Florists, this plant is valued for simplicity, long and abundant flowering. Ahimenez flower - a relative of violets, belongs to the family of Gesneria. In total, there are more than 30 different varieties and each of them has its own “zest” - first of all it is a variety of colors and shades. With proper care, flowering is abundant, lasting from June to September. In this article you will find all the necessary information about the care, planting and the intricacies of growing achimenes.
Description of Ahimenes flower
This is a perennial plant that came to us from the rain forests of Central and South America. There are different types of achimenes - with creeping, upright and drooping stems. The leaves are slightly pubescent, and in appearance they resemble a distant nettle. Flowers are very bright, of very different colors and sizes, have the form of slightly elongated bells. Long flowering due to the fact that to replace the old flowers buds appear.
If the care of ahimenez is organized properly, then they can bloom twice in one season. The first time in spring or in June, the second - in September. Then begins the transition to a state of rest - leaves fade, dry out. Those who have not had to deal with ahimenez, it may seem that the plant died. But only the aerial part dies off, and the rhizomes remain in a dormant state until spring, after which awaken and again delight flower growers with lush flowering.
Rules for the care of achimenes
Rules for the care of the flower Ahimenez not too complicated. It does not tolerate strong temperature drops, low humidity, cold drafts. The rest of the plant does not cause much trouble.
- Optimum temperature. From the moment of awakening with a rhizome (scaly rhizome in the form of a nodule), throughout the entire period of vegetation and flowering it is necessary to adhere to a temperature of about +22 ... 23 ° C. In the autumn, when the rhizomes begin to prepare for a state of rest, the temperature is gradually reduced to + 15 ° C.
- Lighting. Ahmenezes love bright light, but do not tolerate direct sunlight. Sensitivity to light depends largely on the variety. Plants with variegated leaves are more susceptible, therefore they are recommended to pritenyat. Varieties with dark leaves painlessly tolerate moderate amounts of direct sunlight. And those and others will feel great on the windows on the west side, but on the south it is better to lightly embellish them. If possible, pots of plants can be taken out onto the street or open balcony.
- Watering. During the growing season, flowers are demanding for abundant watering. But you need to make sure that there is no stagnation of water. Holes are made at the bottom of the pot and provide good drainage. The flower does not like it when water falls on it, so watering is carried out directly under the root or in the pan. Water temperature for irrigation should be slightly higher than room temperature. During the flowering period, watering is carried out every 3 days, after it ends - their frequency gradually decreases.
- The soil. Rhizomes of Ahimenes are planted in fertile, light, breathable soil. You can buy ready-made soil for Saintpaulia or cook it yourself. The optimal ratio is on one part of peat, perlite or coarse sand and humus. In the finished substrate it will be useful to add a little hydrogel or finely chopped sphagnum, so that the soil is consistently moist. Ahimenez responds well to the introduction of a small amount of cow manure into the soil.
- Spraying Spray the plants can not. When water drops fall on the leaves, brown spots will remain on them. To increase the humidity, air is sprayed only around the plant, making sure that moisture does not fall on the leaves. You can also use another option - pour some water into the container, fill it with pebbles and place the plant pot on top so that its bottom does not touch the water.
- Top dressing. For the first time in a season, the flower is fed only 3-4 weeks after the first shoots appear. Use complex mineral fertilizers. While ahimenes blooms, fertilizing is repeated every two weeks. After flowering, they are completely stopped. Abundant and frequent fertilizing can reduce the intensity of flowering, so the use of mineral fertilizers more than twice a month is not recommended.
- Resting and cropping. From mid-autumn, leaves at Ahimenes begin to dry out gradually. At this time, the rhizomes gain nutrients, pulling them out of the soil and leaves, so pruning is carried out only after the above-ground part of the plant has completely dried. A pot with rhizomes is removed for wintering in a dark place with a temperature of about + 15 ° C. In the winter, the soil is moistened very moderately and not more than once a month. It is gently moistened with well-settled water on the edge of the pot. High humidity can lead to premature waking up with a robe.
If achimenez “woke up” ahead of time, then for its normal development it is necessary to ensure good illumination with fluorescent lamps.
Planting Ahimenes cuttings, rhizomes, seeds
Ahimenes can be propagated in many ways. The most common and simple - planting achimenes rhizomes. But sometimes flower growers have to resort to other methods. For example, growing a new variety from seed.
- Rhizomes. The easiest and most effective method of reproduction - rhizomes. Rhizomes of Ahimenes are scaly nodules. One such nodule can give several sprouts at once. During transplantation, they are separated from the roots, laid out on the surface of the moistened soil and sprinkled with a dry layer to 2 centimeters. At the germination stage, you need to constantly monitor the level of humidity, preventing the soil from drying out. With regular moistening and temperatures not lower than + 22 ° C, sprouts will appear in 8-12 days. After the appearance of the first leaves, the seedlings are carefully placed in separate pots.
- Green cuttings. The branch of achimenes is cut into 3 cuttings. On the bottom two there should be 3 internodes. The lower leaves of the cuttings must be removed to accelerate rooting. Slices are lightly dried before planting - for this they are dipped in finely crushed coal. The part of the cutting where the callus will be formed with the roots is dipped in the root formation stimulator. Next, the cuttings are placed in a moist, warm mixture - peat, sand or perlite, covered with polyethylene in the form of a greenhouse. After 10-14 days, the roots should appear.
- Seeds. This method is more laborious, since the seeds of achimenes are very small. For sowing, they are mixed with a small amount of sand, which is sprinkled with moist soil. It is not necessary to sprinkle them on top, otherwise germination will have to wait a very long time. The soil is periodically moistened with an atomizer, the container is covered with plastic wrap, occasionally airing the strawberry. Inputs will appear no later than two weeks. In the initial stages of growth, it is very important to provide them with full coverage so that the shoots do not stretch out and die. Picks spend at least three times in the spring.
Pests, diseases and ways to deal with them
Ahimenes are considered resistant to pests and diseases, but errors in agricultural technology can badly affect the condition of plants. Problems are resolved by using appropriate medications and correcting care errors.
