Grapes belong to the popular liana-like crops, with a natural preference for a tropical and subtropical climate. Worldwide, gardeners are engaged in the cultivation of this tasty and healthy berries. Planting of grapes began to engage in ancient times, as evidenced by the numerous frescoes on the rocks. If before it was available only to the southern regions, now in the middle lane you can get fragrant clusters. Due to the active breeding work, many quite resistant varieties appeared. However, to achieve abundant fruiting, it is necessary to learn the basic rules of planting grapes in open ground and further care of them.
Grapes: description and characteristics
In the southern regions grape vines stretched to 30 m, and in the middle lane - no more than 3 m. The plant has a long, branched stem, with numerous process-mustache. Due to them, the mounting to the stationary support takes place. Adult representatives are covered with dark brown bark with deep grooves. Young shoots of red or yellow hue.
Leaves are evenly distributed over the entire stem surface. They are fastened on long petioles. They have a solid form and, mainly, a five-blade structure. The flowers are bisexual, collected in a loose or dense brush, with a greenish tint. The flowering period falls on May, and fruit ripening begins in late August. Although there are varietiesthat only ripen in October.
Berries, regardless of variety, juicy and fragrant, with or without stones. There are different colors: green, black, red, pink, yellow. Such a landing is able to live in one place for up to 120 years.
Types and varieties
Breeders are constantly working on the study of this heat-loving culture. To date, there are about 8 thousand varieties and varieties. All of them are classified according to several criteria:
- Maturation: early, medium, late and intermediate.
- Purpose: dining, universal and technological.
- Taste: sweet-sour, nutmeg, fruit, solanaceous.
- Area of growth: Eurasian, American and Amur.
It should be noted that the American and Amur berries are resistant to drought and frost. The most popular are the following varieties: Isabella, Nina, Arcadia, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cardinal and others.
Grapes are propagated in three ways.: cuttings, grafting and seeds. Experienced gardeners do not use the latter method, since each subsequent form loses its parental characteristics. Signs of an adult plant are fully preserved, with vegetative reproduction.
When grafting, material harvesting is carried out after the autumn pruning. From cut tops, more suitable specimens with buds are selected. This leaves the heel, which will stimulate rooting. The cuttings are dipped into the blue vitriol and removed for cold storage until spring. In March, they are planted in sawdust, and in May - open ground.
Otvorochnoe reproduction carried out in the fall. They find the strongest lower processes, remove all excess vegetation from the surface and drop them in earthen grooves. Pour mulch on top and water it. For the next season, independent grape vines are obtained. It will remain to separate them from the parent source, and put them in their places.
Before embarking on planting, you should decide on the grape variety that corresponds specifically to your climate. With proper management agrotechnical measures, even in the northern ground can grow full vines.
Time for planting in the open ground, everyone chooses individually. It is permissible to do this in spring and autumn. Ligneous saplings planted in March - May, and vegetating - a little later. Usually grape seedlings appear on sale in the fall. In order not to keep them until spring, many planting is carried out immediately. The main thing is to follow all the rules of planting and choose a healthy planting material.
Without preliminary training can not do. It will help seedlings adapt faster to the new environment. Before transfer to the ground, they are soaked in warm water. Annual shoots are cut to a height of 3-4 peepholes, the roots are slightly shortened at the upper nodes. It is best to choose the southern slopes, where there is no stagnation of cold air and minimal risk of flooding with melt water.
The first thing to find out is what type of soil on your site. In the chernozem or clay they dig holes 80x80x80 cm in size, and in sandstone the depth should not be less than one meter. And the sandy soil is prepared in the autumn, so that it was time to ram it. At the bottom of the recess, macadam drainage is laid, and a plastic tube is inserted, with a distance of 10–15 cm from the walls. It should protrude above the ground 15–20 cm. Further, the consecutive falling asleep of layers begins:
- chernozem, 13–15 cm thick,
- potassium fertilizers (potassium sulfate, potassium magnesia),
- superphosphate, in the amount of 200 grams,
- fertile earthy mixture,
- mineral supplements.
Mineral supplements can be replaced with wood ash. Such a layered cake is poured on top of nutritious soil composition, plentifully watered and left until spring.
Before spring planting, the roots of young shoots are placed in a mash: a mixture of water, clay and humate. Next, straighten the roots in the pit and direct the heel to the south. Sprinkled with fertile soil, mixed with sand. A plastic flask is put on top of the plant, with a cut off cap. The whole construction is covered with black plastic film. Now it takes time to fully grab the grapes. And for this you need regular hydration. That's what the pipe was dug for - for irrigation through drainage.
This method of planting is acceptable for seedlings up to 25 cm. With a greater height, everything is done similarly, only on an inclination.
For such a responsible event should prepare pits for a few weeks. Otherwise, the ground will begin to sink together with the planting and tear the roots. It is necessary to act according to the spring pattern. The only addition will be: final hilling, shelter with dry foliage and mulching of the root circle with peat.
Grapes - quite capricious culture, so you need to stock up on some knowledge to care for her. Deciding to engage in its cultivation, you can discover many new things in gardening. Despite the laboriousness of such a process, there are a lot of pleasant and interesting moments. Therefore, novice gardeners are encouraged to use the advice of experienced. Each season has its own care.
After warming up the air temperature up to 5 degrees, you can remove shelter from grape vines. If the risk still exists, it is enough to make small air vents. The water that has accumulated under the bushes is scooped out or removed along the excavated grooves. So that this does not happen again, it is better to plant bushes on gentle slopes. After the winter frosts, broken down and frostbitten branches are removed.
A thorough inspection will tell you the condition of the plant. At detection of diseases, produce sanitary processing. If everything is in order, prophylaxis is still done. To do this, use the drug Nitrafen.
The spring period is most favorable for vaccinations. At the same time, supplementary feeding of a complex nature is made, without trace elements. Pristvolny plot of land digging and watering abundantly.
Young seedlings pruned apical shoots to a height of 3-4 buds. The root shoots are harvested and the stem is sprayed with a fungicide. In May, the stretched shoots are tied to the trellis. Prior to flowering, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are introduced to stimulate growth and development.
Summer and autumn
Summer care consists of the following:
- Regular pinching of the tops of the vine to prevent strong stretching in height. Extra stepchildren clean, stimulating the development of berry ovaries, not foliage.
- In July, excess foliage breaks down to open the light to ripening fruits.
- Until mid-summer, it is necessary to fertilize the bushes twice: first with nitrogen, then potassium and phosphorus. If this is a new planting, then no feed will be required for the first 3-4 years.
- As a preventive measure, spraying is done with fungicidal and insecticidal compositions. Suitable drugs Ridomil and Fufanon, which are prepared separately and mixed.
- Young plants need more moisture than adults. During the growing season, watered once every 3 days, subject to dry weather. When frequent rains are limited to one watering per week. 2 weeks before the berries are set, moistening is completely stopped.
After harvesting, the main thing is to prepare the grapes for winter. With the onset of autumn, the vine is completely depleted and needs additional fertilizing with mineral and organic means, with ash. Having waited for full falling off of foliage, start forming bushes. Only you shouldn’t delay with this, otherwise the cold will hit, and the wood will become fragile.
In cold regions after pruning make a special shelter for planting. First, they bind the branches in a bundle, bend down to the ground and cover with spruce branches. If necessary, a covering material and a layer of snow are put on top of everything.
Diseases and pests
This garden representative vulnerable to insects, and often sick. The most common diseases are:
- Anthracnose is a fungal infection, expressed by brown spot on all aboveground parts. Fungicide treatment helps.
