine "tari".
This palm is used for medical purposes. Since, the sap of the plant is an excellent remedy for treating burns, wounds, skin diseases, and compresses based on crushed palm leaves are used for mastopathy.
Not large date palm species, such as Robelena and Canarian, are widely distributed as an ornamental houseplant. And the date palmate greatly expands in a short time, so it is better for him to dwell in winter gardens and greenhouses.
Types of date palms
Canary date palm (Phoenix canariensis) is a plant with a straight, strong trunk that reaches from 12 to 18 meters high and up to 1 meter in diameter and covered with remnants of leaves.
The dense crown consists of about 200 pinnate, with more than 150 pairs of leaves and reaching up to 6 meters long leaves. The leaves have a length of about 50 centimeters and a width of 3.5 centimeters. Their color is bright green.
Relatively short petioles (about 80 centimeters), covered with strong acicular spines, which have a length of up to 20 centimeters. In the axils of the leaves are two types of inflorescence - male and female. The first branched, up to 2 meters long, and the second - much shorter.
Distributed in nature on the rocky and rocky places of the Canary Islands, cultivated as ornamental palm trees grown indoors and in greenhouses.
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a plant whose trunk reaches from 20 to 30 meters high and 30 centimeters in diameter. The trunk is covered with remnants of leaf stalks and has lateral growth at the base.
In the upper part of the trunk are arcuately curved feathery leaves up to 6 meters long. Linear-lanceolate leaves, cut in two at the top, have a length of 20 to 40 centimeters and are often combined into small groups.
Thin, long petiole has a bluish-green color. The inflorescence, which is more than a meter long, is located in the leaf axils and hangs down under the weight of the fruit. The fleshy druy fruits have an oblong-ovate shape and a length of 2.5 to 6 centimeters.
Used in food, both raw and dried, very sweet and nutritious. In culture, date palm is common in North Africa, southern Iran, Iraq, and on the Arabia Peninsula. Used for gardening greenhouses and premises.
Growing at home
To grow a date palm will have patience. It grows slowly and, unfortunately, will not bear fruit at home. For this, its height must be at least 15 m. But this is not necessary. Even without fruits, an attractive plant with huge leaf fans will decorate any interior. This will require a lot of space and light.
How to sprout bone date?
Any plant begins with a seed. Date palm is no exception. Search specifically for its seeds is not necessary - you can buy dates in any grocery store. It does not make sense to plant sprouted date palm seeds. Most likely, they simply will not ascend or the process will be delayed for a very long time.
So, we sprout:
- we choose from the stones bought at the store,
- inspect them for damage, mold or insects, the whole standard is not rejected,
- soak in clean water for a day to remove the remnants of the pulp, changing it several times, the pulp contains substances that inhibit seed germination,
- wash the bones,
- wake up the seed for 48 hours in a thermos with slightly heated melt water with the addition of a few humate grains,
- put in a container with moist loose material: vermicult, hydrogel, crushed and sphagnum sterilized with moss, putting it all in a plastic bag,
- For seed germination, a temperature of about 35 degrees is needed - a place near a heating radiator is ideal,
- germination lasts from 2 to 3 months, and all this time you need to monitor the humidity of the substrate and remove the condensate formed on the film.
As soon as sharp little shoots appeared, it was time to move the bones into the ground.
There is no consensus among florists. Most people think that the stone needs to be stuck vertically so that there is a 1 cm layer of soil over it. But there is an opinion that it is better to germinate the seeds laid in pots horizontally with a seam downwards and covered with a layer of soil 2 cm thick. no worries.Germination is not very good, so it's easier to plant several seeds in two pots in different ways and see which one is more effective. Waiting for seedlings will have to be patient. Germination can take up to 5 months. All this time a plastic bag should be put on the pot, which should be removed for ventilation. The soil is sprayed from a spray bottle to maintain its moisture. Pots should be at a temperature of from 20 to 30 degrees. Light at this time they do not need.
How to care for a palm tree at home?
In order to grow a date palm out of a stone, it is not enough to plant it, you need to properly care for newly emerged shoots and adult plants. This tree is very sensitive to any errors in the care, which responds to poor health. Young newly sprouted shoots are especially in need of attention. They grow very quickly, which is not surprising - it is a tree. It has much higher growth power than grassy plants. Only after the first leaf blooming, growth rates slow down. The first leaves are completely unlike palm, they are linear with clearly visible longitudinal grooves. It is then they split into segments that make up amazingly beautiful fans.
At the beginning of growth, a palm tree requires especially a lot of light, so the pots are placed on the brightest window. The air temperature for young plants should not fall below 20 degrees. In winter, you can warm the window sill from below so that the cold air does not lower the temperature of the soil in the pot.