- Ring spots. It occurs if cold water is used for irrigation, or direct sunlight falls on the plant.
- Yellowing of leaves (except veins). The manifestation of chlorosis, which is the result of irrigation with hard water or iron deficiency.
- Gray rot. A fungal disease in which the leaves turn brown, die off, a grayish tinge forms on them. Most often develops at low temperatures in combination with high humidity. Damaged leaves should be immediately removed, the plant treated with fungicides - Fundazole or other drugs.
- Spider mite Requires double treatment of the plant with acaricides. Between treatments need to withstand a week break. Well-acting drugs such as Neoron, Fitoverm, Akarin.
- Aphid, mealybug, whitefly. Pests are destroyed by watering the flower with Aktara or other insecticides.
A strong plant is less susceptible to pests and diseases, so it is important to conduct top dressing and watering in a timely manner, to protect the flower from cold drafts and direct sunlight. Then the ahimenes will bloom all summer, delighting you with its beauty.
Under natural conditions, ahimenes grow in tropical rainforests, so the plant blooms constantly. To achieve long-term flowering at home is possible only with proper care.
Ahimenez is a perennial herb with long upright shoots up to 60 cm in height. There are hybrid varieties of ampelous form.
The leaves of achimenes, depending on the variety, can be of various shapes and sizes. Leaf surface is smooth, shiny, covered with sparse hairs. The edges of the leaf blades have small notches. The color is varied: from dark green to purple and burgundy.
The root system is represented by small tubers that look like alder cones. These types of tubers are called rhizomes. Usually they are formed in the upper soil layer.
The flowering period of achimenes lasts all the warm season. The flowers look like small roses or bells with round or serrate edges. The diameter of the flower can be up to 5 centimeters. The color of the petals is striking variety. There are instances of flowers of pink, white, orange, red, purple. Coloring can be both monophonic, and with small specks.
Varieties of Ahimenes
At home, bred about 50 different types of plants. Most of them are hybrid. The following plant varieties are most popular with gardeners:
- Achimenez white. Perennial with long upright shoots up to 0.5 m. The color of the stems may be green or reddish. The flowering period begins in the first summer months. The flowers are small, up to 2 cm in diameter, are milky-white on the outside and reddish on the inside. The pharynx of the flower is yellow with a greenish tinge.
- Ahimenez Ehrenberg. Stems are long, grow vertically upwards, the length of the shoots is 40−45 cm. The shoots are heavily pubescent and abundantly covered with leaves. The flowers are medium in size, painted in a rich purple color on the outside and pinkish on the inside. The pharynx is covered with bright yellow spots.
- Ahimenez prostrate. A low plant with shoots up to 30 cm long. Stems are colored brown, less often - green. Flowers bluish color.
- Ahimenez upright. This variety is most often found in the collections of indoor plants. The flower is medium in size with erect red shoots. The flowers are small, bright red color. The flowering period lasts all summer.
- Achimenez mexican. This type of ampelous form is used for vertical gardening. The shoots are long, hanging down, 50–60 cm long. The flowers are large, simple, bright pink in color.
- Achimenez variegated. Variety with long shoots of red and quite large flowers. Petals have a rich red color. Zev yellow with small splashes. Flowering lasts from early summer to mid-autumn.
- Ahimenez long-flowered. This variety has the largest flowers, reaching a diameter of 6 cm. The petals are blue or blue. Zev yellow or white.
Ahimeneza in nature and culture
In nature, exotic plants grow in the tropical forests of South and Central America. He belongs to the Hesnerian family and is a close relative of the popular Saintpaulias, streptocarpus and violets among gardeners. As a cultivated plant, Ahimenez began to grow in the XVIII century. Today they adorn many gardens, greenhouses and home flower beds.
The beauty of the bloom of wild "brethren" Ahimenez can be observed all year round. At home, with proper care, the period of riot of colors lasts only up to six months, giving way to a state of rest.
These beautifully flowering perennials have many varieties, differing in the form of foliage, flower size and color. But they all share one thing - long creeping stems, which effectively hang down from the walls of the container, forming an openwork vertical carpet. Ahimenes is famous for its abundant and lush flowering, which is replete with a wide palette of color shades.
Ahimenes are heat-loving plants. This is indicated by the name of the culture, which, when literally translated, means “Achimenes” = “a” (no) + “chimenes” (cold).
Today in the culture there are several varieties of achimenes, on the basis of which dozens of varieties are derived. The following are the most popular among them:
- Long-flowered - plants up to 30 cm high. Ampel stems are decorated with slightly elongated pubescent leaves of light green color. Large flowers are arranged singly in the leaf axils.
- Large-flowered - bushes up to 60 cm high. Erect stems adorn large elongated leaves. The flowers are a purple-red shade arranged in pairs in the axils of the leaves.
- Hybrid - forms created by crossing several types. Shaggy or erect stems adorn pointy, pubescent leaves with jagged edges. They are famous for originality of colors of flowers, pleasing with abundant flowering.
Plants can have both normal and terry flower shape. The color palette of shades is wide. It covers all shades, starting from light, such as white, yellow, pink, coral, lilac, blue and ending with dark purple and navy blue.
Brief description of the most popular varieties of achimenes:
- Blue Star - bushes with erect stems, decorated with large flowers with rims of purple-blue hue. Petals have an interesting coloring in the form of applied strokes.
- Peach Cascade - bushes with erect slightly drooping shoots are decorated with spectacular peach-orange flowers with a yellow spot in the center point.
- Serge Saliba - bushes with erect stems, decorated with "asterisks" two-tone color with a yellow heart and pinkish edges.
- Glory - compact ampelous plants, pleasing with abundant flowering of spectacular flowers with a yellow core and scarlet petals.
- Double Pink Rose - lush blooming bushes with pale pink semi-double flowers, in shape distantly resembling half-open rosebuds.
- Purple King - bushes with erect stems, decorated with large lilac flowers with yellow kratovym neck. The long-flowered variety pleases the eye from early spring to late autumn.
- Sauline - plants with erect stems, topped with small flowers with jagged edges of the original lemon-purple color. Depending on the growing conditions, the color tone can change from yellow to pink.
