Presumably, the name of this fragrant shrub comes from the Greek word "syrinx" (syrinx) - tube, pipe, pipe. There is also a mythological version of the origin of the name - the Syring nymph was turned into a reed by the god of the forest, who made the reed pipe (syrinx) from this reed.
General characteristics of lilac varieties
Lilac - a widespread culture, refers to the family of olive trees and includes more than 30 different species of tree shrubs, both natural and hybrid origin. In the form of breeding varieties, there are more than 2 thousand varieties, which differ in the form of leaves and flowers, in coloring, height of the bush, and timing of flowering. It is because of this diversity that biologists do not have a common opinion about the classification of this culture, about giving this or that status to its numerous interspecific varieties.
About some varieties gardeners know everything, about the other, there are only assumptions. Many varieties bear their name in places of growth, others in color gamut of brushes (inflorescences). So, in the Balkans and in the Carpathians, Hungarian lilac grows mainly, in the Asian region there are such species as Afghan and Persian. But in the Eastern lands, especially in China, an overwhelming variety of all species found on earth is growing.
But all the scientists involved in the classification, agreed on the same opinion and similar in appearance between a lilac grouped into groups. The group consists of lilac bushes, similar in form and shape of inflorescences, foliage, flowering time, breeding methods. Already on the basis of this group are divided into subgroups, subsections, subspecies. The only thing that undoubtedly unites them all is beautiful inflorescences and exquisite fragrance.
Some names of different lilac groups
Common lilac - the most famous and popular, unlike other species, has the largest flowers on the inflorescences. It is known from the XVI century and has many varieties produced from it.
Peristolist or pinnate, with dark green leaves and medium-sized pink or white flowers.
Diverse leaf Lilac is a species blooming in white clusters, which is distinguished by greenery of different colors, but with the same pinnate leaves as the perennial varieties, therefore they are combined into one group.
Chinese lilac was discovered not at all in China, but in France. After ordinary lilac - this is the most popular type. The inflorescences are of enormous size, although the bushes themselves are small. There are many forms of inflorescences of Chinese lilac, with different size and frequency of flowers, this includes terry varieties.
By fluffy lilacs velvet, meyeri, juliana other. Fluffy they are called because on their leaves and flowers noticeable slight pubescence. Flowers exude a persistent aroma, although they themselves are not large in size.
Hungarian lilac has a special place among varieties, because it is grown almost everywhere. It blooms late, but very beautiful and unpretentious culture. Easily acclimatized and multiplies.
Small-leaved lilac is bred and supplied for sale from Europe, has small foliage, hence the name. Its undoubted advantage is the small size of the bush, just up to one and a half meters tall. It is not practical to use in free ground, as this variety does not withstand cold winters.
Persian - undemanding culture, resistant to heat and frost. It has in its crown as pinnate leaves, and oval lanceolate. Clusters of inflorescences are very spectacular.
We take a closer look at the lilac called "terry".
The inflorescences of this variety are huge. Flowers on them are large and fluffy (terry). The structure of the bunch is such that any of its flower, having 4 or 5 petals, releases from its core another, additional flower, although smaller than the previous flower. There are semi-double species - this is when the second color has a smaller number of petals. And there are really terry - when the flowers grow, as if from each other and one is not inferior to another. It is such an unusual way of growing and gives the volumetric, terry shape of the inflorescence.
Terry varieties include:
These are varieties with very large buds located abundantly on spreading tree bushes. Let's take a look at some of them in more detail.
Lilac terry "Monique Lemoine". Great variety of white lilac. It was bred from a similar variety, "Madame Lemoine", but has a more compact size and earlier flowering. Terry brushes have large flowers, with pointed petals. Although, the inflorescences themselves are not very large, but densely located on the branches of the bush. White, sometimes creamy, inflorescences can be distinguished by green buds of unblown flowers, which open gradually, which makes the culture happy with long flowering (late spring - early summer) and chic aroma.
The tree shrub is quite compact, only 2 meters tall and with the same crown diameter in an adult plant. The leaves in the shape of a heart have a dark green color and dimensions up to 10 cm in length. This lilac loves the sun, but also tolerates a light shade quite well. Prefers fertile soil. Does not like excessive waterlogging, however, like all lilac varieties. Frost-resistant and well transplanted culture.
Lilac terry "Taras Bulba". This sort of terry lilac was bred in 1956 in Ukraine. It has inflorescences up to 20 cm in length, with very beautiful and large buds from pink to purple. The panicle of the inflorescences are abundant, pyramidal in shape, sharpening upward. The height of the culture can reach up to 2 meters in height and the same in diameter. The culture is light-requiring and frost-resistant. The leaves on the tree are green and light, somewhat convex, 5–8 cm long.