If there are several plants in a pot, everyone will need an individual capacity for growth.
Soil for transplanting need the following composition:
- humus - 4 parts,
- peat - 1 part,
- turfy and leafy ground, sand - in 2 parts.
It is good to add crushed charcoal to the mixture. Transplantation into individual pots with a diameter of about 15 cm is carried out when the first leaf is 15 cm long. Drainage should consist of expanded clay mixed with charcoal. Its thickness is about 2 cm.
If possible, a palm tree should be held outdoors in summer. Such a "summer holiday" will benefit the tree.
The main conditions for keeping a date palm in room conditions:
- Maximum lighting, but diffused light, the tree withstands the scorching rays of the sun at home without compromising health; they can cause a burn on the leaves in the room; even in winter, the light day for a plant should not be less than 12 hours; it is prolonged by lighting the fitolamps.
For the symmetrical development of the crown every 14 days, the plant pot is rotated 180 degrees.
- air humidity of about 50%
- air temperature in summer is from 20 to 25 degrees, in winter it is reduced to 16 degrees in order to slow down the metabolism in plant tissues in conditions of lack of lighting,
- planting and transplanting for date dates, having a neutral or slightly acid reaction,
- obligatory drainage
- daily ventilation of the room
- timely correct feeding and watering.
How to water?
The schedule of watering and the amount of water depends on the season. In the summer, they water it in such a way that the earthen room does not dry out - from 3 to 4 times a week. In the period of forced rest from watering to watering, the earthen room should be slightly dried. It is enough to moisturize the palm 1-2 times a week. Overflow is harmful, therefore, the excess water from the pan must be poured out in half an hour after the soil is moistened. Particular attention is the quality of irrigation water. Ideally, it should be thawed or clean rain, soft with a minimum amount of salt. Water temperature is about 33 degrees.
The plant responds well to spraying with warm soft water, especially in summer. He will also need sanitary procedures - wiping the leaves with a damp cloth and then drying them with a dry cloth. Once a month the plants can have a warm shower, but the soil in the pot should be covered so that it does not get wet.
Top dressing and fertilizer
In the season of active growth - in spring and summer, the tree is fed with complex fertilizer for palm trees with a frequency of every 14 days. In winter, the intensity of dressings is reduced by 2-3 times.
Palma responds very well to foliar dressing on the leaves. They are made with the same fertilizer, but its concentration in the solution is reduced by 10 times. The frequency of feedings - from 3 to 1 times a month, depending on the strength of the growth of the plant.
The best time to transplant palm trees is April. Young plants need this operation annually. After 5 years, transplantation is practiced every 2-3 years, and in plants older than 10 years they simply change the upper layer of the substrate. The palm tree itself will tell you that it needs a new pot - roots will appear in the old one from the drainage hole.
They are thick palm but fragile. To their damage, it is extremely negative. For her, a transplant is a big stress, you need to do it carefully, keeping the ground ball as close as possible.
The pot is chosen high, each transplant diameter is increased by 3-4 cm. Drainage must be laid on the bottom of the pot. Soil is prepared in the same way as for planting young plants.
Date palm is transplanted only by the method of transshipment, without exposing the roots.
If this happens, it is necessary to cut a part of the leaves in order to maintain a balance between the underground and aboveground parts. Even non-old plants can replace the top layer of soil - there will be more nutrition for the palm tree. This procedure is carried out every six months.
If the daughter plant has developed roots, it can be separated.
- Use a sharp knife to cut the baby as close to the trunk as possible without damaging it.
- We transplant the delenka into the ground for palm trees, acting in the same way as when transplanting an adult plant.
- At first, you will have to put on a plastic bag on the pot with a young palm tree so that it will take root better.
Do not forget to spray young plant more often.
Possible problems with growing
Palma is very sensitive to compliance with all rules of care. When retreating from them, leaves are the first to suffer.
- Dry the tips of the leaves - the air is too dry, you need to spray the plants more often.
- The leaves turn yellow - lack of moisture, you need to water more often.
- The leaves darken - waterlogging, reduce the number of waterings.
- Date palm stops growing - it is too cold in the room. At temperatures below 16 degrees, the roots function poorly, practically not assimilating nutrients. Another reason could be high acidity of the soil. It is acidified when watered with hard water. Such a plant will have to be transplanted.
In general, the care of the indoor giant is not so difficult. Palm trees are very responsive to care and will delight the grower with good growth and healthy appearance.
Description and characteristics
Under natural conditions, the date palm is a tall evergreen plant, which is a feature in its continuous formation at the top of long oval leaves. In nature, it reaches a height of 25-30 m. At home, you can get a much smaller tree: no more than 2 m. But this is quite enough to create an impressive interior decoration.