- Lavender Fancy - ampelous plants with burgundy stems and foliage of light green color, decorated with simple flowers of striped creamy brown color.
- Peach Blossom - ampelous forms. They have spectacular foliage, the upper part of which has a dark green shade, and the lower part - burgundy. The flowers of the plant also include two shades: the center is decorated with a purple "eye", the edges - pale pink.
Ahimeneza - heat-loving plants. They feel most comfortable on the windows facing the south side. During flowering, exotic plants are vulnerable to direct sunlight. With abundant light, their buds become brown in color, the colors become less bright and saturated. During this period, it is better to rearrange them to a place with diffused light.
At the same time, shaded areas should be avoided. The fact that the exotic does not have enough sunlight will indicate stretching naked stems and shredded foliage.
An important point! Determine how sun-loving the plant can be visually: bushes with dark foliage need more light than with delicate greens.
One of the key conditions for successful cultivation of achimenes at home is compliance with the temperature regime. During the period of active growth and flowering, the optimum temperature for exotus is 22-24 ° C. In hot months, when the ambient temperature drops to + 20 ° С at night, the bush can be safely left on the open balcony or veranda.
During the rest period, the temperature threshold can be lowered to the level of + 18 ° С. Preparing the plant for wintering, lowering the temperature should be carried out gradually. This will enable the roots of the plant to gather the necessary substances before hibernation, thereby minimizing stress.
Humidity and watering
Thermophilic exot needs regular watering. For this purpose, use water at room temperature, pre-settled during the day. The tender plant instantly reacts to cold water by manifestation of brown spots on the leaves.
Watering is done only during the period of “wakefulness” of the bush, accompanied by active growth and flowering. The plant is watered as the earthen coma dries. During the rest period, the flower is not watered at all.
An important point! Поливать необходимо строго под корень куста, минимизируя риск попадания влаги на листья и цветки.
Ахименес по своей природе является тропическим растением. Наиболее комфортно он себя чувствует при влажности воздуха в пределах 60%. For moistening it is convenient to use pallets with wet pebbles placed in close proximity.
During the period of increasing the green mass and abundant flowering ahimenez needs regular feeding. For this purpose, use complex fertilizers designed for beautiful flowering plants. Fertilizers are applied every two weeks. The first time is fed a month after waking up and transplanting a bush.
The main thing - do not overdo it. The bush may react to excess fertilizer by dropping leaves.
How to perform transplanting and pruning a bush
Ahimenez transplanted after each winter at the stage of completion of the rest period. Some gardeners successfully transplant in early summer. Bushes are grown in containers with wide low sides.
The procedure is performed in the following sequence:
- For 30-60 minutes before performing the transplant of achimenes, the container with the plant is watered abundantly.
- Rhizomes are removed from the pot and gently cleaned from the soil.
- Tubers are carefully inspected for damaged and rotted areas. If they are found, they are removed and treated with cuts of wood ash.
- The container is filled to 1/3 with drainage, the role of which is sand mixed with vermiculite. Drainage sprinkled with a layer of soil mixture, on top of which form a thin layer of sand, and then again line the ground.
- Viable rhizomes of achimenes - dark brown roots are planted in a container with a new soil mixture, laying the roots at the level of the sandy layer.
An important point! The treatment and soaking of the material in fungicidal formulations will help to get rid of mold on the roots.
Some novice growers with the aim to get a more variegated composition are planted in one container of several varieties. It is undesirable to do this. Different varieties may differ in speed of development. As a result: more powerful bushes will “oppress” the weak.
Ahimenez does not need pruning. The only exceptions are the moments when young shoots increase the green mass. In this case, in order to stimulate branching, they are pinned at the stage of the second and third leaflets. The only “minus” of such pinching is postponing the flowering dates 2-3 weeks later.
Methods of breeding achimenes
To obtain new plants when growing achimenes at home, 3 methods of reproduction are used: seeds, cuttings and rhizomes. Each of them has its own characteristics.
For planting using well-matured seed. It is harvested from green box-houses that have formed on the site of the flower and have ripened for 2 months. Seeds are sown in the period from the second half of February to the beginning of March, distributing to the soil mixture prepared on the basis of equal portions of leaf soil and sand.
Top planting material is not sprinkled.
The seeds distributed over the surface are irrigated from a spray bottle and covered with glass or film. This will create an optimal greenhouse effect for germination. The main thing is to maintain the humidity regime and regularly air the landing.
The first shoots will appear in 2-3 weeks. At the stage of forming 2-3 leaves, seedlings are thinned out in order to provide sufficient space for the development of the roots of young plants. Strengthened bushes at the age of 2 months are seated in containers.
Cuttings cut with young shoots. For rooting using wet sand, in equal proportions mixed with leaf earth. The cutting is submerged into the soil mixture by almost half. To create a greenhouse effect, a “dome” of plastic bottles is formed over the handle.
The rooting process lasts 2-3 weeks. During this period, it is important to regularly air and moisten the planting material. After a couple of weeks from the moment of rooting, the plant can be transplanted into a full-fledged container for permanent “residence”.
Growing from Rhizome
The easiest way of breeding achimenes involves separation of 1-2 viable rhizomes during transplantation from rhizomes. They are small bumps 5-40 mm long.
Ahimenez rhizomes are planted in light peat soil mixed with baking powder. Parts of the rhizome are laid horizontally, covered with a layer of earth with a thickness of 15-20 mm. The container with planted rhizomes is moistened and placed in a bright, well heated place.
Procedures in the dormant period of the plant
The rest period at the exotic comes from the middle of October and lasts until the beginning of spring. In this time interval it is necessary to limit watering. Filled with life-giving moisture, the roots of the plant are prepared for "hibernation." The aboveground part of the bush dries out half.
The task of the host is to cut the dried out stems, and place the container with its roots in a cooler and protected place from the sun's rays.
In early spring, noticing the first manifestations of "wakefulness" of the plant, you need to put the pot in the lit place. Extension of daylight will contribute to a faster and more complete development of a green pet.