- Mealy dew - the plant begins to become covered with a bluish bloom. Obvious symptoms: deformation of the leaves, drying berries. Used drugs such as: Horus, Tanus or Topaz.
- Mildew is a fungal infection, manifested by oily scurf on the leaves and white rot from below. Gradually, the plant dies off completely. Conduct treatment Bordeaux liquid.
- Gray rot - provoked by excessive moisture. White kashetsevidny flows everywhere are visible. For treatment use fungicides.
- Black spot is a complex disease that can grow at a rapid rate. The fungus penetrates plant tissues so deeply that no treatments help. In the autumn and early spring, spraying with copper-containing agents is necessary.
Of the most harmful insects, the most dangerous are: aphid, cicadas, parsill, itch, mite.
People's love for grapes does not change, despite the change of eras and generations. This amazing berry is good in any quality. Fresh juicy clusters deliver a lot of pleasure when you eat. And how much of everything tasty and healthy you can make from it: juice, wine, compotes, jam, vinegar, and so on. You can not ignore the useful properties of this product. Rich vitamin and mineral composition has a positive effect on the work of the human body. With desire and patience, everyone can grow grapes. The main thing is to follow professional recommendations for planting and caring for grapes.
Varieties and types
Breeders have developed a huge base of grape varieties, which is actively replenished today. Today in the world there are about 8 thousand varieties of this crop.
Grape varieties can be safely classified by the following features:
- as intended: technical - used to create wine and juice, universal - suitable for processing, and for food and canteens - used only for food,
- by maturity: late, medium, early and intermediate (medium-late, early-medium, etc.).
There is also a classification of varieties according to taste. This method implies the existence of four groups:
- Solanum flavor (has a slightly grassy smell and taste that resembles the taste of nightshade),
- isabel taste (a bright representative of this group is the variety "Isabella", which has tastes similar to pineapple and strawberry),
- nutmeg taste (has a pronounced nutmeg shade),
- ordinary taste (combines acid and sweet in various proportions).
In science, which studies grape varieties, there is a place for dividing varieties into groups, which rely on their range of origin:
- Amur (varieties have high frost resistance and a short growing season),
- American (drought-and frost-resistant varieties, the berries of which have a relatively small size),
- Eurasian (varieties can boast of large berries that have high taste).
Let's consider as examples for classifying most popular grape varieties:
- Muscat Ottonel is a French universal variety that has medium-sized berries with a pronounced nutmeg flavor.
- Hope / Dream - Central Asian table variety, which does not contain seeds in berries. Juicy and light berries have a pleasant aroma and unique taste. The variety cannot boast of high frost resistance.
- Cardinal is a bright representative of table grapes of the American group. The berries are purple, fleshy, large and juicy. A rather heat-loving variety that is highly susceptible to pests and diseases.
- Arcadia is a thermophilic and early grape variety. A distinctive feature are slightly acidic berries with nutmeg taste, which are collected in large clusters.
- Nina is an unpretentious table variety that has an average ripening time. The plant is characterized by juicy large berries with a slightly tart, pleasant taste.
- Isabella is a very popular, early, versatile, high-yielding grape variety. Differs in sweet berries of dark blue color with strawberry flavor. It has high endurance, it grows and develops very quickly.
- Cabernet Sauvignon is a high-yielding technical variety, has a solanaceous flavor. A distinctive feature is immunity to diseases and high frost resistance.
This list can be continued almost indefinitely, so let us dwell in more detail on the methods of reproduction of this valuable culture.
Reproduction of grapes
Grapes in the open field can multiply generative (seeds) and vegetative (plant parts) ways.
Gardeners amateurs in their practice almost never use the seed method, because in this case the plant does not inherit the parental signs.
At home, it is best to carry out the reproduction of grapes in a vegetative way - vaccinations, layering, grafting. Such activities will allow you to fully maintain the desired cultural characteristics and properties of an adult plant. The grapes have a high ability to regenerate, so these procedures can be carried out safely, without worrying about the fact that the plant will not restore the wounds.
This method is considered the most popular and simple.. Let's look at how to gradually prepare the material for breeding in the autumn season.
First, you need to cut strong and healthy lignified shoots that are uniformly colored. It is recommended to carry out this procedure at the end of October, cutting cuttings approximately 1 cm each. Very thin or too thick shoots, as well as frail or damaged cuttings are not suitable as planting material. We remove from the planting material all side shoots, antennae and leaves. A complete stalk should have at least 4 healthy buds. The upper cut must be done at a distance of approximately 2-3 cm from the upper bud. The lower cut should be done obliquely at a distance of 2-3 cm from the lower kidney. All material for planting must be placed on the day in the water.
After this, we process all the shoots with a solution (weak) of copper sulfate and dry them well. It is recommended to lower the cuttings for storage in the cellar, wrapping them in paper and an opaque plastic bag for the winter period. Also in practice there is a way to store chubukov, which are placed in wet sand.
Planting material must be sorted out in early spring., choosing the best cuttings (which have a green sprung bud), which are not damaged by rodents or mold. Planting material is soaked for about 10-15 minutes in a solution of (weak) potassium permanganate, after which the cuttings are placed in a jar of water.
After some time, the lower cut of the cuttings is updated, departing from the lower bud about 1-2 cm. In this form, the material will be ready for planting in individual containers so that the rooting process begins. After that, in May, cuttings can be planted in open ground conditions.
With great success, you can prepare cuttings in the spring. To do this, it will be necessary to cut the material before flowering, in the spring, and then cut the shoots into the water. After an indefinite time it is necessary to remove the cuttings from the water and cut them 2-3 cm apart. Each of these parts should have its own healthy kidney, after which we place the material back into the water.
Перед посадкой понадобиться внизу побега сделать косой срез, после чего высадить черенки в отдельные емкости с достаточно рыхлой почвосмесью из песка, опилок и торфа. Осенью пророщенные черенки помещаются в погреб для зимовки, однако их необходимо предварительно обработать раствором (слабым) медного купороса. Те саженцы, которые переживут зиму, высаживаются в крупные емкости, а осенью – на постоянное место в открытый грунт.
The seedling that was planted is a stock, that is, the vine 1-1,5 meters and graft - cuttingwhich has at least one kidney. Cultivars are commonly used as grafts, and grades resistant to low temperatures and diseases are used as rootstocks.
We cut cuttings for a graft in the autumn about 60-80 mm in diameter. It is important that each of the cuttings had 3-4 buds. Winter storage of planting material is carried out in the same way as during cutting.
In the fall, the stock shrub must be freed from excess shoots, leaving only the vine for further vaccination. After that, the plant is covered for the winter.
Spring or early summer plant vaccinated before sap flow. For this it is best to choose a windless cloudy day. Well inspect and sort out the planting material, update the lower section and place the cuttings in the water 1/4 in order for the young buds to hatch as soon as possible.
As soon as the eyes swell, put in a fridge a jar with petioles and water for quenching for a couple of days. Hardened cuttings are planted on the stock shrub. Splicing stock and scion is carried out through the formation of young grape cells. The vaccination instrument must be sterile and very sharp.
We make a sharp wedge in the place of future vaccination on a graft.cutting off a part of the upper bud. Wrap the prepared graft in a damp cloth and at the same time prepare the stock. We make an incision on the vine stock approximately 4-5 cm above the bud. The kidney is cut to the same depth as that of the graft. After that, gently insert a scion wedge into the cut section of the stock (it is important to ensure that the kidneys have opposite directions), it is necessary to wrap the inoculation site with an enlarged film or tape. On top you can additionally wrap the splicing area with a cloth to protect it from the cold.
