Rogoz is widely used - it is used in folk art, cooking, medicine and even in construction. In this article we will look at where the cattail grows (or bulrush), what kind of plant it is and what benefits it can bring.
Description and types
It can reach about 2 m in height. It has succulent, thick, cylindrical stems. The rhizome is wide and immersed in water to a depth of one meter. Due to its root system forms in the pond very wide thickets. The inflorescences or cobs can be as wide as 3 cm. They have a dark, brown color, which distinguishes cattails from ordinary reeds, which are found on any body of water and have brown cobs. Rogoza inflorescences retain their shape until spring, then they become soft and “fly away” for a long distance. The leaves of this plant are very stiff to the touch, resemble the straps externally, and their width is about 2 cm.
Laxman it does not exceed 1.3 m in height, has thin leaves about 0.5 cm wide, the cobs are oblong and grow below the leaves.
Small - The height is about 50 cm, rarely reaches 1 m. The ears are small, the leaves are less than 0.3 cm thick.
Graceful - It is very similar to the cattail Laxman, but most often, you can meet him on the ponds in the parks, as it is used for decorative purposes.
Where is growing?
Bulrush - It is a coastal plant that can be found in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, in the Baltic countries and Kazakhstan. It grows most often in reservoirs with stagnant water, as a rule, these are small lakes, but it can also be found in river bays. Sometimes it is possible to find broad-leaved cattail in park ponds, but the main thing is not to confuse it with ordinary reeds.
Reed based medicines have many properties, they help stop fever, bleeding, have anti-inflammatory effects and much more.
In traditional medicine for the preparation of drugs using all parts of the plant. And then we look at several ways of using cattail:
- For the treatment of burns and cuts using an ointment, which is prepared from 100 g of ghee and fluff one or two cobs.
June is the best period for harvesting leaves for long-term storage. Harvesting can be carried out throughout the summer, but at the beginning of summer the content of useful substances in the plant stems is highest. The collected leaves should be dried in a room with good ventilation on the windowsill or you can do this procedure outside in the shade, and you need to lay out the raw materials in a thin layer.
Harvesting the roots do in September. Rhizome need to dig, wash and cut into pieces. The material must be dried in a dryer maintaining the temperature around 45 ° C.
Inflorescences are best collected when they bloom, this period falls on August, September. Cut off cobs should be dried either on the windowsill or on the street in the shade.
What does a typha gooseberry look like: photo and description
Used parts of typha (Typha angustifolia L.): rhizomes, leaves, cobs, flowers.
Collection time: leaves - June-July, flowers - during flowering, rhizomes - in late autumn, ears - in autumn until frost.
Description of the plant Typha angustifolia: Tyneceae family (Typhaceae). Perennial herbaceous marsh plant up to 1.8 m high with a thick, creeping rhizome. Under favorable conditions, it can grow up to 4-4.5 m. Leaves are located at the bottom of the stem, double-rowed, 4-6 mm wide, rarely up to 10 mm, long, located at the base of the stem, flat, dark green, sometimes with a bluish tint . Flowers same-sex, staminate and pistillate, without perianth.
As can be seen in the photo, flowers of narrow-leaved rogoza are collected in characteristic cylindrical black-brown velvety buds-inflorescences:
Fruits are nuts. Seeds on stems can last up to 6 months. Blossoms in June and July. Fruits in July-September.
Special signs: cob inflorescence with male flowers is located above the ear with female flowers (rocking chair), at a distance of 0.5-10 cm on the same shoot. Rocking at the time of ripening fruit is long (up to 25 cm) and thin (up to 2.5 cm), has a dark brown or even black color. The female cob is lighter than the male.
See what the cob looks on these photos:
Spread: narrow-leaved cattail grows in warm and temperate regions of Eurasia and North America; it is found in North Africa and Australia. Russia lives in the European part and in the greater territory of Siberia. It grows in shallow water in abundance through the swamps and muddy banks of rivers, ponds and lakes, often forming solid thickets.
High characteristics of narrow-leaved cattail are explained by the presence of active substances. The various parts of the plant contain: quercetin (quercetin), kaempferol, gamma-aminobutyric acid — brine, lignin — leaf., Beta-sitosterol (beta-sitosterol), rutin — leaf.