Ahimenez is a thermophilic perennial culture, its stems hang down. The height of an adult plant varies depending on the type and variety - from 30 to 60 cm. The foliage can be oval or oblong, with a serrate edge.
The color of the plant can be completely different:
- intense red
- pale pink flecked with stripes on the flowers.
The size of the buds is different - 2-5 cm, there is a 5-blade cup and a long tubular corolla.
Flowers appear during the growing season, singly or in groups, and the eyes are not very pleased, but due to the constant change of buds, the flowering period can last a very long time. Its duration depends on how comfortable the conditions created for the plant will be.
Features of care and cultivation
When keeping a flower at home, he needs special care. Its location requires a place where there is always a lot of light. By the way, flowers with dark foliage need brighter illumination compared to variegated and light green varieties.
In the summer season, the pot should be darkened to cover the plant from direct sunlight. If the light is missed, the appearance of Ahmenes will immediately let you know. Stems become elongated, laid bare, inflorescences are compressed, change color.
To ensure good flowering and rapid growth, you need to follow all the recommendations for home care and cultivation. In summer, the air temperature in the room plays a big role. This indicator is one of the most important for good plant growth. During the period of active growth, it should be 22-24 degrees, without which the plant will simply die.
It is necessary to water the flower in time, using soft water at room temperature. Watering should be abundant. It should also maintain the desired level of humidity, it should be about 60%.
To do this, the flower can be sprayed, but this should be done carefully so that the leaves and buds do not get wet. This is fraught with dark spots. It is better to put the pot on a tray with pebbles, moss or fine expanded clay.
During the period of active growth should be done feeding, using the composition for deciduous crops, it is done in early spring every two weeks. Due to this, the first sheets appear.
In the summer season, fertilizer is applied two months after the flower is transplanted into the ground. When foliage becomes abundant, fertilizing is changed to fertilizer for flowering plants. This tool is added once a month.
In winter, flowering stops, the plant enters a dormant period. Roots take away moisture and minerals, leaves do not grow, dry, die. Watering is reduced to a minimum. When the soil is completely dry in its upper part, the plant is cut, and the tubers are left in a pot or transferred to sand.
For the period of winter, the flower is rearranged to a dark place, while the temperature in the room should be 14-16 degrees. The dried clod of earth moistened a little, adding water at the edges of the pot. This is done once a month, so as not to withdraw the culture from the rest period. If this happens, it can die, because the plant will lack solar heat and light.
After the cold, the pot is moved to a room where the air temperature is more than 16 degrees. After that, in early spring, the flower is transplanted. To do this, take out the pot roots, gently release from the tubers, leaving only healthy and young.
It should be studied and rhizomes for mold. If it is found, the roots are soaked in the fungicide, then planted back. If the mold is too much, then the tubers are thrown away. It is necessary to remove the rhizomes of dark brown color, they are not viable.
For transplantation, you need to use a soil with a low level of acidity and good drainage. It is best to use a mixture of:
- leafy ground
- high-quality peat,
- sifted sand.
The components are combined in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. You can purchase ready feeding for cyclamen.
Drainage is poured at the bottom of the pot, it takes up a third of the tank, then soil and sand. Tubers are put into it, sprinkled with the remaining soil, the flower is watered. After that, it starts to grow, it needs more moisture, and you need to make sure that there is not much of it in the pallet.
Diseases and parasites dangerous for Ahimenez
With the wrong care for the flower problems begin:
- if the soil is too much watering, rot appears, which actively affects the plant. Treatment requires getting rid of damaged areas, replacing the soil, and processing fungicides.
- If very cold water is used for irrigation, brown spots appear on the foliage.
- When the room is too hot and the air is dry, the buds become white.
- Thrips, aphids and spider mites may be found. Spraying with insecticides will help to get rid of them.
- If you overdo it with top dressing, the foliage, even during a period of active growth, will begin to dry and fall. To wash the fertilizer, you need to frequently and gently water the flower. The reason for this phenomenon may be overheating of the soil.
If you follow all the rules of growing plants and recommendations for the care of him, he will appreciate the magnificent appearance and abundance of buds throughout the warm period of the year.
The name was obtained after the merger of two words of the Greek language - a - not, but cheimaino - to endure the cold. For the first time, this plant was characterized by a physician and naturalist Patrick Brown in the middle of the 19th century, at the time when there was an active study of Jamaica and its ecology.
Flower Achiménez is a thermophilic and perennial culture that possesses drooping stems from the Gesneriyev family, whose direct relatives are indoor plants such as gloxinia, streptocactus and Uzumbar violet. Depending on the variety, the plant can grow to different heights. Any variety of flower may have a different growth parameter. In achimenes small-color stems can not be longer than 30 centimeters. Ahimenez grandiflora, quite the opposite, can reach a height of 60 centimeters.
The leaves of this perennial pubescent with serrate edges, have an oval shape or a special oblong. They are located either oppositely or whorled. Flowers not only have different color combinations, but also the size itself - from 2 to 5 centimeters with a five paddle cupand also a long tube whisk.
If the florist can provide all the growing conditions for this crop, then ahimnes will bloom abundantly during the whole vegetation process. Beautiful buds of culture arise and develop from the sinuses one by one or in certain groups. Any of them continues to delight with its beauty for a very short time, but new types and forms bloom again and again to replace the fading flowers.
The root system of the plant is represented superficially in the form of oblong and scaly tubers, which look more like alder cones.
Ahimenez: home care
Ahimenez requires special care at home. This plant prefers places with a high light intensity, but in the summer season it should be constantly protected from direct sunlight. The lack of lighting affects the decorative appearance of the plant, as well as its appearance. Its stems begin to quickly stretch and become bare, the inflorescences at an accelerated rate decrease and change their color, despite the gentle care from the owner.
For the best flowering process of the plant, growth and rapid development, it should create favorable conditions for growth throughout the year, as well as ensure proper care at home. In the summer, it is worth constantly maintaining the humidity of the air with a total temperature of at least 20 degrees Celsius, otherwise the flower will simply die.