This method of reproduction can be applied both in spring and autumn. We harvest a not too large furrow (40-50 cm) under a bush of grapes, in which it is necessary to lay a young low-growing liana. It is recommended to add black soil or humus to the ditch in order to provide a rich nutrient medium. We clean the vine-layering of whiskers, stepsons and leaves.
We fall asleep on top of the ground, leaving only the tip with a few points of growth above the surface. Then the vine must prikopat and pour water abundantly. Mulch place prikopannoy otdelka sawdust and continue to moisten the plants as needed.
With proper care for young lianas, it is possible to achieve successful rooting, after which, as a rule, in the fall, young shoots will appear, and after 2-3 years it will be possible to safely separate the germinated vine from the uterine shrub.
The method of propagation of grapes layers it is most convenient to use for renewing an old shrub with a young plant, but not every grape variety will suit it.
Growing grapes requires compliance with certain rules for the care of the plant.
Most grapes love moisture, charitable response to abundant and systematic watering. However, it is also impossible to overdo it in this matter: the culture does not tolerate stagnant water, constantly wet soil, wet foliage, moreover, in such conditions, the likelihood of diseases is high. In general, caring for your green pet implies first and foremost proper watering.
A young plant always requires more moisture in terms of frequency and frequency than an already mature and mature shrub. Watering should be carried out only at the root, the sprinkling procedure is strictly contraindicated, since this can provoke the appearance of various diseases.
After the winter cold, the first watering should be done as the soil dries. Subsequent moistening of the soil is carried out after the flowering period and during the fruit ovary. But what should not be done is to water the grapes 1-2 weeks before the start of flowering, as this may cause a delay in the formation of the ovary and shedding of flowers. The last watering should occur at the end of autumn before preparing the plant for wintering.
Most experienced vineyard gardeners use dug-out pipes to plant young grapes when planting. To irrigate all the plants, it is necessary to make drainage channels in which pipes are placed in the aisle. This method allows you to eliminate the problem of stagnant moisture, while the grapes will be fully provided with the necessary amount of water. This is the most high-quality method of irrigation, but to create it will have to spend a lot of time and money.
Currently, grapes are in demand no less than thousands of years ago, but the difference is that today anyone can grow this crop. The most important thing: to put into practice all the recommendations and tips for the care and planting of grapes.
Planting and care of grapes (in short)
- Landing: From late March to late May, lignified seedlings are planted; from mid-May to late June - green, vegetative. In warm areas, you can plant grapes in the fall.
- Lighting: bright sunlight. The best place is a site in the middle part of the slope from the south, west or southwest side.
- The soil: sandy, sandy, loamy, clayey, and best of all - mixed, for example, a mixture of silt with clay, stones and organic matter.
- Watering: in the spring, immediately after lifting the shelter. Consumption for one bush - 4 buckets of water with a half-liter jar of ash mixed in them. The next watering - a week before flowering, the third - after flowering. When the berries begin to color, watering is stopped, but a week before the shelter podzimny irrigation is carried out.
- Top dressing: The fertilizer applied to the planting pit will last for 3-4 years. At the beginning of the fifth season in early spring, full organic fertilizer is added to the near-stem circle of grapes, and a week and a half before flowering - liquid organic fertilizers (solution of chicken manure or mullein with added phosphates and potash fertilizer). At the beginning of the ripening of berries, the soil is fertilized with a potassium-phosphorus complex. You can feed the grapes also on the leaves, with both basic fertilizers and solutions of trace elements lacking the plant.
- Trimming: only in the fall.
- Garter: is required.
- Reproduction: layering, grafting, cuttings, much less - seeds.
- Pests: flea beetle, grape miner moth, grape pillow, grape mosquito, gray and black beetroot weevils and large alfalfa, goldgrass, woodworm, grape spiderweed, grape felt and European red mites, grape pruritus, grape, biennial grape leafworms, grapes, bluetone grapes, grape web, red grapes, European red mites, grape pruritus, grape, biennial grape leafworms, grapes, bluetone grapes, grape gossip grapes, mealy insects and Comstock, cicadas and phylloxera.
- Diseases: Alternaria, bacterial cancer, apoplexy, verticillis, armillariasis, white, black, sour and root rot, diplodioz, various necrosis, fusarium, penicilliasis, bacteriosis, cricosporia, chlorosis, escoriosis (blackout, or stray death, or bacterial disease, chromosporiosis, chlorosis, escoriosis (black spot, or stumps, or occlusion, chlorosis, occlusion, or shoot spills, or blemishes, or respiratory syndrome, or respiration, you can get your home (or powdery mildew of grapes), mildew (or grape peronosporaz), anthracnose.
Liana grapes - description
In the conditions of the south, the grapes reach a length of 30-40 meters, but in the middle lane the vine grows only to three. A branch of grapes is attached to the support with a whisker. On old trunks, the bark is deeply sulcate, with separated brown bark; young shoots are reddish or yellowish. The leaves of the plant are petioled, alternate, whole, consisting of three or five lobes. Bisexual, small flowers of a greenish shade are collected in a dense or loose panicle. The flowering of grapes begins in May or June, and fruiting in August or September, although some varieties ripen only in October. Juicy fruits with seeds in the amount of from one to four or without seeds are collected in clusters of various forms. The color of the fruit can be yellow, green, pink, black and purple or dark red. Fruits are usually covered with a waxy coating. Grape survivor: he can live from 130 to 150 years.
In the southern regions of the cultural grape in length can reach from 30 to 40 meters, while in middle latitudes, it does not exceed 3 meters. For support the branch of such a plant clings to the antennae. Old trunks are covered with a separating deep-furrowed bark of a brown color. The color of young stems is pale yellow or light red. The alternate solid sheet plates consist of 3 or 5 blades and have petioles. Loose or dense panicle inflorescence consists of small pale green bisexual flowers. This culture blooms in May – June, with fruit ripening occurring in August or September (in some varieties in October). Various forms of clusters consist of juicy fruits, inside which there are 1–4 seeds, there are varieties without seeds at all. The color of the fruit is different, for example: green, purple-black, yellow, pink and dark red. As a rule, there is a waxy bloom on the surface of the fruit. Such a plant lives for a very long time, namely, 130–150 years.
What time to plant
Planting grapes can do in the spring, namely, from the end of March until the last days of June. And you can postpone it in the fall. Planting lignified seedlings produced from the last days of March to mid-May. Planting growing green seedlings should be practiced from mid-May to the last days of June. As a rule, grapes saplings are sold in the autumn, and after purchasing they are recommended to be planted immediately in open ground, and not stored until spring, because during the winter they can dry out or be covered with mold, and rodents can also harm them. In this regard, in the autumn time to plant grapes is not only possible, but necessary. If you buy healthy saplings and when planting you follow all the rules of agricultural technology, then the grapes will be accepted. Tips for choosing a healthy sapling:
- The cut of the root should not be painted brown, but white.
- If the one-year sprout is well matured, then at the cut it must be saturated green.
- If you touch the peephole, it should remain in place, and not fall off.
- The seedling should not be over dried.
In order for the seedlings to be planted well and quickly, they need to be prepared. Immediately before planting, the root system of the grapes should be placed in clear water for 12–24 hours. A one-year shoot should be cut to a height of 3-4 ocelli. On the upper nodes, all the roots must be removed, while on the lower they are only slightly shortened.
Land for planting grapes should be located on the west, south and south-west side of the building or other structure. The fact is that for normal growth and development the plant needs a large amount of light and heat. Experts recommend cultivating such a liana in the middle part of the slope, since in the lower part there is a high probability of it freezing. Between any tree and grapes should observe a distance of at least 5-6 m.