Collection: the roots are dug in September-October, washed and dried in a dryer or oven at a temperature of 50-60 ° C. The leaves are harvested in mid-summer (from early July to mid-August) and dried under canopies. The flowers are dried in a dark room with good ventilation. Rocking chairs collected before frost, if necessary, dried in warm rooms. The shelf life of rhizomes is 1-1.5 years. The shelf life of flowers - 6-12 months. The shelf life of leaves and rocking chairs is 1 year.
The plant is listed in the Red Book of the Irkutsk region.
These photos show what a narrow-leaved rogoz looks like, which is described above:
Description of cattail of broadleaf and southern
Description of broad-leaved cattail (Typha latifolia L.): Tyneceae family (Typhaceae). Perennial plant with a height of 1-3 m with a short, thick, creeping rhizome.
Stem strong, erect, slender, unbranched. Leaves broadly linear, exceeding the inflorescence, 5-15 mm wide, gray-green, flat. The inflorescence is an ear, the upper staminate part of which closely adjoins the lower pistillate, occasionally they are separated by a gap of no more than 4 mm, the pistillate portion with black-brown fruits, thick-cylindrical, up to 2.5 cm thick and 30 cm long.
Pay attention to the photo - at the cattail of the broad-leaved male flowers have bracts, female without bracts:
Pistil with upper ovary, the base of which is framed with long setae. Fruit - nuts, on long legs, pubescent with long setae, ripen in large numbers, spread by wind. It blooms from June to July. Fruits in July-September.
Used parts of cattail broadleaf: rhizomes, leaves, cobs. The plant contains: kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) - leaf., Lignin, epicatechin - col.
Also widespread southern cattail (cattail constricted, cattail salgirsky (Typha australis Schymach. & Thonn)).
Where is southern kilogram growing: lower reaches of the Volga.
Rogoz southern has the narrowest leaves, a thinner stem and slightly drooping rocking. Some botanists believe it is the Dominican cattail (Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steyd.).
See how the southern cattail looks like in the photo:
The chemical composition of cattail of broadleaf and southern: Quercetin (quercithin) - leaf., beta-sieve-sterol (beta-sitosterol) - plz., plant., fruit., lignin - crss., rutin - leaf.
Growing up: Rogozy prefer moist, clay, nutritious soil. Reproduce with difficulty division of rhizomes (only by the end segments) in early spring, as well as well by seeds. Water depth for seedlings is at least 15 cm. When the soil dries out in dry years, abundant watering is necessary.
The use of cattail in medicine
Rogoz has a bactericidal, antiseptic, hemostatic and wound healing effect.
Water infusion of rhizomes and leaves is used for diarrhea and dysentery.
Crushed leaves as an external remedy have long been used in traditional medicine to heal fresh wounds and stop external bleeding, for burns, cuts, abrasions, dermatitis.
Pollen of flowers in oriental medicine is used to stop severe bleeding, as well as in bone tuberculosis, tissue necrosis, and in the chest.
Down cobs with melted butter is an excellent remedy for frostbite and burns.
A decoction of the leaves is useful for diabetes.
A decoction of rhizomes taken orally for gastritis, enteritis, simple and bloody diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, fever, and scurvy.
Crushed leaves of cattail applied to the wounds for their rapid healing.
A decoction of cobs is sometimes used for bronchial asthma.
The rhizome and leaves of broadleaf cattail are used for enterocolitis, dysentery, cystitis, urethritis, stomatitis, periodontal disease, bronchial asthma, and for internal and external bleeding.
Powder from the leaves and flowers of rogyz broadleaf powder wounds and boils.
They make a lotion from the infusion of rhizomes on hemorrhoidal cones and anus fissures, and also with this infusion they rinse the throat for sore throat and pharyngitis.
A decoction of the leaves and rhizomes used in diabetes.
Economic purpose: in the rhizomes of both types of cattail contain starch (up to 15%) and proteins (about 2%), so they are edible. From dry rhizomes make flour, when added to which wheat or rye flour, bake flat cakes.
Dry rhizomes of cattail serve as a coffee substitute.
Fresh rhizomes are eaten baked.
Young shoots are used for salads. They are boiled or pickled in vinegar.
Stems and leaves are used in the manufacture of shopping bags, coarse packaging fabrics, building materials, paper, cardboard, weaving baskets, mats, mats, rugs, as well as in southern countries and areas of our country to cover household structures. The leaves, collected in July and dried in the shade, will have a greenish color, and cut in late August - early September - yellow. Cut the stems at a distance of 10-15 cm from the surface of the water.