Spraying the flower should be very careful avoiding water droplets on the leaves and buds. If water gets on this area of the plant, then dark spots will appear on it, which will make the plant less attractive and decorative. The best option to increase the humidity is to place the pot on a tray with fine expanded clay, moss or pebbles - such care will be the best for this plant. During the flowering culture should be used abundant watering plants with soft water at room temperature.
Ahimnes wintering process
Closer to the onset of autumn, the flowering of the plant begins to end, and the culture begins active preparation for wintering and rest. The roots begin to take away all the moisture and minerals, the leaves cease to grow, begin to dry out with time completely die off. At this time, watering should be gradually reduced, and then completely stopped. When the ground part of the soil is dry, the plant should be cut and change his care. Tubers should be left in a pot or transferred to sand.
The process of storing the plant is carried out in a darkened place throughout the entire winter period at a temperature of 14 to 16 degrees Celsius. As the earth lump begins to dry out actively, it should be moistened a little while watering the plant at the edges of the pot. This procedure should be carried out no more than once per month. Otherwise, frequent watering can take the culture out of rest - it will become weak without the right amount of sunlight in the winter. But if this did happen, then the Ahimeneza must be placed under fluorescent lamps, and care should be taken in summer.
In late February, pots of plants should be moved to a room with a total temperature above + 16 degrees Celsius. If the root system was all this time in the sand, then it should be landed in a container with the substrate and placed in a warm room.
In spring, the process of flower growth resumes again, and the plant begins to need more abundant watering, but in such a way that the water does not remain in the pan for too long. Potted soil should be slightly damp, but not over dried. Watering is best carried out in the pallet itself, so as not to fall on the flowers and leaves of culture with water droplets.
Additional recommendations from experts:
- Top dressing should be carried out during active growth - at the beginning of the spring period once every 14 days. The first feeding help the plant to grow the first leaves.
- Top dressing in the summer should be done exactly two months after planting in the soil soil.
- After the development of leaf mass on the plant, you need to stop applying top dressings for deciduous crops and switch to top dressing for flowering plants, they should be applied once a month.
Breeding and landing process
The plant at home can be propagated using three methods.
- Seed propagation.
Seed can be obtained at home. After flowering, the culture produces green fruits, in which the process of seed ripening takes place. Seeds continue to ripen within two months after flowering. Green fruits are harvested from the plant after they have become soft.
Sowing of seeds should be done in early spring in February or March in a loose loose soil or coarse sand. Seeds should not be sprinkled over the ground, but should be covered with glass or plastic wrap. Then they are put in a warm place, where the total temperature is not less than 23 degrees Celsius.
The pot should be ventilated and moistened with water. If the owner will competently carry out the temperature regime, then the first shoots will begin to develop within two weeks.
Seedlings should dive two, and sometimes, three times, while all the while increasing the area. After, already grown seeds should be planted in pots for permanent cultivation. They continue to actively pursue them, but as if for an adult plant.
- Reproduction by grafting.
Cuttings are much less commonly used in the reproduction of achimnes. For the breeding process, lower shoots and medium ones with a length of five centimeters, which should be rooted in loose and moist substrate or sand, are well suited. For good rooting should provide a process of heating the soil, and then process the root stimulator. При правильном выращивании черенки смогут укорениться уже по прошествии двух недель, а немного после начнут преобразовываться в клумбы. После того, как черенок сможет полностью укорениться, его нужно пересадить на другой участок с почвенной смесью, составленной специально для взрослого растения.
- Размножение при помощи клубней (корневищами растения).
Клубнями этот цветок нужно размножать в весенний сезон в процессе его пересадки. Его следует разделить на несколько частей так, чтобы на каждой части находился хотя бы один глазок. Slices need to be dried, and then sprinkled with ashes. After them it is worth transplanting into pre-prepared containers with a soil mixture, which must necessarily include a drainage layer at the bottom. For transplant pots should not be too wide. For the development of a lush shrub in one pot along its perimeter it is worth planting several tubers.
After planting, the tank should be transferred to a warm and well-lit place. The soil mixture for ahimnes should be prepared from the mixture: 3 parts of peat land, 1 part of sand, and also coconut substrate. It is necessary to add a little superphosphate or powder from eggshell. Drainage layer should be sprinkled with additional humus or bone meal. The process of reproduction by tubers is the most common method of reproduction of this plant.
Major diseases and parasites attacking the plant
During a strong overmoistening of the soil, a plant can become infected with rot, which will start to actively damage it. To cure the plant in this case, you need to eliminate all the affected areas, change the soil and process it with fungicides. The brown spots on the sheets indicate that in the process of watering too cold water was taken, and the buds of white hue - on dry and excessively hot air,
The most popular varieties of achimenes.
- Blue star - large flowers with an unusual halo of blue-violet hue. Petals of a gear form, and also wavy with a brown and stroke spot in the field of a pharynx. The plant has a upright shape, rhizomes have a white color.
- Peach cascade - The plant corresponds to its name due to peach flowers. This variety was bred relatively recently - in 2009. The saturation of the coloring of the plant does not depend on the level of light around the plant, it also does not fade in the sun. And although the large shoots of the flower may be declining, it is impossible to name the ampel variety
- Amie Saliba (Serge Saliba) - This is a compact flower with simple yellow flowers in the middle and orange or pink at the edges.
- Ampiel ahmenes have a large number of varieties, are described by a drooping stem, densely strewn with flowers during flowering, so the plant has an attractive appearance.
- Glory - a small bush with leaves of unsaturated green color and flowers with a very unusual coloring - scarlet flowers have a yellow spot in the very center with brown strokes. Differs from other plants in its strong flowering.
- Double pink rose - differs from other varieties of achimenes by long flowering, during which the plant is completely covered with flowers. The leaves are rather narrow, the flowers have dense double pink hues.
Landing position, temperature and light figure
Young plants that cannot yet bloom should be placed on the southern window in the house, while covering them from direct sunlight using a tulle curtain. In general, ahimenes prefers bright lighting, but at the same time it is necessary to correctly observe the light regime, depending on the stage of development of the plant. While it starts to bloom, it should be moved from a place with bright lighting to some shelf, or placed on a window sill, which will go to the west or east side. If Ahimenez is too little light, he will let the grower know about it, stretching out his bare stems.