For the first time this season, the plant should be watered immediately after the winter shelter has been removed, and the vine is tied to the lower horizontal trellis guide. Young plants (up to 3 years) should be watered through a dug plastic pipe. 40 liters of tepid water mixed with 0.5 liters of wood ash are taken per liana. The second watering is made 7 days before flowering, and the third - when the plant fades. After the green fruit begins to change its color to the characteristic color of the variety, you should stop watering the grapes. However, 7 days before the plant shelters for the winter, he will need underwinter water recharge. Young copies of wine varieties and table varieties for the season must be watered 4 times. Mature grape varieties of wine varieties for the entire season need to be watered only 1 time, and this watering will be podzimny moisture recharge.
If during the planting of a seedling all the necessary fertilizers were made in the soil, then their grapes should be enough for 3-4 years. Most often, by this time the vine is already fully formed and will begin to bear fruit, in this regard, it will need additional nutrients. What do experts advise to use for feeding this plant so that it develops better and gives a rich harvest? Mineral and organic fertilizers are used for dressings. Most often, manure is used as organic matter, since it contains all the nutrients that such a liana needs. If desired, manure can be replaced with compost, bird droppings or peat. Grapes need and mineral fertilizers. It is fed with such simple nitrogen-containing fertilizers as urea or ammonium nitrate. As phosphorus-containing fertilizers, simple or double granulated superphosphate is used. From potash fertilizers recommended potassium salt, Ekoplant, sulphate or potassium chloride. The following complex mineral fertilizers are best suited for such a plant: Florovit, Master, Mortar or Kemira.
The first time you need to feed the plant with dry fertilizer after the winter shelter has been removed. To do this, use a nutritional mixture consisting of 45 grams of nitrogen and 30 grams of potash fertilizer, as well as 40 grams of superphosphate (calculated for 1 bush). A groove is made around the plant into which the nutrient mixture is poured, then it is covered with a layer of soil.
For the second time in a season, the grapes need to be fed 7–10 days before it blooms. To do this, use an aqueous solution. To prepare it, you must combine 10 liters of chicken manure or slurry and 20 liters of water. The container with the mixture is tightly closed, it will be ready after wandering 10-12 days. Then the mixture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5 or 1: 6. In 10 liters of the finished solution should be poured 25 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of potash fertilizer. 10 liters of prepared nutrient mixture are taken per bush.
When the berries begin to ripen, the vines should be fed with superphosphate (50 grams per bush) and potash fertilizer (20 grams per bush).
Also, the growth and development of the plant have a positive effect and foliar feeding, they are recommended to be carried out in conjunction with the spraying of bushes with a fungicide against mildew disease. The nutrient mixture used for this type of fertilizer may contain basic nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium), and additional elements needed by the grapes, namely zinc, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum and cobalt. Experienced gardeners recommend to choose ready-made preparations for such dressings, for example: Novofert, Plantafol, Kemira or Akvarin.
Nitrogen-containing fertilizers, as well as mullein and bird droppings grapes can be fed only until the middle of the summer period. Otherwise, it may cause a delay in ripening. And remember that feeding grapes should be in moderation. "Overfed" plant will not give fruit.
With the help of the garter of this liana to the support you can form a bush, which will be very easy to care for. In the event that the garter is not produced, the grapes will begin to cling to the supports that are in its path, you will not be able to manage its growth in this case, the collection of fruits will become much more difficult, and their quantity and quality may disappoint the gardener.
Tie up such a plant should be in 2 stages:
- Dry garter produced in the early spring, after the removal of the winter shelter, but before the disclosure of the kidneys. To do this, you need to bend all the existing branches to the lower horizontal guide of the tapestry and make their garter to it. Try to bind the branches bent smoothly, in this case, the conductive system will not be broken, and the necessary nutrients will be supplied to the eyes.
- The green garter is made after the green shoots start to grow, and their length is not less than 0.4 m. The garter of young shoots should be made at an angle, in this case they will be evenly lit and will not break due to gusts of wind. After the shoots have grown to the next horizontal guide, they will have to be tied to it. During the growing season, young stems will have to be tied to a support 3 or 4 times. For the upper internode garter of green shoots is not performed. They should try to pull the wire between the third and second kidney from the end of the stem.
Experts advise using a horizontal method with a slope for garters, because it is very convenient. However, there are winegrowers who prefer garter ring, arc, or strictly vertical. For garters, it is recommended to use a bast soaked in water or a special cord (wire wrapped in paper). To prevent abrasion of the shoots on the wire, to fix the cord or bast should be "figure eight", for this they are passed between the metal and the stem.
Pruning grapes produced in the autumn. The fact is that if this procedure is carried out in the spring, the wounds will heal for a long time, bleeding "tears". If the eyes are flooded with apricot, it will lead to their souring and death. It can even lead to the death of a whole bush.
In the summer, as such, pruning is not carried out. At this time, pasynkovanie, pinching, chasing grapes, as well as breaking out extra branches and removing foliage, which shields the berries from the sun. Все данные процедуры необходимы для того, чтобы улучшить проветривание растения, а также для равномерного распределения освещения и питания. А главная цель таких процедур — это богатый урожай.
Болезни винограда с фото
Если вы решили выращивать виноград, то следует быть готовым к борьбе с множеством разнообразных заболеваний. And even if you strictly adhere to all the rules of agricultural technology, this will not guarantee that the vine does not get sick. Below will be described those diseases that growers face most often.
Inflorescences, berries, leaf plates and stems are damaged in a bush infected with such a disease. Spots of brown color are formed on the affected grapes, having a border of a lighter shade, over time they merge with each other. In these places is the death and loss of tissue. On the surface of the stems, specks of a dark brown shade are first formed, after which pink-gray oval-shaped spots appear, which can spread to all internodes. In these places there is cracking of the tissue and the appearance of an ulcer. The inflorescences become dark and gradually dry up, and specks appear on the fruit. To cure the affected bush, it should be sprayed with systemic and contact fungicidal agent, for example: Ridomil, Horus, Acrobat, Bordeaux mixture, Thanos or Antracol. In the event that plants in your region very often develop such a disease, then experts recommend choosing those grapes that are resistant to anthracnose for cultivation.
Such a fungal disease is powdery mildew. On the surface of the affected bush appears white-gray powdery coating. As the disease develops, the inflorescences begin to fall off, the leaf plates become curly, and the fruits burst or dry out. Most often, such a disease grapes falls ill in wet and warm weather. There is a high probability of infection in strong copies, which have not very good ventilation. For the purpose of prophylaxis, do not allow the bush to thicken. To do this, you need to make a garter of branches, breaking out extra stems, timely tearing out weeds. You can spray grapes with Horus, Topaz, Thanos, Strobe or Tiovit.
Downy mildew (mildew)
With this fungal disease, grapes are sick most often, while it is also very dangerous. Disease affects all green parts of the bush. You can find out that grapes are affected by mildew by oily specks on the front surface of the leaf plate. In rainy weather, on the inside surface of the leaf plate, a mealy bloom of a light shade appears, and then necrosis forms in its place. So, at first, the affected tissue becomes yellow, then a brownish-red hue appears, and then dying areas are formed. The affected leaf plates die off, as a result of which the stems become bare, and the inflorescences are also coated with a white bloom. Flowers and buds dry out and die. If you decide to engage in the cultivation of grapes, then your chosen variety must be highly resistant to fungal diseases. In order to prevent it, silence the surface of the wheel circle, feed the plant with potassium and phosphorus in time, cut off the stepsons. Spray the bushes with fungicides. The first spraying is done at a time when the length of the young shoots reaches 15–20 centimeters, the second - before the plant blooms, and the third - when the fruits are the same size as peas. The grapes should be sprayed with Kuproksat, Thanos, Ridomil, Strobe, Antracol, Horus, copper chloroxide and Bordeaux mixture.