The process of growing is not laborious, but long. It will require careful implementation of the recommendations of landscapers and patience. Depending on the variety, the decorative date palm can form a spreading crown for the 7-8th year or the 15-20th.
From the very beginning it should be understood that the tree will not bear fruit. This is possible only when growing in natural conditions for him.
Selection of planting material
The work of growing any plant begins with the selection of planting material. Date palm is no exception. The seeds that will be needed are the pits of dates. The choice of these fruits is the main difficulty. The fact is that if the dates were subject to such pre-sale preparation as heat treatment or cooking in syrup, they are not suitable for growing a date palm tree from a stone at home.
Fruit sellers are not always aware of what happened to the product before it hit the counter.
In order to minimize the risks when choosing planting material, you need to follow several recommendations:
- Buy fresh, not dried dates (but the latter are also suitable for the selection of seeds),
- Fruits should be without signs of rot, insect damage, have a good presentation.
- Choose a few dates in different outlets.
- Prepare not one, but several bones. Optimally - 5-7 pcs.
Preparation of planting material
Before planting a bone, it must be prepared. In this way, they eliminate the risk of decay and contribute to the awakening of the germination processes of the seed.
- ANDFrom the pulp of a date, gently remove the bone and thoroughly clean it. It should not remain the fibers of the fruit.
- Lay the planting material in a place well-lit by the sun and dried for 1-2 days. Then it is thoroughly cleaned again. There is an opinion that at this stage it is necessary in some way to break the integrity of the shell of the stone: rub it with sandpaper, pierce it, cut it in the middle. But without having experience and knowledge in cultivating a date palm at home, it is better not to do this.
- Put the stones in a container with water at room temperature and leave for 48 hours. Every 7-8 hours the fluid changes. On the second day, the swelling of the bones will be noticeable, the remnants of the flesh will be separated from them (if any).
To stimulate the germination of planting material, you can add drugs "Zircon" or "Epin."
Preparation of the tank and soil
In the date palm in the period of germination quite fragile shoots and roots. Therefore, only light, breathable soils are suitable for planting. The stores for gardeners offer ready-made pokvosmesi for growing date palm from the stone at home.
Suitable substrate for this purpose can be prepared independently.
The optimal composition of soil mixture:
- peat and sand in proportion 1: 1
- humus, turf and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 1,
- turf, sand, crushed moss in a ratio of 1: 1: 1,
- humus, sand, peat, sod or leaf earth in a ratio of 4: 2: 1: 2,
- 1 part of sawdust, sod, humus and peat.
For the germination of pits suitable any small containers: ceramic, plastic or plastic. It is important to make at the bottom of several holes with a diameter of 5-6 mm. Excess water will go through them. Subsequently, when sprouts appear and grow stronger, the plants are transplanted into larger containers.
There is another approach to planting a date palm: the bones are buried in the ground in one large capacity: a pot or a pot. If necessary, ascended and grown plants are seated.
Watering and transplanting
After young plants reach a height of 10-12 cm, they are transplanted into a more spacious container. Moreover, transplanting is a regular process when growing date palm from a stone at home. For adult plants it is carried out by the method of transshipment. For the young, a different approach is required: the plants, along with the root ball, are carefully removed from one pot and placed in another.
Do not allow stagnation of water in the ground, as this adversely affects the condition of the plant.
The palm tree should receive a sufficient amount of sunlight, so it is kept on the window sill or near it. Optimally - from the south. It is important to regularly rotate the container with the plant in order for light and heat to reach all its leaves. If this requirement is ignored, the increase in green mass will be uneven. This will significantly reduce the decorativeness of the plant.
The air temperature in the room should be stable and not fall below + 18 ° C. Until the palm tree gets stronger, you can not allow drafts. The optimum air humidity for this plant is 50-60%.
Monthly palm tree need to arrange a water shower. Before the procedure, the ground in the pot is covered with plastic wrap. You can plentifully spray from the garden sprayer or irrigate the plant in the bathroom with a shower head. It is not only wellness, but also hygienic. Keeping leaves clean reduces the risk of developing a disease or pest damage.
Palm tree care
Date palm is unpretentious. But this is true for an adult strong plant. Young require close attention and regular care. If the tree is experiencing any discomfort, such signs of trouble, such as the appearance of spots, yellowing of the edges of the leaves or their blackening, drying, will signal this.
In winter, the plant pot is placed in the back of the room so that it receives enough light. With the onset of heat transferred to the loggia or balcony. Air temperature should not be below + 12 ° С. The leaves of the tree are regularly wiped with a damp cloth.
Date palm is fed with special fertilizers that have been developed for this type of plant. These drugs can be purchased at any store that sells products for gardeners.