The fiber obtained from the leaves can serve as a heat-insulating material, as well as for stuffing life jackets and jackets, because it has high buoyancy.
Fluff rocking can be used for stuffing mattresses, pillows, as well as insulating material. It can also be used in pottery as an additive to clay, making the material lighter and non-shrinking.
Dry cattail can fuel in treeless areas.
In campaigns, the fluff of rogozers is used in the form of a tinder for flint, for stuffing pillows, blankets, mattresses, foot warming, the stems can be used to create huts and other temporary structures.
From the stalks with women's ears, they used to make canes.
The cattail broadleaf is a malicious weed of irrigation systems of rice fields in the Far East.
Folk recipes from rhizomes, leaves and stalks of cattail
Recipes for the use of cattail in traditional medicine:
- infusion for external use: 2 tablespoons of leaves in 1 cup boiling water, insist 2 hours, filter. Use for washes, compresses, rinses, lotions.
- decoction for external use: 20 g of rogoza roots for 1 cup of boiling water, boil on low heat for 10 minutes, filter. Use for washes, compresses, rinses, lotions.
- infusion for internal use: 1 tablespoon of leaves for 1 cup of boiling water, insist in a warm place for 2 hours, filter (daily dose). Take in 4 receptions 40 minutes before meals.
- decoction for diabetes: 1 teaspoon of crushed dried leaves for 1 cup of boiling water, boil for 1-2 minutes, allow to cool, filter. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day. When blood sugar is normal, continue maintenance treatment, taking the decoction 1 week per month, reducing the dose to 1/4 cup at the reception.
- decoction for internal use: 1 tablespoon of crushed roots for 1 cup of water, boil on low heat for 10 minutes, insist 1 hour, filter. Take 1 tablespoon 4-5 times a day.
- dried flowers with belyah, menstrual disorders, hemorrhage, inflammation of the bladder and urethra, as well as a diuretic and hemostatic agent: 4 g of dried flowers 3 times a day between meals, plenty of water.
- infusion diuretic and hemostatic: 3 tablespoons of leaves and stems per 1 liter of boiling water, insist 1 hour, filter. Take 1 glass 3-4 times a day instead of water.
Contraindications: it is undesirable to take a decoction of rhizomes with varicose veins.
- It is contraindicated in cattail for hepatosis.
- It should be abandoned for gout.
- Acid preparations can cause constipation. x Individual intolerance is possible.
Types of perennial
Brown plush plant heads are visible from afar. They attract attention with their singularity and beauty. The first description of cattail is found in the writings ancient Greek naturalist Dioskorida, who gave him the name "Turk".
It is called the stick insects, damned and boar grass. The latter name is due to the fact that coopers used its leaves in the manufacture of barrels.
Where the cattail grows, in what zone, not everyone knows. The best conditions for him in temperate and tropical climates. There are about thirty species of this plant. The most common:
Cattails in Russia
In our country, the most common narrow-leaved and broad-leaved cattail.
Favorable places for its growth are the shores of shallow water bodies with stagnant water, such as swamps, ditches, roadsides, puddles and lakeshores. It feels great in polluted water. He, like sedge and reed, perfectly purifies water, destroying hazardous substances.
The thickness of the root of broad-leaved cattail is 2–3 cm, and the length is 50–60 cm. Each year the rhizome gives new shoots. Thick stalk grows up to two meters. Inside the long, hard leaves are tubes through which air flows to the flooded parts. The leaves reach three meters in length, and their width is about 2 cm.
A distinctive feature of the plant of rogyzus is a cylindrical inflorescence (ear) of a dark brown color. It houses the female (pistillate) flowers. And on the pointed process, there are male (staminate) flowers.
Broad leaved cattails bloom in June and early July. Wind carries pollen from male flowers to female. Pollination occurs, after which the male flowers wither.
August is the time of fruit ripening. The surface of the cob, in which there are fruits (seeds), velvety and elastic to the touch. But if you open it, then inside you can see the white fluff.
Late autumn leaves and stalks dry out. And the fruits remain on the cob, as before. In early spring, scattering, spread by wind and water.
Caught in water, fruits float until completely wet. After that, they drown to germinate and give life to new plants. The root system forms very extensive thickets in the reservoir.