All green parts of the bush and annual wood, as well as vaccination sites, are susceptible to the disease. On the surface of the opening eyes and young shoots appears bloom. Fruits affected by such a rot are covered with a dense patina of gray color, while the clusters become similar to mushy lumps. Moisture is necessary for the development of such a disease. With the onset of dry weather, the symptoms of the disease can almost completely disappear, but pathogens will remain on the bush. The affected bush should be sprayed with the same fungicide that is used when the grapes are sick with mildew or oidium.
Black spot (Phomopsis, shoot death or escorioz)
This malicious disease can harm both the green and lignified part of the bush. Because of her bark loses color. If the temperature rises above 10 degrees, then pycnidia of the fungus will appear on these bleached areas. In the event that the fungus is sufficiently deep into the wood, this will lead to the appearance of rotten areas. At first, the growth of the sleeve will slow down, and then it will die. On leaf plates, the necrotic specks have a fringing that is denser and lighter than the leaf tissue. Affected foliage becomes yellow, the development of a diseased bush stops, it rots and dries. Since the mycelium of the fungus is able to penetrate into the deeper layers of wood, spraying a bush with a fungicidal agent will be ineffective. In this regard, it is necessary to fight with the spores and the bodies of the fungus. So, in the autumn, when the leaf fall ends, and the plant is cut off, it should be sprayed with a medium containing copper, for example: Bordeaux mixture, Horus, copper chlorine oxide or Cuproxate. Remove all sleeves that have begun to dry. When 2 or 3 leafy plates appear in springtime, the bush should be sprayed with a fungicide. The following prophylactic treatment of grapes from this disease will be carried out at the same time with the spraying of plants from oidium and mildew. Remember that from such a spot so easy not to get rid of, and will have to deal with it for several years.
In addition to the diseases listed above, grapes can suffer from Alternaria, bacterial cancer, apoplexy, verticilliosis, armilliosis, white, black, acidic and root rot, diplodia, various necrosis, fusarium, penicillia, bacteriosis, cyclosporia, chlorosis, etc. It should be noted that some diseases are incurable. If the grapes are well-groomed and strong, then it will rarely be affected by various diseases.
Pest grapes with photos
Grape bushes can damage a variety of pests, for example: grape flea, grape mining moth, grape pillow, grape mosquito, gray and black beet weevils and large alfalfa, sandstone, fragrant woodworm, grape arachnid, grape felt and European red mites, grape pruritus, grapes , biennial and bunched leafworms, wasps, grape thrips, mealybugs and Comstock, cicadas and phylloxera, etc.
Phylloxera, or grape aphid
The greatest danger to the plant is phylloxera (grape aphid). They have two forms: root and leaf (gallic). The spread of such a pest occurs with water used for irrigation, with planting material and with the wind (at a distance of about 15 kilometers). Because of the root form of such a pest, the bushes die, because the punctures are infected in the root system and its gradual destruction. You should know that the fight against such a pest is not easy. Previously, soil was treated with fumigants, but at the moment gardeners have refused this method of struggle. To get rid of the leaf form of this pest, the bush is sprayed with Zolon, Konfidor, Aktellik or another means of similar action. It is impossible to get rid of the root form, therefore for growing it is recommended to choose varieties resistant to it.
Caterpillars of leafworms can damage buds, leaf plates, and berries of the plant. In some cases, they destroy about 80 percent of the fruits, as they are very voracious and prolific. When the winter shelter is removed from the grapes, it should be sprayed with a solution of Nitrafen (for 1 bucket of water 0.25 kg). After the beginning of summer, the butterflies of the plant should be sprayed with any insecticidal agent (for example: Malophose or Aktellik), after half a month the bush is re-treated. When the caterpillars themselves appear, the grapes should be treated with a solution of Benzophosphate (6%) or Karbofos (10%).
Sucking pests such as cicadas are polyphagous. They multiply incredibly fast. These pests transmit viral and mycoplasmal diseases that are incurable. If such pests were noticed on the plant, it should be sprayed with Aktara solution.
Pincers sucking pests prefer to live on the seamy surface of a leaf plate. Puncturing the leaf, they suck the juice and eat the cloth. In such places there are small spots, after some time they begin to dry. During one season, up to 12 generations of the tick occur. The affected plant should be treated with acaricide, for example: Fufanon, Omaytom, Aktellik, Neoron, etc. It is necessary to produce 3 sprays with an interval of 1-1.5 weeks.
Zlatka is a grape bug of a green-olive color, reaching a length of 2 cm. Because of the beetle, the leaf plates are deformed, while its legless larva gnaws winding passages in the stems, where it winters. Leafy plates dry up in the affected bush, the stems wither, and the fruits become smaller. Affected leaf plates and stems must be cut. The bush itself is sprayed with Aktellik or Karbofos. With the timely implementation of preventive spraying from pests such an insect does not settle on a bush, as it selects weakened specimens.
The cushion is a sedentary sucking parasite belonging to the family of false shield. He sucks the juice from the plant and is a carrier of viral diseases. Such a pest settles on stalks and leaf plates. Having attached himself to the chosen place, he will remain there until his death. Such a pest produces a substance that protects it from the action of even strong drugs. In spring, before the leaves open, the bushes should be sprayed with Preparate 30 or Nitrafen. During the growing season, process the grapes using BI-58. Try to remove insects by hand, protecting your hand with a stiff glove.
Adding an article to a new collection
Growing grapes for beginners gardeners sometimes seems difficult. This perennial liana loves to be given maximum attention. Follow our advice to be sure that you did everything right.
Grape bushes are often found in suburban areas, and all because growing a plant in the middle lane is not so difficult. Despite its whimsical, summer residents successfully planted bushes of various varieties and get good yields. If you decide to create a vineyard, the end of spring - the beginning of summer - it's time to buy seedlings and start planting.
Proper planting of grapes begins with the choice of location. Vine needs a lot of light and heat, so choose a site fenced from the wind, for example, near the southern wall of a house or shed.
The grapes must not drain water from the roof, otherwise it will die.
The soil requires the most nutritious, loose. Prefer chernozem with a high content of humus. Also, grapes will successfully take root on rocky or sandy ground, if you first add humus to the pit. The plant will like less clay and peat soil, so it is worth putting claydite, broken bricks, rubble or other drainage on the bottom of the pit.
On light sandy soils, the grapes ripen 1-2 weeks earlier than on heavy clay.
Planting Grape Saplings for Beginners - Preparation for the Procedure
About how to buy good grapes, we have already told. Therefore, we take a closer look at what to do with plants after purchase. First of all, the young vine must be tempered. Even if the seller assured you that he had independently carried out all the procedures, better reinsure yourself. After all, saplings that have not been quenched, take root worse and get sick more. You can wait longer for the harvest from them, or they will die at all, not even growing.
The procedure is carried out as follows: about 2 weeks every day, keep the seedlings in the fresh air. Start at a quarter of an hour on the first day, and then every day, increase the time by 30 minutes. In the first week, protect the vine from the sun. The last 3-4 days grapes should always be in the fresh air. Exception: forecasted frosts that can destroy seedlings.
To plant the grapes is only after the end of the return frost. The most favorable time: May - the beginning of June, when the soil is already well warmed. The ideal time to land is morning or evening. The day is better to choose a cloudy, so that the plant will stick faster.