If you adhere to the proposed recommendations on the choice of planting material and the rules of cultivating date palm trees, at home you can get a strong tree of impressive size. For many years it will decorate the interior and delight with its spectacular crown.
Curved Date Palm (Phoenix reclinata)
Multiple trees with lateral growth, which gives them the appearance of a dense bush. Trunks can reach 8-meter height and 10-17-centimeter diameter.
Cirrus, with a drooping top, curved leaves are about 6 meters long and up to 1 meter wide and consist of more than 100 pairs of leaflets. Rigid bright green leaves are covered, with time disappearing, whitish hairs, have a length of up to 50 centimeters and a width of about 2-3 centimeters.
The scape of 1 meter in length, covered with single or combined, by 2-3, needle-shaped, thin 3-12-centimeter spikes, which are directed in different directions. Inflorescences located in the axils of the leaves are strongly branched and have a length of up to 90 centimeters.
Under natural conditions, it grows in tropical rain forests of subtropical and tropical regions of Africa. Cultivated as an ornamental plant for growing indoors and greenhouses.
In nature, it is a squat shrub or tree with feathery leaves, which are the main decorative value of this plant. The date palm at home can only grow up to 2 meters from the stone, but even in this case, this indoor plant will require considerable space. Indoors, an adult tree is placed in spacious rooms, where there is little furniture. But if it is grown from a stone, at home you can always make room for a small pot, because the date will grow for quite a long time.
Date palm blooms with panicles of yellow flowers. But eating dates from this tree will not work: this exotic tree begins to blossom and bear fruit when it reaches 15 meters in height, which, of course, is simply impossible at home.
We grow a date palm out of a stone
How to grow a date palm out of a bone? First of all, planting material should be prepared for planting. Bones for reliability, it is desirable to plant several. Then prepare the soil for planting. Bones from fresh, dried or candied dates may come up - the most important thing is that the fruits are not subjected to heat treatment earlier. In order to obtain a suitable soil for seed germination, it is necessary to mix in equal parts sand, raw sawdust and peat.
In the soil, the stones are placed vertically, a layer of 1 cm of the same substrate is poured on top. The container or pot is placed in a fairly warm place, where the air temperature is more than 20-25 ºC. Care must be taken that the soil is always wet, but not wet. It is recommended to keep it near the heat source. There is no need to wait for quick results: a bone in the soil can sit and swell until a germ of 3 or even 6 months appears.
When the shoots seem to be, the container must be transferred to a bright light, but at the same time protect the seedlings from direct rays. Soil should be moistened regularly, and seedlings sprinkled with warm water. When the seedlings grow to 10-15 cm, they need to be planted in separate pots with a diameter of 15 cm. The soil should consist of 4 parts of humus, 1 part of peat land and two parts of sand, sheet and sod land. You can also add to the mix 2 handfuls of charcoal. Before planting, everything is thoroughly mixed. You need to remember to lay a drainage layer on the bottom of the pot.
Date palm at home from the bone leaves can give only after 3 or even 5 years. The growth point of the plant is located at the top of the trunk, so it can not be cut or in any way try to form the crown of the tree. You need to make sure that the new arrow of the leaf is turned into a shadow. Also, the pot should be rotated from time to time so that the crown is formed evenly.
Bone Date Palm: care
Caring for a home tree is pretty simple. Keep it in a bright, sunny, well-ventilated area. In summer, the air temperature can be any, and in winter - not less than 12-13 ºC, but not more than 18 ºC.
In the heat, the leaves of the plant may dry out at the ends, so it is advisable to spray them several times a day or wipe them with a wet sponge, and organize a shower once a week for the plant.
Летом пальму еженедельно следует подкармливать минеральными и органическими удобрениями, осенью удобрять один раз в две недели. В зимний период достаточно вносить комплексное удобрение раз в месяц.
Финик, выращенный из косточки в домашних условиях, требует регулярного сбалансированного полива отстоянной мягкой водой. Balanced watering involves moistening the soil so that the plant has enough moisture, but no more. In order to prevent excess moisture from stagnating in the roots, you need to remember to put a thick drainage layer in the pot when transplanting.
Young plants that have not reached the age of five, are transplanted annually, and those that are older, if necessary, because this tree does not like to be disturbed. When transplanting act very carefully so that the root of the date palm does not hurt. It is best to take advantage of the transfer of plants from the old tank to the new one. The pot should be deep enough, as it has long roots, and each next pot should be 3 or even 4 cm in diameter larger than the previous one. If the old capacity for palm trees is still fit, but the soil has already lost the qualities useful for the plant, when transplanting, you should carefully remove the top layer of the old substrate and replace it with fresh one. This is done every six months.