The narrow-leaved and broad-leaved cattails are very similar. The narrow-leaved difference lies in the small width of the leaf (1 cm) and in the small size of the plant itself. Its cobs are much thinner and resemble pencils. But what is interesting is that the rhizome of narrow-leaved cattail is massive and thick.
For decorative purposes, they grow small cattail. Elegant, fine-leaved, with small ears, it looks good in small artificial ponds. It can easily be grown independently in a special container or in a regular trough.
Use in food
The roots of the plant contain starch, protein, fat, sugar, fiber, minerals and vitamins. It can be a tasty and healthy food with vitamin deficiency, fatigue, low hemoglobin levels. Food prepared from it is indispensable during a long hike.
The leaves (at the base of the stem) of young cattail resemble a cucumber to taste. Of these, you can cook salads and soups. The roots, baked on coals or cooked, have similarities with potatoes. You can make flour from them and use it to make flat cakes.
From crushed roasted roots you can make a drink similar to coffee. Boiled young shoots taste like asparagus. They are also used in pickled form.
In folk medicine, the leaves, roots, cobs and flowers of this plant are used. The leaves should be harvested in June and July, and the roots in August and September. Ears should be collected before the onset of frost.
During a hike or fishing trip, the crushed leaves are indispensable as a hemostatic and healing agent for fresh wounds, from which no one is immune to the marching conditions.
The broth prepared from leaves normalizes the content of glucose in the blood.
Drugs made from it are excellent for many diseases:
- flowers and cobs are used for intestinal, gastric and hemorrhoidal bleeding, as well as for urethritis, cystitis and gynecological diseases,
- frost-bitten and burned areas of the body are smeared with melted butter mixed with cob fluff,
- in dysentery, an infusion of leaves is used as a binder,
- bleeding wounds powdered with powder made from inflorescences.
What is cattail?
Rogoz, rogoza are the names of the same plant. Today, scientists have 37 species of this perennial. The most common narrow-leaved, broadleaf, Caspian, Dominican, elephant, small, oriental cattail and others.
To understand the question of what is cattail, you must first learn to distinguish it from reed and cane. Make it completely easy. Длинный стебель растения заканчивается «плюшевым» початком черного или темно-коричневого цвета.It is precisely this that cattail attracts attention to itself, whereas the panicle on the reed or cane stem is of little interest to anyone.
Places of growth
He is an aquatic plant, so it is not difficult to guess where the cattail grows. Shallow reservoirs, coastal shallow water, marshy areas are considered as a favorite place for its habitat.
The plant feels good in polluted waters. It has been established that cattails, along with reed and sedge, are excellent natural cleaners. Thickets of these plants can neutralize toxic substances in water by 95%.
What does a cattail look like?
Strong thick stalk of cattail sometimes reaches two meters in height. At the end of the stem is a dense ear, the length of which is about 30 cm. The seeds ripen in it, after which the ear becomes loose and collapses even from a light touch.
The seeds from the cob fall on the water, but do not get wet for a long time due to the fluffs, which make them weightless, and the wind easily spreads the seeds over considerable distances. After a certain time, the seeds of cattail still fall to the bottom of the reservoir, where there are all the necessary conditions for their germination.
The structure of the leaf depends on the type of cattail - it can be wide or narrow. Its lower part is in the water, as the leaf grows from the rhizome. The leaves have an amazing ability not to lose their firmness and elasticity, even when they are completely dry.
A strong, horizontal rhizome is divided into two parts. One part of it stretches upward and provides the plant with nutrients derived from water. Another part of the rhizome (thicker) is directed to the bottom of the reservoir. With his help, the stems and leaves of the plant are kept.
Human use of cattail
What is cattail, all the extraordinary properties of this plant a person learned a long time ago and uses them to this day.
For example, today you can see household items woven from the leaves and stalks of cattail. Stems with ears can decorate the interior of the apartment. True, this will not last long, as in the room the ripening of seeds occurs quickly, and the cob "spreads", forming a lot of fluff. Travelers will be saved from weather by a rogoza leaf hut. Such a roof does not let water through, and the walls are able to store heat.
Rhizomes of plants are edible in baked form. If they are well overcooked, you can get the raw materials for making a drink similar to coffee.