When to plant grapes.
The grapes are planted both in spring, from the end of March to the end of June, and in the fall. From late March to mid-May, lignified seedlings are planted, and green, vegetative, planted later, from mid-May to late June. Seedlings are usually sold in the fall, and there is no need to keep them until spring, because they can become moldy, dry out, and mice can eat them. Therefore, planting grapes in the fall is fully justified, especially since saplings take root perfectly if you plant in accordance with the requirements of agrotechnology and acquire healthy planting material: the root cut should be white and not brown, the one-year, well-ripened shoot should be bright green on the cut, the eyes should not fall off from touch. Also check that seedlings are not over dried.
An important condition for the successful adaptation of seedlings in the soil is their preplant preparation. Before planting in the ground, the roots of the seedling are kept in clear water for 12-24 hours, the annual shoot is cut at a height of 3-4 holes, the roots on the upper nodes are cut, and on the lower ones they are only slightly shortened.
Grape saplings are planted from the south, west or south-west side of the buildings, since the grapes need heat and light for development. The best place to grow grapes is the middle part of the slope, because at the bottom it can be damaged by frost. Do not plant grapes closer than 5-6 meters from trees.
There is a widespread misconception that drugs treat infected areas and plants, but in reality this is not the case. They can save healthy tissues from the infection, because chemical preparations destroy the infectious agents, and do not possess the ability to restore diseased plants. That is why the preventive treatment of grapes is so important, destroying the likely threat to still healthy plants. In the spring, when green shoots grow up to 10 cm, process the vine with 3% Bordeaux liquid, 1% colloidal sulfur or copper chloroxide to strengthen the plant immunity from felt mites and the summer invasion of various fungi. Instead of the above well-known means, it is possible to treat the grapes with such preparations per 10 l of the species: Polykhom (80 g) or Ridomil (50-60 g). In the solution, you can add a drug for foliar feeding of grapes, for example, Plantafol. Processing plants at this time is called "on the fifth sheet."
The following processing of grapes is carried out on the eve of flowering, as a last resort, by buds, but never process flowering grapes. For the second treatment using a systemic fungicide, for example, the drug Strobe. After flowering, repeat the treatment of the grapes with a systemic fungicide, and when the fruits reach the size of peas, spray the bushes with “spring” means - Bordeaux mixture, copper chloroxide or colloidal sulfur, and Polychom or Ridomil. The last processing of grapes against mildew and oidium is carried out near the end of July with short waiting times, for example: Strobe and Tiovit Jet or Quadris and Tiovit Jet, or Strobe and colloidal sulfur.
This is only an approximate scheme of processing. In order to avoid addiction of pathogenic flora and fauna to the preparations, we recommend that you change them annually.
How to propagate grapes.
Since grapes grown from seeds rarely inherit the properties of their parents, retaining only some of their traits, in amateur gardening, grapes are propagated by vegetative methods: by laying layers, grafts or rooting cuttings. These methods ensure the preservation in the progeny of the entire biological complex of the mother plant. They are based on such a property of grapes as regeneration, which provides, for example, overgrowing of wounds, and restoration of the bush after damage from severe frosts.
Lydia grapes - This is a high-yielding variety, bringing up to 30 kg of fruits from one bush. The clusters consist of small round berries and weigh about 100 grams. The color of the fruit is light pink with a purple hue. Have a pleasant smell and taste, reminiscent of strawberry. The crop ripens and is ready for harvest in mid-September.
Grapes isabella - American hybrid of a cultural and wild grade. Well adapted to the frosts of northern latitudes. Loves fertile low calcareous soils. Has clusters weighing up to 250 grams. Berries of a dark red shade. The taste of the fruit resembles strawberry. Ripens in mid-October.
Saperavi grapes - The oldest Georgian grape variety. It has bunches that weigh about 110 grams. Ягоды овальные темно-синего цвета. Вино из этого сорта получается ароматное, вкусное и полезное для здоровья. Не любит кислые и известковые почвы. Урожай готов к сбору в конце сентября.
Виноград Магарача – такое название имеют несколько сортов винограда:
- Цитроннный Магарача – желто-зеленый,
- Таквери Магарача – темно-синий,
- Рислинг Магарача – желто-зеленый.
Эти сорта выращивают для изготовления шампанского и столового белого вина. Плохо переносят холода, поэтому их возделывают в южных регионах.
Виноград Серексия чёрная – молдавский позднеспелый сорт. It is used to create juices and dry wines. It has clusters of medium size conical shape. Berries oval dark blue with a citrus scent. Poor transfers of mid-latitude winters. Harvest ready for harvest in October.
Grape Transformation - A hybrid variety bred by an amateur breeder. It can be grown in the middle and southern latitudes. Fruits are large up to 5 cm in length, so the bunch can weigh 3 kg. They have a light pink skin color and a sweet-sour taste. Variety gives a crop after three months from the date of disclosure of the kidneys.
Grape Codreanca - hybrid variety bred in Moldova. It has large clusters weighing 600-1500 grams. Berries oval maroon or almost black color. The flesh is sweet, but with a lot of seed. Fruits ripen four months after bud break.
Grapes Arcadia - early hybrid variety. Gives large clusters from 600 gr to 2 kg. The fruits are oval-shaped and yellow-green in color, have a sweet taste. This variety gives up to 40 kg of crop from the bush. The berries ripen in early August.
Amur Grape - mid-season variety, which is home to the Far East. Due to its origin, it grows well in winter conditions of middle and northern latitudes. Has clusters weighing up to 250 grams. The berries are small in size, dark blue color taste sweet with sour. Ripen in late September.
The hybrid variety comes from Odessa. It has bunches that weigh 0.7-1.5 kg. The berries are large, elongated amber color. It grows well and develops in the middle and northern latitudes. Loves fertile soils with moderate acidity. Harvest can be collected at the end of September.
Grapes of Libya - A hybrid derived from the Flamingo and Arcadia varieties. It has a shapeless cluster weighing 0.6-1 kg. Berries large red-pink color. The pulp contains bones that are easily removed. The variety prefers loamy soils and timely mineral supplements. Harvest ripens in September.
Grapes Veles - the result of crossing varieties Rusbola and Sofia. It has conical bunches weighing up to 1.4 kg. The fruits are large with an oval shape and a red-pink shade. Winter-resistant variety withstands mid-latitude frosts. Fruits can be collected in early September.
Grapes Augustine - early ripe Bulgarian grade. Gives a lot of bunches weighing up to 800 grams. Berries are yellow-green. Up to 40 kg of crop can be harvested from one bush. The fruits are ready to be collected at the end of August. The variety loves fertile soil and abundant watering.
Grape Kishmish Radiant
High-yielding variety of Moldovan origin. It has a conical bunch weighing up to one kilogram. Berries oval-shaped red-pink color. One shrub brings up to 40 kg of crop per year. Fruit picking time starts in September.
Moldova grapes - hybrid variety bred in Moldova. Gives conical clusters, the weight of which varies from 400 grams to 1 kg. The berries are round purple-black. The taste of fruit is sweet with a slight sourness. Harvest ripens in October.
Grape victor - the variety was bred after crossing Kishmish Radiant and Talisman. It has a shapeless cluster weighing about 700 grams. Berries oval light pink shade. Needs shelter from frost. The fruits ripen in August.
Grapes Delight - the early ripe hybrid received from three grades: the Dawn of the North, the Russian early and Dolores. Adapted to the conditions of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. It has bunches weighing 0.5-1.6 kg. The fruits are large, oval-shaped yellow-green. Crop harvested in late August.