Date palm, grown from a bone at home, is prone to the following diseases:
- spotting that disfigures the leaf plate,
- pink rot, affecting both the leaves and the stem, and causing them to rot.
Fortunately, only sick and weak plants are subject to infection with these diseases, therefore, the key to health of a date is, above all, compliance with the rules of care. If the date palm, grown from a bone at home, is sick, you must perform a double treatment with a fungicide that contains methyl thiophanate and mancozeb.
Why does the date palm start to dry?
Sometimes the plants start to dry from the tips of the leaves. This suggests that in the room where the tree is, low air humidity (normal rate of 50%). There are many ways to increase it to the desired value. Spray and wash the leaves, otherwise the plant will lose its decorative appeal, and it will be a pity to waste time and effort. Remember, date palm, grown from a bone at home, dries up only in careless owners.
Why do date palm leaves turn black?
If the soil in the pot, where the exotic date palm grows from the seed, is constantly re-moistened, the leaves gradually begin to darken, turn brown, the trunk of the plant becomes soft, and the smell of rot emanates from the tree. In this case, stop watering, remove it from the pot and inspect the roots: if they are dark, soft and watery - the palm tree has already died. But if there are still alive among the rotten roots, then you need to cut off the dead roots, sprinkle the slices with crushed coal, and then transplant the plant into fresh soil.
Date palm is not growing
As already mentioned, the temperature in the room with a palm tree should not be below 12 ºC in winter. At another time of the year not lower than 18-20 ºC, as the growth of the roots at 16-17 ºC stops, the root activity slows down significantly, and the palm tree cannot absorb the necessary nutrients. This is what leads to the cessation of growth.
It can cause growth arrest and high acidity of the soil, which causes a lack of iron and manganese, therefore it is sufficiently important to adhere to the correct temperature conditions, as well as maintain the acidity of the soil (pH below 7 units).
So, we looked at how to grow a date palm out of a stone. There is nothing difficult in this, and the decorative qualities of a plant are, of course, worth all the effort. The tree can perfectly fit into the modern interior.
Date palm timili (phoenix roebelenii o’brien)
One of the most compact representatives of the genus, reaching only 2 meters in height. This is a single-trunk or multi-stem tree, which is covered with remnants of the bases of the sheets.
Curved feathery leaves about 50-70 centimeters long have numerous soft and narrow leaves, which are very densely placed on a thin rachis. The length of dark green leaves from 12 to 20 centimeters. Younger leaves are covered with powdery powdery coating and whitish fibers. Axillary inflorescences are poorly branched.
In nature, this species can be found in the tropical rain forests of India, Laos, Burma. This date is suitable for growing in warm greenhouses and rooms.
Date palm stony (Phoenix rupicola) is a plant with a straight stem up to 7 meters high and 20 centimeters in diameter. This species forms offspring and is not covered by the remains of leaves.
The arcuate bent pinnate leaves are 2–3 meters long and consist of densely arranged green, linear, bare, slightly drooping leaves, having a length of up to 40 centimeters. Short scape covered with sharp spines on edges. Under natural conditions, it grows on hills and mountains in Sikkim, Assam (India).
Forest Date Palm (Phoenix sylvestris)
A plant reaching a height of 12 meters, with a straight trunk with a diameter of 60 centimeters to 1 meter.
At the top of the trunk there are rejected downward, arcuate-pluminal leaves about 4 meters in length from 150 to 200 pieces. The lobes of the leaves are densely arranged in groups of 3-4 and have a length of up to 35 centimeters and a width of 4-5 centimeters. The leaves have a bluish-gray color.
Petioles reaching a length of 1 meter, at the base are covered with brownish fibers, and along the edges - with sharp strong spines (from 3 to 15 centimeters long). Inflorescence with white flowers, directed upwards, has a length of about 90 centimeters. In the wild form is found in dry areas, river valleys and lowlands of East India.
Ceylon Date Palm (Phoenix zeylanica Trimen) - representatives of this species have a straight trunk, reaching from 3 to 6 meters high and covered with remnants of petioles.
Relatively short feathery leaves consist of numerous 18-25-centimeter bluish strong leaves. Short scape covered with spikes on the edges. Branched short (30-35 centimeters long) inflorescence is located in the leaf axils.
Under natural conditions, the species is distributed on the island of Sri Lanka in wet lowlands. Cultivated for growing in cold greenhouses.
Date palm at home care and maintenance
Phenicia likes bright sunshine and needs shading only in the midday summer intense heat. It is best to place small young plants on the windowsills of the southern and southeastern windows, larger and adult plants - next to such windows.