The healing properties of the plant are difficult to overestimate - it has the ability to heal wounds, stop blood, have an antimicrobial effect.
For therapeutic purposes, use leaves that are best collected in June and July. Rhiza rhizome is also used in folk medicine. His workpiece engaged in August.
To learn more about the plant and understand what a cattail is, you need to take a tour to the nearest reservoir for this purpose. Perhaps you are lucky - and you will get to know each other better.
Inhabitant shallow waters
Broad-leaved cattail (lat. Typha latifolia) belongs to the family of cattails. The family is an ancient and very separate. Even close relatives are difficult to name. There is only one genus in the family, including two dozen species. In Russia, the most common cattail broadleaf and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia).
Broadfoot cattail - perennial. In the soil he has a rhizome 2–3 thick and about 60 centimeters long. Rhizome annually gives new shoots. Stem grows up to 2 meters long and long narrow leaves that are attached to the stem at the base. The width of the leaves is about 2 centimeters, and the length can reach three meters!
The most characteristic feature of cattail is its inflorescence. In cattail it is cylindrical, with a characteristic dark brown, almost black color. This inflorescence is usually called the cob. In it, very tightly pressed to each other, sit pistillate (female) flowers. Above them on the spine whitish stamen flowers (male) are collected in a separate inflorescence.
Broadtail rogoz blooms in June. The pollen from the male flowers is transferred by the wind to the female. Shortly after pollination, staminate flowers wither. In July and August the fruits of the broadleaf cattail ripen.
In the female flower, the perianth turned into a hairy tuft. It remains a tuft and the fruit. When the fruit is sitting on the cob, its surface will seem elastic and velvety to the touch. As soon as the cob is gutted, it becomes clear that the hairy bristles form a real down. Inside it is white, and only at the surface it is as if scorched by fire.
By winter, the stems and leaves dry up. And the fruits will still sit on the cob. Only in the second half of winter will they begin to crumble. At some distance, these "parachutes" will carry the wind. But the main fruit distributor is water. After all, broadleaf cattail grows near water or right in the water, literally “knee-deep”.
Fallen fruits will float until the bristles get wet. Then the nuts will drown. When, with the end of spring, high water subsides, the fruit will germinate, giving rise to new plants.
Along the shores of lakes, especially old ones, along roadside ditches and ditches, broad-leaved and narrow-leaved rogoz grow in the marshes. Puddles, lakes, any other bodies of water with stagnant or slow-moving water - a favorite habitat of Ryozov. These are semi-aquatic plants, inhabitants of shallow waters. Although they can grow in swampy soil near water.
Even considerable spring flooding of cattail broadleaf tolerates easily. Indeed, in its long leaves there are airways — peculiar tubes that lead air to the flooded parts of the plant.
Along with broadleaf, it is often found and narrow-leaved cattail. They are quite similar. But, as the name says, the leaves of narrow-leaved cattail are already only about 1 cm. And the whole plant is smaller. And the stem usually grows no more than a meter. And the leaves are shorter. And the cob is thinner. But even the typhus has a powerful thick rhizome.
These cattails are so close that where both species grow at the same time, interspecific hybridization can occur.
About names of cattail
Sometimes they write that the name comes from the word "horn" (for some similarities between the cob and the horn). It seems to me unconvincing. Moreover, even V.I.Dal in his famous dictionary gave such options as "Ragoz" , Ragoza . There is nothing in common with the horn.
Other plant names - "Chopstick" (for woody stalks - sticks), “Damn grass” and even "Hoods popovskie" (for black-brown color of inflorescences). Sometimes called "Boar grass" - Coarse caulked the bottoms of barrels with rogoza leaves.
The Latin name is well explained. "Tifa" comes from the Greek "Tifos" - smoke. The ears of cattail really resemble the little heads. "Latifolia" is translated as "broadleaf", "angustifolia" - "narrow-leaved."
They call the plant still cool, chakan. But this is clearly not a Slavic name. Most likely, Turkism.
What is the difference between cattail and reed?
It's all very simple. Bulrush is a genus of plants of the sedge family. And although there are many types of reed, the main features of the family are inherent to them all. First of all, the inflorescence of reeds is typical of sedge, and is completely unlike the inflorescence of cattail.
Here is a photo of reed forest. As you can see, its flowers (bisexual, not dioecious, like a cattail) are collected in spikelets. And the spikelets form a panicle.