The early ripe hybrid removed from grades Kesh and Rizamat. It tolerates frosts of medium latitude, needs shelter. Loves to grow in fertile soils and in sunny areas. Has bunches weighing up to 900 gr. Fruits of purple taste sweet. The harvest ripens in late July.
Monarch grapes - table hybrid variety, also called Pavlovsky. Loves sunny areas and fertile, moist soil. Gives bunches weighing up to 900 gr. The fruits are large and sweet light green in color. Harvest ready for harvest at the end of September.
Anyuta grapes - a hybrid of middle late ripening, derived from the varieties of Kishmish Radiant and Talisman. Grown in regions with a temperate and warm climate. Has bunches weighing about 800 gr. The fruits are large and oval, sweet in taste. The skin color is purple with light wax. The harvest ripens by the end of September.
Kesha grapes mid-season hybrid, obtained from the varieties of Delight and Frumoas Albe. It is grown in fertile black soil. Well adapted to mid-latitude frosts. It has clusters weighing 0.5-0.9 kg. The fruits are large and oval with the smell of flowers and sweet taste. The skin color is light yellow with white wax.
Mid-season hybrid, created from varieties of Pretty Woman and Talisman. Maintains cold winters of middle latitudes. It has bunches weighing 0.5-1 kg. Fruits are large and long dark purple. Harvest ready for harvest in August.
Kishmish grape - mid-season hybrid, which appeared in nature due to natural selection. This southern variety is not suitable for growing in regions with cold winters. Has bunches weighing up to 0.8 kg. The fruits are large with an oval shape and a bright purple color. Fruits are harvested in August.
Rochefort grapes - table hybrid, grown from varieties Talisman and Cardinal. Gives conical bunches weighing 0.5-0.9 kg. Fruits are large and round in dark purple hue. The variety withstands winters, but does not like the cold wind, so it needs shelter. The harvest ripens in early August.
Super Extra Grapes - the result of amateur breeding E.G. Pavlovsky, who used three varieties: Talisman, Cardinal and Citrine. The result is a hybrid resistant to the Siberian climate. It has a conical bunches weighing up to 0.8 kg. Berries are round light green. Harvest ready for harvest at the end of July.
Grapes Lady Fingers
Middle late Uzbek variety, which appeared due to natural selection. Grown in sunny areas with light soil. Not suitable for cultivation in mid-latitudes. It has long clusters of up to 40 cm, which weigh about 0.8 kg. The berries are long, sweet yellow-green color. Harvest ripens in late September.
Harold Grape - a hybrid derived from three varieties: Arkady, summer Muscat and Delight. It has a conical bunch weighing up to 0.7 kg. The fruits are shaped long light green color. The taste of the pulp is sweet and nutmeg. It grows in any soil, tolerates the climate of Siberia. The harvest ripens in July.
Grape Timur - A hybrid derived from the varieties of Delight and Frumoas Albe. I have adopted parental properties, such as rapid maturation, resistance to disease and cold. The weight of one bunch reaches 0.6 gr. Fruits are large in size with an oval shape and green color. They are ready for collection in early August.
Grape pleven - the early ripe hybrid which came from Bulgaria. Bred for cultivation in the harsh northern latitudes. It has a conical bunch weighing up to 0.6 kg. Fruits are large yellow-green in color. Harvest ready for harvest in August.
Grapes planting and care in the open field
A suitable period for planting grapes is spring or autumn. In spring, wait for the time when the soil warms up and the stable warm weather settles - usually it is the second half of May. Autumn planting spend in October before the onset of frost.
On your site, find a warm, sheltered from the wind and well-lit place. Plant grapes in a line so that the rays of the sun fall on both sides. If you decide to choose a landing area next to the buildings, make sure that the water from the roofs does not over-wet the ground.
As planting material suitable annual and biennial seedlings. Prepare the landing pits in advance. Provide a distance of 1.5 m between them. If you plan to make several rows, then provide a gap between the rows of 2 m.
Landing pit preparation
Dig a hole that is 70 cm deep and 70 cm wide. Lay the top layer of soil on one side of the pit, and the lower one less fertile on the other. If the earth is clay, then put a drainage layer of expanded clay or gravel on the bottom.
Pour into the pit three pails of compost or rotten manure. Add 200 grams of superphosphate and 150 grams of potash fertilizer. Sprinkle all the upper fertile soil and mix thoroughly. On top, add another layer of pure earth.
As a result, the depth of the pit should be 40 cm. Then pour five buckets of water into it and wait for it to soak. After this, make in the pit a mound of earth. A young bush will be planted on it.
Bought a seedling put into the water for a day, so that its tissues are soaked with liquid. This will help the plant to settle down faster. Cut the roots, leaving a length of 15 cm. Dip the roots in a mash that consists of clay, humus and water.
Place the seedling on a mound so that the first buds are at ground level. Bury the shrub with the remaining fertile soil. Make a watering hole around the plant. After planting, pour plenty of water over the grapes.
Currant is a member of the Gooseberry family, it is also grown when planting and caring in the open field without much hassle, if you follow the rules of agricultural technology. All the necessary recommendations can be found in this article.
Soil for grapes
Grapes like black, silty and loamy soil. It is good if there is coarse sand in the soil, and under the roots there is a drainage layer of rubble or broken bricks.
Also, the plant can develop in neutral or slightly acidic soil. If your soil has a pH 4 acidity reading, be sure to add slaked lime or charcoal to it.
Fertilizer for grapes
If you planted seedlings in a planting pit with fertile soil, then the fertilizer contained in it will be enough for the first two years of plant development. In subsequent years, the grapes need to be fed.
Spring dressing - held two weeks before flowering. To do this, mix one bucket of manure with three buckets of water and leave for a week. Fermented slurry, dilute with water 1: 5 and add 200 grams of ash. Pour two buckets of diluted fertilizer under the bush.
Autumn feeding - is carried out during the fall of the dried foliage. To do this you will need humus or cow dung with a volume of 15 kg and 300 grams of wood ash. Pour fertilizer under the bush and pour.
The flowers of the grapes are formed at the end of May. If the weather is hot + 25 ° С +30 ° С, they appear earlier. The flowering period lasts about 12 days.
The flowers are small, white, female or bisexual (depending on the grape variety). Of them formed ovary with future berries. The fruits ripen in August and September, and late-ripening varieties yield in October.
Grapevine tolerates transplanting and quickly adapts to the new site. The reason for this procedure may be improper landing or a bad place. Transplantation is recommended in the autumn.
It is best to use the transshipment method. So you will cause minimal damage to the root system. To do this, dig around a bush around the roots and pull it out along with a clod of earth. Then transfer to another place and bury in a hole. After transplanting, water the plant well.
Inoculation methods help to grow different varieties of grapes on the same bush. There are two main ways: copulation - escape to escape, budding - kidney to escape. Planted plants need in the spring.
Copulation: For this method of grafting, two shoots of the same diameter are needed - a graft and a stock. Make the same oblique cuts on them. Attach the cuttings to each other, aligning their cambial rings. Then tightly wrap the connection with tape.
Budding: pick a bud of another variety that you want to graft to the plant. To do this, cut off the bud with a graft cutting and make the same cut on the surface of the rootstock shoots. Then attach the bud to the shoot and tightly wrap the connection with tape so that the eye is open.
Shelter grapes for the winter
Many grapes are winter-hardy, withstanding -25 ° C and below. But the plant must always be sheltered for the winter. This procedure will help the vine successfully and without harm to winter.