For a uniform growth and development of the palm crown, it is necessary from time to time to turn it around its axis. In the summer, the plant will respond well to the maintenance outdoors in the garden or on the balcony, but if this is impossible to do, then you should regularly ventilate the room.
If the autumn-winter days did not bring enough sunlight, then in the spring the plant should be gradually accustomed to the effects of direct sunlight in order to avoid foliage burns. So do the palm tree, only brought from the store.
In winter, it is desirable to carry out the illumination of the date with the help of fluorescent lamps. With insufficient lighting, palm leaves begin to stretch and hang down, losing their decorative effect.
In the spring and summer, when the date grows, it needs to be kept in conditions of moderate temperature from 20 to 25 degrees. These tropical beauties love a higher temperature up to 28 degrees Celsius, however, this also requires high humidity, otherwise the tips of the leaves of the plant will start to dry.
In winter, dates are at rest and need a temperature in the range of 15-18 degrees. Phenicia Robelena is more thermophilic and the optimal winter temperature for it is 16 to 18 degrees Celsius.
A Canarian date can spend the winter at a temperature of 8 to 10 degrees, and in adulthood with a formed trunk suffers a short-term decrease to 5 degrees of frost. They do not like palm trees of this kind of stagnation of air. It is necessary to ensure regular airing of the room, while protecting the plants from drafts.
Watering a date palm at home
From April to August, the plant requires abundant watering, after which the water in the pan is left for 2-3 hours, and then drained. In the autumn and winter, watering is reduced and produced only on the second day after the top layer of the earthen coma dries out.
Moreover, the lower the temperature of the content of dates, the less it is watered and vice versa. It must be remembered that the soil can neither be overmoistened nor overdried. Water for irrigation take warm, soft, defended.
Dates - moisture-loving plants. They like daily spraying, which can be carried out all year round. The water for spraying is taken as settled or, better yet, filtered.
To maintain the required moisture, pots with palm trees can be placed in a tray filled with wet expanded clay, moss or pebbles, so that their bottom does not touch the water. Once every two weeks they spend washing the leaves of the date with water to clean the dust.
Date Palm Fertilizers
Starting in April and ending in late August, organic fertilizers are applied every 10 days. Sometimes organics need to alternate with potassium nitrate, which take 1 gram per 1 liter of water. In winter, dates are fertilized once a month.
Date palm transplant at home
Dates poorly tolerate transplants, because during it the root system of the plant is often damaged. Transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment and only in spring. Earth lump is not destroyed.
Because of their rapid growth, young palms have to be replanted annually, but adult plants, as necessary, every 3-6 years. If the palm tree is too big and heavy and it is not easy to remove it unscathed from the pot, then it is recommended to break it.
A new pot is taken not much larger than the previous one, while it must be deep and not wide. At the bottom of the pot must have a few centimeters of drainage of expanded clay, shards or charcoal with sand.
The soil is renewed annually, removing the top 2-4 centimeters of the old substrate and replacing it with fresh.
Date palm soil
Dates are not very demanding on the composition of the soil and can grow well in neutral and slightly acid soils.
To prepare the substrate are mixed in equal quantities of sand, humus, turf soil and compost. For every 3 liters of the mixture added, add 1 tablespoon of superphosphate.
You can also use ready-mix soil for palm trees, which are sold in flower shops.
Date palm from the stone at home
Dates are most often propagated by seed. For cultivation, it is best to use seeds from fresh fruit, as over time germination decreases, and the emergence of sprouts can occur a year after planting.
Before planting, the pits of a date are kept in warm water (30-35 degrees) for 2-3 days. It is possible to plant seeds in a peat-sand substrate or in a substrate consisting of layers: the bottom one is drainage, the middle one is soddy earth, the top one is sand with finely chopped moss.
The prepared substrate is moistened with water, seeds are planted and covered with moss or sand. Shoots can be expected on the 20-25 day. For successful germination need timely watering and maintaining the temperature from 20 to 25 degrees. The ascended palmochki transplanted into the soil, consisting of light sod land, sand and humus, taken in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
They carry out abundant watering of transplanted plants and place them in a well-lit place, shading from direct sun.
- Leaves falling down - Signal the need for watering.
- Dry leaves or tips indicates a lack of humidity in the room.
- Leaves wither and darken under the influence of low temperatures and drafts.
- Stunted growth may be due to the lack of trace elements necessary for the plant.
What it is?
The date tree belongs to the palm family, grows in Africa and Eurasia. In natural conditions, a palm tree sometimes reaches a height of thirty meters. Most species of this plant have one large trunk and long feathery leaves.
The fruits of the plant are eaten and exported to many countries around the world. However, not all varieties of date palm fruits are edible.