How a cattail broadleaf is used by man
I have already mentioned above about the use of rogoza leaves in the cooperage business. But the leaves were used in other areas of human activity.
First of all, broadleaf cattail leaves contain strong long fibers. If the sheet is stretched and the soft fabric is separated, strong fibers can be made from the fibers.
They will turn out and coarse, but durable fabric. Such a fabric in Russian was called "mat". Looks like ragoz? Highly! But what comes first - the name of the fabric or plant - I do not presume to judge.
From the leaves you can weave gorgeous baskets, mats.
From lignified fruit tried to make paper. It turned out rough, wrapping. But it turned out the same!
Leaves of cattail in the southern regions of the roofs of houses. A nice alternative to straw! Moreover, the straw can feed the cattle, and the leaves of cattail he does not eat.
Down from the cobs together with the down of rabbits was used to produce felt. Now, however, felt hats seem to be out of fashion. But does fashion tend to come back?
In addition, the fluff perfectly absorbs the liquid. It can be considered almost sterile (the cobs are very dense). And the application suggests itself - it's a replacement for cotton! Especially if this wool is not yet available. For example, when providing first aid to a person who was injured “far from civilization”.
Typha broadleaf as an edible plant
Exactly! The cattail can be used as a food plant. Edible boiled young shoots. But the main edible part is the rhizome.
Rhizome contains from 30 to 45 percent of starch, other sugars, and also proteins. And why, at least in part, not replace them cultivated plants-starch-bearing potatoes and grains?
Rhizo rhizome baked. From it you can get flour, and from flour bake tortillas.
To obtain flour, the rhizome is sliced and dried in an oven, until the slices break easily. Now they need to grind - in a manual mill, in a coffee grinder or pestle in a mortar. Flour from the rhizome of broadleaf cattail ready.
Flour can be made jelly. If you add wheat or rye flour for stickiness, then you can bake good tortillas, cakes, etc.
Toasted and ground rhizome slices will give another coffee substitute.
Of course, as in the case of burdock, I do not urge to replace the familiar, familiar products with a wild plant. But, for example, in hiking, where every kilogram of cargo means a lot, you can use this gift of nature.
The plant can also help a person in an extreme situation. By the way, both cattail broadleaf and narrow-leaved cattail are suitable for food.
There is some information about the use of plants in traditional medicine. However, in sources trustworthy, I have not yet found anything like this. And I will not rewrite the "recipes" from the Internet, I'm sorry.
But the healing effect of cattail, of course, do not exclude. Perhaps sometime a more serious study of the plant will give more serious reasons for this.
Summer will come. Admire the cattail broadleaf. After all, he is also handsome, albeit somewhat peculiar beauty. No wonder that the inflorescences are sometimes used in dry bouquets.
There are, however, and superstition, not recommending to make the cob of corn in the house. And what do you want - yet "damn grass"!
In nature, cattails strengthen the shores of ponds from erosion. Wild boars and some other animals feed on rhizomes. In the thickets of cattail it is easy to shelter a waterfowl, especially during the period of hatching.
In any case, broad-leaved cattail and narrow-leaved cattail are interesting and useful plants.
Growing environment and species
Grass is common in southern North America and on the territory of the Eurasian continent. She prefers wetlands with high acidity and brightly lit salt licks. Can grow on open river banks, near small lakes, in shallow marshes, on damp roadsides and in wet ditches. A plant of cattail has a high resistance to changes in the level of the reservoir. Due to vegetative reproduction, this semi-aquatic grass forms quite dense thickets.
According to the English botanists, today in the world there are 30 primary species of this plant and seven hybrids. The names of many species come from the names of scientists who first described them, for example, Prisewals cattail or Laxman cattail. In Russia, two types are most common: broadleaf and narrow-leaved.
Rogoz with wide leaves
Broadleaf rogoz has a wide distribution in all climatic zones of Eurasia. Grows densely, forming wide thickets. The stem of a broad-leaved cattail is stretched up to 2 meters in height, and green leaves can reach three meters in length. It has narrow long leaves up to 20 mm wide, which are attached to the stem at the base. The root grows up to 60 cm in the soil. Every warm season he gives young shoots. Dark brown inflorescence is called the ear. It has an elongated, cylindrical shape. This species blooms in June or July, and the fruits ripen in August.