Achiménez with dark leaves more like bright lighting than variegated and light green plants.
Temperature is one of the most important indicators for the proper cultivation of this plant. In the months of particular activity of the flower - from spring to autumn - it should provide a temperature of 22 to 24 degrees Celsius. And in winter, for the flower will be the best temperature of 15-18 degrees. With the onset of autumn, that is, at the end of the flowering process, the temperature should be reduced over time, so that the roots can gain strength for the wintering process.
First of all, talking about achimenes, planting and caring for him, you should start with the soil for the plant. The soil should be loose and easily permeable. There are many different options for the composition of the substrate for achimenes. All of these options are adjusted by applying feed. Ahimenes can also be bred even on landless soil, which is based on:
- Various baking powder.
- High-quality fertilizers.
Plants will feel great on a substrate of coconut fiber, peat, vermiculite and humus.
Lighting and location
Best of all, this indoor flower will grow in a bright place and with good lighting. To achimenez bloomed during the growing season, it is recommended to place the pot with a plant on a well-lit window sill. An ideal location would be an east or southeast window..
If the plant is contained on the southern window-sill, then additional shading should be organized, as the sun's direct rays can damage the flower leaves. When achimenes begins to bloom, it should be rearranged on the sunny side. In summer, the plant is taken out on the veranda or loggia. However, we must take into account the fact that Ahimenez will have to be protected from bright sunlight, wind and drafts on the balcony or loggia. This can be done using hanging pots.
Care during flowering
The most important when cultivating achimenes at home is fertilizing the soil and watering the plants. Observe the following tips. regarding the proper care of the plant during its flowering:
- During the period of active growth, the flower needs regular and moderate watering. Some soils are too dry, and this can lead to inhibition of plant growth. If a drought occurs during the budding period, this will lead to wilting of the inflorescences.
- At rest, watering Ahimenes should be poorer. The flower is watered only after complete drying of the soil, and watering is carried out on the edge of the pot. This should be done once a month.
- The plant does not like spraying, as the flowers and leaves can lose their entire decorative appearance. Spraying is applied only through a small nozzle, but not a drop method.
- Indoor flower needs very frequent fertilizer, especially in the period after planting. Plants are fertilized once a week with complex fertilizers, which are used specifically for indoor plants. During the flowering period, fertilizers are applied containing a large amount of nitrogen in the composition. In the period of budding applied dressing with potassium and phosphorus. It is worth noting that currently in specialized stores you can purchase complex fertilizer in the sticks. These sticks are buried in a pot with a plant and with each watering the necessary nutrients and substances are released from them.
- An important role in the care of achimenes plays pinching. This procedure is carried out in the early stages of plant development. Pinching should be done already from the formation of 3 pairs of leaves, as well as the appearance of new leaves on young shoots. Pinching is carried out before the formation of the first buds.
Required air humidity
Ahimeneza are tropical plants. That is why the optimal air humidity for a flower is 60%. As mentioned earlier, these plants do not require spraying, it is enough just to place a pot with a flower in a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay.
You can also put next to a houseplant a small container filled with water. Spraying achimenes can cause spots on its leaves.
Care in the dormant
Rest period in home grown Ahimeneslasts more than 4 months. As a rule, at this time, the entire aboveground part of the plant dies off. With the advent of September, the flower stops in its growth, does not form new buds, and the leaves begin to grow brown and die.
All these signs indicate that the florist should stop watering the flower. This is done gradually. It is also worth paying attention to the fact that the green part is not cut off prematurely, as the rhizomes do not have time to pick up all the useful elements and substances from the leaves. The branch must be completely dry, only then it is cut off.
The pot in the dormant period is placed in a dark and cool place, and at the same time the tubers are not removed from the substrate. If the flower achimenez bears the first wintering, then it is recommended not to water it at all at this time. In the rest period, Ahimenez is watered gently. If the flower is poured, it will provoke the early awakening of plants, which will lead to the development of weakened shoots due to lack of light.
If the flower has already left the state of rest, then it must provide good lighting in the room. This can be done with daylight. If ahiménez cannot awaken for a long time, then it must be watered once with separated water with a temperature of about 50 degrees.
Flower Transplant Rules
Household ahimenes should be transplanted both in the early phases of their development, and adult plants. The transplant procedure is considered important because it affects the health of the flower. If you have a young flower, it must be replanted in April or March. Those rhizomes that were planted before March require additional lighting. As a result, you can get weak shoots that are not the best way. affect the further flowering of achimenes.
Rhizomes, planted in May or later, will help to increase the growing season. In addition, they can later go to sleep, for example, in October or in November. Because of this, the flower will awaken later, and it will take you several years to restore the familiar beauty and health to the Ahimenez.
It is necessary to plant only already sprouting rhizomes, because without sprouts a flower can rot with abundant watering. Rhizomes are laid out horizontally and covered with a layer of soil with a thickness of 0.5 to 3 cm. The thickness of the layer of soil will depend on the size of the robe.
If the pots dry up too quickly, literally in one or two days, this means that the plant needs to increase the amount of the substrate. For this, the flower is watered 1 day before the transplant procedure, after which the pot turns over and the achimenez is pulled out together with the earthy clod. After that, the indoor flower is placed together with the drainage layer in a new pot, where a little new soil is poured on the sides. The pot is shaken a bit so that the ground is rammed. After transplanting the plant is watered. It is recommended to carry out this procedure no later than mid-August.
Methods of breeding achimenes
You can propagate achimenes in three ways:
- Rhizome division.
To propagate the flower with seeds, they can be obtained at home. Green fruits are formed on the houseplant, which remain the same until the seeds are fully ripe. After a flowering period, these seeds will ripen for almost 3 months. The fruits should be soft. After that, they are collected and sown in March or February. Soil for sowing seeds should be nutritious and loose, you can use leaf soil or sand. It is also allowed to plant seeds in wet coarse sand.
It is important to note that the seeds on the top do not wake up the soil.