Before covering the bush you need to prepare it for this. You need to pour water around the plant well. Then spray the vine with copper sulfate - protect against pests and diseases.
Wait until a cold snap begins on the street. Then you can proceed to harboring. To do this, lower the vines on the ground and under them lay bars so that the branches do not touch the soil. Then cover the bush with bags or other material. Bags zasypit soil layer of 10 cm.
Healing properties of grapes
Fresh grapes restore a weak body, normalizes metabolism and washes away harmful toxins. It is recommended for people suffering from anemia, depression, hypertension, exhaustion and chronic fatigue.
Grape juice is useful for ulcers, diseases of the stomach and intestines. Positive effect on the cardiovascular system, normalizing pressure. Glucose contained in the pulp tones the work of the muscle fibers of the heart.
Salad with grapes and chicken
- grapes - 150 gr,
- chicken fillet - 200 gr,
- onion - 1 pc,
- cheese - 100 gr,
- mayonnaise - 150 gr,
- boiled eggs - 3 pcs.
Cook the chicken fillet and cut it into small pieces. Crush eggs and cheese. Onions finely shred. Washed grapes, cut in half.
Now lay the ingredients in layers in a salad bowl, greasing each with mayonnaise: chicken fillet, onions, eggs, cheese, grapes cut down.
Chicken & Grape Tiffany Salad
- chicken breast - 400 gr,
- cheese - 150 gr,
- grapes - 1 bunch,
- boiled eggs - 4 pcs,
- salt, curry.
Wash the chicken meat, salted, pepper and fry in a pan. Then cut the breasts into small pieces. Boiled eggs cut into cubes, and chop the cheese on a grater. Grape fruit divided in half. Grind walnuts with a rolling pin.
All these ingredients are now placed in turn on a plate. First, the chicken mixed with mayonnaise, then the cheese, on top of the eggs with mayonnaise, sprinkle all the nuts, add the mayonnaise. Lay the grape wedges in the last layer.
Canape with cheese and grapes
- cheese - 200 gr,
- grapes - 15 pieces,
- greens - a few twigs.
Cut the cheese into cubes or slices. Take a skewer and string berries and cheese on it in turn. You can put them on a platter and beautifully decorate with greens before serving.
Chacha grapes at home
- grape cake - 10 kg,
- purified water - 30 l,
- granulated sugar - 5 kg.
For chacha you need cake - peel and bones of the fruit. You can get it if you crush the grapes. Place the marc in a large container, add water at room temperature and add sugar. After mixing everything, cover with a cloth.
Put the container in a warm place. Braga will be ready in one, two months. All the time, regularly stir the mash and drown, surfaced peel. The end of fermentation will stop when the glove is lowered.
When the mash is ready, separate the juice from the oilcake. Use a metal sieve or gauze. Purified brago placed in the distillation cube and carry out the distillation process twice.
After a double distillation, you get four liters of 90 degree chacha. Dilute with water to 45 degrees and bottle. Insist chacha in the glass for about a month, and then you can use it.
Wine from grapes at home
- ripe berries - 10 kg,
- granulated sugar - 200 grams per one liter of juice,
Collected berries, peel off the branches and move them with your hands. Place the pulp with the juice in a plastic container and cover with a cloth. Leave for four days in a warm place. In a day the fermentation process will begin. Twice a day, mix the wort and sink the cap out of the mash.
When it will be four days and the pulp will brighten, separate it from the juice. To do this, several times, strain the juice through cheesecloth. Then pour the pure juice into a large glass bottle, filling it up to 70%. Wear a medical glove with a puncture hole on the neck.
Place the bottle in a warm place with a temperature of +25 ° C for red wine and +20 ° C for white. After three days, start to pour sugar 50 grams per liter of juice. Continue thus to sugar three times during the 25 days of fermentation.
When you see that the glove was blown off, and a precipitate formed at the bottom, it is time to filter. Using a straw, pour the juice into another bottle. After straining, add sugar 200 g per liter to the juice again.
Then put a glove on the neck and place it in a cool place with a temperature of +5 +15 degrees. Withstand wine 40-60 days. If 3 cm of sediment appears, filter. After two months of exposure, pour the young wine into the bottle.
Grapes - planting and care in the open field
While the seedlings are tempered, dig quality planting pits. The average width, length and depth are 80 cm each, but you can adjust the parameters according to the size of the plot and the composition of the soil.
If there is a light fertile soil on the plot, you can dig up small pits for grapes, and if the soil is heavy, their size should be as large as possible.
The earth dug out of the pit, divided into three parts. The most fertile soil from the upper layer, which is about 20-30 cm, you will later put on the bottom of the pit, closer to the roots. Then the middle part of the soil will be used. И сверху – наименее питательная почва из нижнего слоя, которая спустя время вновь станет плодородной после воздействия почвенных бактерий.
Выкапывая яму, тщательно осматривайте комья, убирайте личинок вредителей и корни растений, которые могут помешать развитию лозы. Затем насыпьте в яму:
- 2 ведра перепревшей органики: навоза, компоста,
- 1,5 кг древесной золы,
- 300 г комплексной подкормки, например, нитроаммофоски.
All mix thoroughly with a long stick, pre-pouring the top layer of fertile soil, and pour 2 buckets of water. When moisture is absorbed, pour earth from the middle layer of the pit.
Nitrogen top dressing in its pure form is best not to apply, otherwise the vine will begin to fatten, its aging and resistance to frost will decrease.
If the weather was unfavorable or you did not have time to prepare the pits, you can save the vine saplings for autumn planting. Just transplant them into containers with drainage holes and dig into the ground to the middle, water regularly. So you will have more time to prepare for the autumn planting.
How to plant grapes
When the pit is ready, and the plant is hardened, proceed to planting. Remove the grapes from the package along with the earthy ball. Place the seedling in the pit so that the zone of formation of the roots (the heel of the cutting) is 35-40 cm below ground level. Conventionally, this place can be taken as the center of the container where the seedling was located. Also, make sure that the "eye", from which the lowest green shoot develops, is located 10 cm below the ground level - this way it will be easier later to form a bush and cover the shoots for the winter.
If the seedling is too long and it is impossible to plant it vertically at the correct depth, position it obliquely, in front of this, pour the earth on one side of the pit.
At the end of planting, cover the plant with soil 5 cm below the “eye” and firmly seal it with your hands so that there are no voids. Water the seedling with 1-2 buckets of warm water. Wait until it is absorbed, and completely fill the pit with soil, but do not compact it. The soil should remain loose, so that there is a good air exchange, so do not tread it. But mulching is worth, because it will not allow an earth crust to form and reduce the evaporation of moisture.
Many gardeners wonder at what distance to plant grapes in a row. The answer is: the most correct is to keep a distance of 1-1.5 m between plants. If there are many seedlings, it is possible to dig not pits, but a trench 40-80 cm deep. Support is also needed for the grapes so that the vine develops correctly. As temporary means, use pegs, pipes, etc. In the future, it is worthwhile to put a trellis that will allow the bush to perfectly form and facilitate the care of it.
Watering and feeding the grapes
After planting the vine needs regular and abundant watering. Of course, how often to water the grapes depends primarily on the weather. But usually the plant is watered within 10-15 days after planting and repeat the procedure every 2 weeks. If it is hot and the earth dries quickly, watering is increasing.
For watering grapes use warm distilled water in the amount of 5-10 liters per bush.
Fertilizers that were applied during planting will provide nutrients to the vine for 2-3 years, so there is no urgent need for additional feeding. If desired, the plant can be supplemented at the end of the summer with the help of such a mixture: 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M. Then the grapes are better prepared for winter.