Interesting and amazing that a cattail is a plant that is often confused with reeds, although they belong to different families and are completely different in appearance. The reed belongs to the sedge family, and the cattail belongs to the rogaceous group of plants. Differences between cattail and reeds are significant, they are united only by the wide prevalence on well-moistened soils and household use by humans.
This type of plant is very widespread. It has narrower and shorter leaves. The stem does not grow above 100 cm. Although the root system of this species is just as powerful. These two types of cattail may look similar, therefore the occurrence of interspecific hybrids is not uncommon in the places of their close growth.
Food and economic use
Both wide-leaved and narrow-leaved plants are used for food. The most nutritious part of the herb is the rhizome. It contains, according to various sources, from 15 to 45% of starch, protein, etc. The root is baked and ground, getting horny flour. From it you can bake delicious cakes, add to bread and cook jelly. More from the root of preparing a natural coffee substitute. To do this, it is dried, crushed, fried and brewed. Also boiled and pickled plants are used for food.that resemble the taste of young asparagus.
From the leaves weave sturdy baskets, unusual rugs and comfortable mats, various decorative interior items. The collection of plants is carried out in several stages. In this case, the leaves will be different in color. In July, a green leaf is collected, which will darken slightly after thermal processing.
And in the beginning of autumn they harvest the yellow leaf. Which one to use depends on the purpose of the future object and the artistic plan of the craftsman. To preserve the color and flexibility of plant materials, it is dried under canopies or in darkened rooms, where a good air circulation is established.
Stems are used as material for the construction of fences and light economic structures. It is possible to make strong ropes and coarse fabric using a durable long fiber.
Down, formed as the fruit ripens, is used in the preparation of clay mixtures for artistic ceramics. It gives lightness and retains the original dimensions of the product during drying and firing.
Lake reed grows in our country, Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States and in Kazakhstan. Most often the place where the cattail grows is stagnant water bodies. These are usually small lakes, but sometimes you can encounter it in river bays. Broadleaf species can also be found sometimes in park ponds.
This plant has a minimum of contraindications for use. But still they are. It is not recommended for those who suffer from hepatitis, varicose veins and gout. We should not resort to treatment of these plants. for lactating and pregnant women. It should also be borne in mind that long-term treatment of these plants can cause constipation.
The best period for harvesting this plant for long-term storage is the beginning of summer, June. It is possible to carry out the harvesting throughout the summer period, however, in June in the plant stalks accumulates the maximum amount of nutrients. The collected leaves of the plant must be dried in a room with well-organized ventilation, or carry out this procedure outdoors and preferably in the shade. It is necessary to lay out the leaves in a thin layer so that the lower layers also receive their share of air and heat. Preparation of roots produced in September. It is necessary to dig up the rhizomes, thoroughly rinse and cut. After that, the material is dried in a dryer at a temperature of about 40-45 degrees.
From this plant is made:
Stems cover the roofs of houses, after which they keep warm for a long time and do not rot. From a cattail make a special fabric used for technical purposes. The fabric is called matting. From the ears of this plant, which, when ripe, are covered with a light yellowish down, make stuffing for pillows, mattresses, packaging material, stuffing for life jackets.
In modern pulp and paper production is also widely used fluff. Fluff is also used in art ceramics. When added to chamotte or clay, it gives these materials greater lightness and makes them non-shrinkable.
The cattail can be reused because its stems and leaves die off every year. It is used as fuel in areas where it is expensive and where there are few trees. Rhiza rhizomes from ancient times used in food in the places where it grows. They are fried, baked and eaten like potatoes.
Roots can be ground and made flour for baking. Also sometimes mix flour from rogoz with regular baking flour. Известен тот факт, что в голодные годы употребление рогоза в пищу в различных видах неоднократно был рекомендован населению со стороны властей официально. Впрочем, стоит отметить, что это считалось – также официально – суррогатным питанием, то есть временным и вынужденным заменителем нормального вида питания. Важно, что нельзя употреблять его в пищу, если растение произрастало в загрязненных районах.
Well, and finally, cattail is used as a decor for various reservoirs.
Broadfoot rogoz is one of those plants, thanks to which humanity was able to survive in difficult years. This is the material for the strengthening of housing, and the plant for food, and the opportunity for making, albeit coarse, but still matter. Rogoz deserves the greatest attention from the person and, perhaps, thanks.