After that, the tank with crops is watered and covered with glass. Pots are harvested for ripening in a dark place where the air temperature is from 22 to 24 degrees. Periodically seeds need to be aired and watered from the pallet. The first shoots, as a rule, appear 3 weeks after sowing. After this, the seedlings must be dive 2-3 times. During these procedures, the pots change, increasing in volume. Then the plants are planted already in a permanent place, and care for them is carried out as for adults.
The method of propagation by cutting is rarely used among achimenes. To do this, choose the middle or lower part of the shoots of the flower and rooted in the sand or in the substrate, consisting of equal parts of sand and leafy ground. Then the seedlings are moistened and covered with a glass jar. It is not necessary to moisten the soil too much, since with abundant watering the cuttings can rot.
To speed up the process of rooting cuttings, you can use the lower heating and processing stimulants such as Heteroauxin or Kornevin. After 2 weeks, the cuttings take root, and after a few days more tubers form. After cuttings can be transplanted into the mix for adult flowers.
The division of rhizomes for reproduction is used from late February to April. In order to grow several flowers in one pot at once, the shoots are allowed not to be divided or planted in several pieces, sprinkling with loose soil. When the first sprouts appear, the achimenes must be transferred to a bright room. But there it is necessary to pritenyat first time.
Weak shoots strengthened with special dressings. In such conditions, they grow vertically. After one and a half months it is necessary to produce regular feeding. It will be enough twice a month. It is recommended to use fertilizer for indoor plants, but from August it is necessary to use fertilizer, which contains a large amount of potassium.
If the seedlings provide good growing conditions, they grow, and the flowers will appear in 4 months. If propagation is used for cutting, flowering begins after 3 months. After planting the seeds, the plants bloom only in the second year.
Prevention and possible diseases
Ahimenez rarely get sick. But diseases can be avoided by regularly inspecting flowers, as well as observing the rules of growing and caring for achimenes.
How to clean them in the winter? If the leaves began to dry, the plants begin to prepare for a period of rest. Dry twigs are carefully cut off, only rhizomes remain in the container. They can also be placed in a plastic bag, dug out of the soil. The bag is filled with chips or sand. So the air will circulate normally inside the package.
Rhizomes are harvested in a dark place where low temperature conditions and ventilation are observed.
The plant can be affected by gray rot due to high humidity, excess moisture, or sudden changes in temperature. It is possible to cure a flower if the affected leaves and stems are removed, and in the pot to change the primer and process it with a fungicide.
If brown spots appeared on the leaves, this indicates watering with too cold water.
To grow ahimenez at home does not require much effort. That is why you can safely buy this plant and plant it at home.
Ahimenez: popular varieties
Achimenes is the Latin name for the genus of flowering plants of the Gesneriaceae family. Natural species originate from Mexico and other regions of Latin America. All achimenes are small herbaceous perennials. Species introduced to Europe are characterized by beautiful flowering and transition to dormancy in winter.
- Achiminas have elongated brittle scaly rhizomes (rhizomes).
- The height of the aerial parts of plants - from 20 to 70 cm.
- Stems numerous, thin, erect, weakly branching, drooping with age.
- Small dark green leaves have cloves along the edge, arranged oppositely. The plates are rough, shortly pubescent on both sides.
The flower is quite large, it blooms for only a few days. Calyx 5-lobed, usually narrow and short. Flower tube up to 5 cm long grows obliquely from the leaf bosom. The graceful cone smoothly or sharply passes into a limb. The outer edge of the petals in some hybrids has a "fringe."
A variety of new varieties of terry Ahimenes:
- Abendrot. The flowers are yellow with a peach shade rather large size.
- Abyss. The flowers are in shades of dark blue with a light reverse.
- Adelaide. Hybrid variety with white flowers with a diameter of up to 6 cm, with yellow and blue splashes on the petals.
- Alaska Dream. Corollas are white with a greenish or lavender shade.
- Anastasia. Large delicate pink flowers with orange speckled center.
- Bianco Natale. It is considered the largest white flowered terry variety.
- Double Picotee Rose. White, dense flowers with a slight lilac shade. Related varieties: Double Blue Rose, Double Pink Rose.
- Christmas cookie. Large white flowers with a yellow center and pink strokes on the petals.
- Cytro. Pink terry flowers of large size.
- Icy Volga. The author of the variety considers him to be an ideal terry Ahmenes. The flowers are large white, with pink-purple strokes.
- Giselle. Corollas of an orange-pink color with a dark spot in the center.
- Shy Sun. Lavender-white semi-double flowers. Miniature variety.
- Yellow English Rose. Huge bright yellow flowers with a diameter up to 7 cm. Shades vary depending on the acidity of the substrate.
Some hybrid achimenes in a well-lit place with proper care bloom almost all year round except during the rest period (4 months).
Simple achimenes (non-curved):
- Aquamarine. Large light blue flowers with brownish strokes.
- Annie Belle. Corolla lavender color.
- Arletta pink. Petals of pink color, wavy along the edge. The pharynx is yellow with brown splashes. The related variety has blue flowers.
- Ambroise Verschaffelt. Ampelnaya plant with white flowers, decorated with blue-purple pattern and yellow "eye". Название дали в честь бельгийского селекционера Ambroise Verschaffelt.
- Amie Saliba. Компактный кустик с крупными желтыми цветками, с оранжевым и лиловым окаймлением.
- Apricot Glow. Темно-розовые цветки с абрикосовым оттенком.
- Nightfall. Темно-красные цветки.
- Clouded Yellow. Венчики неяркого желтого цвета с коричневыми вкраплениями в зеве.
- Fallen Angel. Крупные бело-розовые цветки с более темным ободком по краю лепестков. The spot in the throat is yellow with brown strokes.
Flower Ahmenes attracted the attention of indoor plants in the 70 years of the last century. Then prevailed species with purple, blue and purple halos. For several decades, hundreds of new varieties and hybrids, as well as terry forms, have appeared. The material for breeding are wild species: Achimenes erecta, A. longiflora, A. antirrhina, A. grandiflora.