At home, a large palm tree is difficult to grow. Most often, this plant is grown in pots for home decoration. Date tree will not bear fruit in this case. To harvest, you need at least two strong trees, one of which will be male and the other female.
At home, the palm will slowly grow and develop. Leaves can appear only in the third year of cultivation, and flowering may not happen at all. However, with some effort and compliance with all the rules for planting and care will be able to grow a very beautiful and strong tree.
It is possible to grow a palm tree at home from the seeds of not only fresh fruit, but also dried. However, the fruit should not be too dry. For planting it is best to take several seeds at once, and not one. Before planting, they must be well cleaned from the soft part of the fruit.
If the pulp remains on the seeds, even in small quantities, it can lead to decay of the planting material. After the bones are separated from the pulp, they must be placed in a container with cool water for two days. Water in the container needs to be changed periodically.
After two days, the seeds must be carefully examined again for the presence of pulp on their surface. In order to speed up the germination of planting material, you can resort to some tricks.
- It will be necessary to break the integrity of dense seeds by rubbing their surface with sandpaper or making several punctures with a sharp object. Thus, the water will be faster and easier to penetrate into the seed, which stimulates the appearance of the first shoots.
- Planting material can be exposed to high temperatures. For this purpose, the seeds are placed in a container with hot water and kept in it for 10 minutes.
How to plant?
To germinate the seed of a date you need to prepare high-quality soil. The soil should not be heavy and dense. As the soil, you can apply the composition, which is prepared from sawdust, peat and sand, taken in the same proportions.
The soil is placed in the container and is well moistened before planting. In the center of the ground it is necessary to make small indentations for the seeds. Bones are placed in the soil vertically. The depth of planting depends on the size of the seeds and should be one and a half times the length of the stone. The pits are covered with earth, and the moss is additionally placed on the surface of the soil so that moisture leaves the soil not so actively.
Container with date stones should be removed in a warm place, the temperature of which is not less than 25 degrees. If the procedure is done correctly, the germination of seeds will take no more than three months. Under certain circumstances, seedlings from seeds can germinate much longer. If the planting material was poorly prepared, or it is very dry, the first shoots will appear only after 6 months.
When the first sprouts appear on the ground surface, the plant must be transplanted into a deeper and wider container.
It is recommended to transplant together with the soil in which the seed was germinated, as the palm tree does not tolerate the change of soil.
Where to place?
The date tree is a light-loving plant, so you need to put the pot in the place where the sun's rays fall. It should be borne in mind that the light must be diffused. If the palm is subjected to constant exposure to direct sunlight, it will cause burns on the leaves.
At the same time it is necessary to air the room regularly, but in such a way that the drafts do not disturb the plant. The palm must be constantly turned upside down so that sunlight will work evenly on all the leaves. Otherwise, the plant will weaken and become brittle.
In summer, the most suitable temperature regime will be 22 degrees Celsius. In winter, at the location of the palm tree, the lower limit of the temperature threshold is twelve degrees. The air humidity should be at the level of 50 percent.
Date palm does not require complex care. The plant loves warm and moderate humidity. Palma well absorbs fertilizer. Regular and quality tree care will not only promote active growth and development, but also protect the plant from diseases and pests.
Low humidity levels adversely affect plant health. Excessive dryness is favorable conditions for the spread of many pests. In winter, the palm tree is not recommended to keep close to radiators and other heating devices. In summer you can move the plant to the open air.
However, an excess of moisture can also lead to sad consequences. First of all, it will negatively affect the root system. Large adult palms, in addition to the introduction of fertilizer and moisture, need pruning. At the same time, only weak or old leaves should be cut.
When caring for a date palm, it is very important to know the measure, including in watering. Корневая система нуждается в регулярном увлажнении, однако избыток воды негативно скажется на растении. В летний период пальма особенно нуждается во влаге.
Полив осуществляется теплой водой (около 20 градусов) с низким содержанием хлора, которую предварительно рекомендуется настаивать. Частота полива в зимний период по большей части зависит от температуры воздуха в помещении. With low humidity the soil will dry out quickly, so the frequency of watering will be the same as in summer.
When watering with water in the soil is recommended to introduce fertilizer. The frequency of feeding depends on the season:
- in the spring and summer periods - once every 8 days,
- in the autumn time - every 14 days,
- in winter - with a frequency of 30 days.
As a top dressing, you can purchase special complex formulations for large indoor plants. In summer, the palm tree can be kept outdoors, for example, in the garden. In such a situation, the plant must be fertilized with chicken manure once a week.
For the stable development of the root system and the trunk of the date palm, it is required to regularly transplant it into deeper containers. In the first five years of development, this procedure is carried out with a frequency of once a year. In subsequent years, the number of transfers is reduced to one in three years. When transplanting, it should be remembered that the root system of the plant is quite vulnerable, so the palm tree is placed in the new pot with an old layer of earth that is not trimmed from the roots.
Planting the plant is best in a special soil for the palm family, which can be purchased at a gardening shop. At the bottom of the tank, a drainage layer is necessarily organized, which may consist of crushed bricks or expanded clay. The first time a palm tree is placed in a new ground after the shoots reach a length of 4 centimeters. Re-transplanting is recommended when the palm is about 15 centimeters tall.
With each new transplant, the height of the new container should be 4 centimeters more than the previous one. Since adult plants are placed in a new container quite rarely, it is recommended to regularly replace the top layer of soil in the pot.
Frequent problems when growing
The date tree requires special conditions for growing. If you do not follow all the necessary rules, the plant may die. Among the most frequent problems encountered in the cultivation of date palm trees, there are several major ones.
- Drying of the leaves, which is primarily due to the indoor climate. Low air humidity can be compensated by regularly spraying palm leaves with water from a spray bottle.
- Yellowed leaves speak of poor watering of the plant. The soil is not sufficiently hydrated, and the roots receive little water. You can fix this problem by adjusting the watering of palm trees.
- When the leaves change color to a darker shade, this indicates an overabundance of moisture in the soil. In this case, you can water the tree is not so active.
- The growth of palm trees is due to the effects of low temperatures. If the temperature in the room is at 15 degrees, then the root system of the palm tree begins to poorly absorb useful substances. The second reason for the poor growth of the tree is the level of acidity of the soil. The reason for the high pH is often watering a plant with poor quality tap water. Transplantation of a palm tree into a new soil will help to solve this problem.
Only weakened date trees are affected. With good and regular care, the plant grows and develops without any problems. The most common diseases of palm trees are wet rot and bacterial spotting. Rot helps to soften and damage the leaves. The affected areas require complete removal, and healthy leaves are treated with copper sulfate.
Spotting refers to a group of bacterial diseases. The disease is expressed in the appearance of small watery spots near the leaf veins. Over time, the affected areas become black in color, indicating that tissue is dying off. With the active spread of the spots, the disease can damage the palm root system, which complicates the treatment procedure.
When only small areas of the leaves of the plant are affected, they must be removed, and the cut sections must be treated with crushed coal. After that, the palm is treated with fungicides and reduce moisture and watering.
In the summer, some growers put a date tree in a pot on the street or on an open balcony. In this regard, there is a risk of pests. However, parasites can infect plants in the case of cultivation in the home, if there is no proper care. Date palm is most affected by the following parasites:
- common mite from the family of spiderwebs,
Spider mite is one of the most common pests that often affects domestic plants. Insects of this species are characterized by a small size (up to 1 millimeter) and fast reproduction. Ticks are able to gnaw holes in the leaves of plants and suck the juice out of them. As well as pests are able to destroy plantings at a high speed, moving from one plant to another.
It is not so difficult to find spider mites: a lot of small white dots appear on the affected leaves (mostly from the inside), and you can also see a small spider web where pests live. Spider mites are able to spread infectious diseases and rot. A pest enters the indoor plants along with the soil, on things or clothes, it can even penetrate an open window, especially if there are trees near the house.
If a date palm is affected by a spider mite, the plant should be wiped with a solution of water and soap. This will reduce the number of pests, but will not completely destroy them. To get rid of insects, it is recommended to treat the plant with a special chemical composition: acaricides or insectoacaricides.
A mealybug (felt) is an insect with an oval body with a length of not more than 7 millimeters. The pest is covered with a peculiar patina of white color and produces sticky mucus of the same shade, which remains on the affected plants and looks like a thin layer of cotton wool. The most favorable period for the spread of such insects is winter, as houseplants become more vulnerable and weak, especially when they are not properly cared for.
When a mealybug is found, the date palm must be isolated from other indoor plants and treated with a soap or alcohol solution. For the complete destruction of pests need to purchase special chemicals. Processing is recommended to carry out repeatedly with an interval of at least a week.
The shield is an insect with a small shell, which is not part of the body and is easily removed. In length, pests can reach 5 millimeters. Most of these insects are horticultural crops, but domestic palm plants are extremely susceptible to the effects of shchitovki. The pest feeds on the juice of the date palm, which affects its growth and development: the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, and the new ones do not grow.
When detecting shchitovki get rid of it will not be so easy. First of all, palm is treated with a soap solution or alcohol composition. In addition to the plant, it is necessary to process the place where it stood. For the complete destruction of insects will require treatment with insecticides. The procedure must be carried out repeatedly so that the most stable individuals are completely exterminated.
How to grow a date palm at home, see the next video.