Basic requirements for growing
A lush bush needs enough light and moisture. However, the lighting should be diffused, and watering should be moderate, without watering the substrate and stagnant water in the pan. It is recommended to humidify the air in hot dry days, especially during the formation of buds. With a moisture content of 50–70% and compliance with other requirements, the flowers reach the largest sizes possible, characteristic of the variety.
At the end of February, when young shoots appear in the form of pubescent light-green "filaments", achimenez is transplanted. If necessary, divide the rhizome. If the plant is not relocated to another pot, then change the old top layer of soil in the old one or sprinkle fresh earth.
In the warm season, the achimenezas are kept on a windowsill, protected from the midday sun, or placed in a partially shaded area in the open air (terrace, balcony). Night temperatures indoors and outdoors should not fall below 15 ° C.
Richly blooming achimenes feel best at 18–26 ° C.
In case of a cold snap to 12 ° C and below, the aboveground parts of the plant may die.
Features content depending on the season
In the spring and summer, the Ahimenes require light and heat (without direct scorching sun). You can arrange the pots on the window sills of the windows of the western and eastern direction. In this case, plants get soft sunlight in the morning or in the evening. Some varieties are content with a relatively small amount of lighting. Ampel forms are less demanding - they are suitable for partially shaded places. Cache-pot and baskets are hung by the window.
After flowering, in September or October, the shrunken above-ground part of the plant is cut short, and the rhizome is left in the ground. During the rest period, the Ahimenez do not need lighting and watering. The pots are kept at a temperature of 10 to 16 ° C in October – November. By the end of the dormant period, watering is resumed to stimulate growth.
It is important that the soil is moist and well permeable to water. At the bottom of the necessary drainage, preventing waterlogging. With adequate watering, many new Rizomes are formed, which in the next season produce abundant flowering shoots. Plants are sensitive to waterlogging. If part of the water goes into the pan, it is immediately drained.
Water the flowers with water heated to 25–30 ° C with low calcium content (soft).
- Ahimenez moderately watered at the beginning of the growing season, as soon as young shoots emerge from the ground. Between irrigation, give the upper layers of the substrate a little dry. Inside the pot, the soil should remain moist and permeable.
- During flowering, the achimenes require regular watering, and on hot sunny days it is plentiful.
- After the end of flowering in moisture, they need less. In September, watering is reduced, and after the death of the leaves and stems - stop.
Soil composition and pot selection
The best substrate mixture for achimenes is leaf earth, lowland peat and quartz sand (2: 1: 1). Add pieces of charcoal. Be sure to pour a layer of perlite or coarse sand on the bottom of the tank. High peat is not recommended due to its high acidity and low nutrient content. The most suitable pH value is in the range of 5–6,5 (slightly acidic or neutral).
If the composition of the soil is chosen correctly and there is good drainage, the soil retains its structure for several years. Subject to the remaining care requirements, it will be possible to avoid annual transplantation and increase plant resistance to disease.
Planting and transplanting
In the spring, in March, when achimenez starts to grow, it is transplanted into a wide pot or pots. First, a clod of earth is removed from the old tank by tapping on the bottom. Then the rhizome is freed from the soil.
How to plant Ahimenes:
- At the bottom of the pot poured a layer of drainage of sand or gravel.
- The pot is half filled with the prepared substrate.
- On the surface scatter 1 tbsp. l full fertilizer, top cover with a layer of soil.
- Rhizomes are distributed on the surface, powdered with a substrate height of 2-3 cm.
- The soil is slightly compacted and watered with warm water.
- They contain transplanted plants in a bright place at a temperature of 20–25 ° C.
Randomly broken off small pieces of rhizome are not thrown away - they also germinate. Regular watering begins after the appearance on the surface of young shoots.
The withering of achimenez and preparation for rest begins after the end of flowering. During this period, plants require minimal maintenance. When the shoots are dry, they cut off all the above-ground part. Ahimeneza can spend a period of rest in a cool room with or without windows, in the basement, on the floor in the bathroom, in the winter garden or in the garage if the temperature in the selected room does not fall below 3 ° C.
Rhizomes at rest almost do not consume water. Moisturize the soil in a pot 1 or 2 times a month so that the rhizome does not shrink.
By the end of the dormant period, it is possible to stimulate the growth of new shoots due to good lighting and moderate watering.
The division of rhizomes spend breeding achimenes from late February to mid-March. Sleeping rhizomes awaken, elevated shoots begin to grow from them. Ahimenez easily transfers division in this period.
All summer the plant propagated by green cuttings. Pieces of a stalk with shoots without flowers are rooted in water or in wet sand under plastic cups. After the roots appear, the plant is planted in a pot with soil.
Plant Diseases and Pests
Ahimenes can attack aphids, thrips and other pests.
- Colonies of thrips quickly cause the death of the plant.
- Spider mites live on the underside of the leaves, sucking juices from living tissue.
- Great damage caused by viral, fungal and bacterial infections.
It is necessary to conduct a regular inspection of the leaves and buds to identify infected plants.
In the case of a viral infection, the room flower should be isolated, and with further disease progression - burned.
A common disease of care - ring-shaped spots on the leaves - affects plants that are watered with too cold water or left unprotected in the bright sun. Buds and flowers do not appear with a too short period of rest and with a lack of light after it ends.
Why do buds turn brown, dry and fall leaves?
The reason for the early fall off of flower buds are changes in location, improper watering, a decrease in temperature, and a lack of nutrients. Especially sensitive to change are new varieties of achimenes.
Causes of drying and abscission of leaves, browning buds:
- too low air humidity
- complete drying of the soil in the pot,
- abrupt and frequent relocation
- attack of thrips or spider mites,
- high calcium content in soil and / or water for irrigation.
If an infectious disease or pest is suspected, it is necessary to treat it with pesticides. Insecticidal and acaricidal drug "Topaz" is used for aphids, ticks, thrips. Biofungicides help get rid of the fungus.
If problems with achimeneses are caused by care errors, then the situation is easily remedied. It is necessary to maintain the plant in accordance with the requirements for lighting, in time to water and feed it. The fall of the leaves of achimenes in the fall is normal. A period of rest begins, after which new shoots appear.