These bushes can often be found as decorative landscaping parks. They can be planted "living wall" along the sidewalks and footpaths in urban squares. The variety loves fertile, well-drained, alkaline soil. Prefers sunny places. Propagated by grafting or grafting. Culture should be provided with moderate watering and fertilizing. For better flowering in early spring (or at the very end of winter), it is necessary to cut a certain number of young shoots. The same is recommended to be done after the lilacs completely fade, that is, to make a circular cut.
You can find out the variety "Taras Bulba" by the following features:
- The bush is low, up to a maximum of two meters. Branches with bark of light brown color, widely spreading in different directions. Fresh shoots have a bluish-purple color,
- Leaves in the shape of a light green heart,
- The grade belongs to the 4th color subgroup - lilac lilac. The buds are purple with purple tint. The color thickens towards the center of the petals,
- The buds of inflorescences are large, up to 1.5 cm. The flowers are approximately 2.5 cm and consist of several (three or more) halos emanating from each other. Therefore, each flower looks like a rounded rose,
- Inflorescences are durable, stand without bending under the weight of lush flowering,
- This lilac blooms late, from the end of May and lasts about 20 days,
- The smell of a flowering bush is very fragrant, but not harsh.
The variety of terry lilac "Taras Bulba" is very elegant and is suitable for cutting into a bouquet.
Planting lilac bushes
Most often, cultivated varieties of terry lilac are purchased in the form of seedlings. If you buy a lilac with a closed root system (the roots are planted in a container with the ground), then there will be fewer problems when disembarking. When buying planting material with open roots, you need to carefully check them. The root system should be well developed, with no visible painful changes. Saplings with open roots need more attention, as they will be more fastidious in changing weather conditions. And also when choosing bushes for planting, check the condition of the bush branches, visually determining their viability and healthy color of the bark.
- Planting and transplanting lilac bushes are usually made in August or early September (subject to warm autumn). Although lilac is a frost-resistant plant and does not require additional protection from the winter cold (like covering up or powdering), seedlings need to take root before the onset of frost. If transplantation was not possible before the onset of sub-zero temperatures, this can be done in the spring, until the buds have swollen on the branches. In another case, the plant is likely to not take root.
- For planting choose in the landscape area a bright and dry place (not lowlands), without winds and excessive drafts. When planting the "green wall", seedlings must be separated from each other at some distance, so that the bushes could later grow. The hole under the seedling is about 0.5 m in diameter, and the depth of the hole should be such that the roots fit, and the lower branches on the branches (the root neck of the plant) are 2–3 cm above ground level, this will exclude other shoots in the spring.
- Soils should be non-clay and non-acid, otherwise it is necessary to neutralize them by adding dolomite flour, lime or other mineral fertilizers with its content. Mineral top dressing is recommended every three years. Groundwater should be located at a depth below 1.5 m from the surface of the earth.
- Good abundant watering is necessary only at the initial stage of rooting of seedlings. Subsequently, moderate irrigation should be observed, since lilac bushes do not tolerate too wet conditions.
The first watering after planting plants in open ground should be generous. Subsequently, the moistening of the soil is carried out as it dries. So lasts until mid-October. The weather should be warm and without night frost. Planned watering of a young sapling is renewed only in spring, in May, and only on condition that it is dry outside and the earth requires moisture. In July, lilac seedlings do not need to be watered to avoid the appearance of buds.
Once every 2–3 years in August, fertilizers, mineral and organic, in the form of potassium, phosphorus, mullein or bird droppings should be applied under the roots. And in winter, when the constant snow cover is already falling, ammonium nitrate can be added under the bushes. In the months of active growth, the leaves of lilac must be sprayed with diluted mineral fertilizers.
In the spring, it is recommended to trim the old branches to update the processes. At the first flowering of a young shrub, ottsvetshie brush should be cut off. This must be done immediately after the inflorescence withers to release the shoots, otherwise the lilac may not blossom next year. Cultural pruning of lilac bushes is also necessary in order to give the plant the correct shape. Inward-facing shoots are cut out completely.
Varietal lilac, including terry, is propagated in the following ways:
Breedinggrafting perform in June or early July. It is during this period that the growth of the lilac bush stops until the next spring. Further:
- they take the middle part of a well-developed shoot, on which are located several leaves (about five pieces),
- make a cut at an angle of about 45 0,
- process the cut branch with a special composition that stimulates the formation of the root system,
- make its landing in the harvested hole with fertilizer.
Reproduction by layering least complicated of all the way and is as follows:
- a furrow is made near the lilac bush
- the lower branches of the mother plant are bent to the ground and fastened.
If everything is done correctly, then the escapes will grow from the escape.
How to plant a lilac grafting. This is possible only in the presence of ready-grown rootstocks grown from seeds:
- seeds are harvested in October, dried and kept until spring at low temperatures,
- put in a hothouse bed (or in boxes) in March, buried 1.5 cm in the ground,
- when sprouts come out, make a picking 3 cm apart,
- you need to wait for the leaves to appear (at least 4 pieces on the stock),
- in open ground, shoots (stocks) can be planted in May,
- on a young rooted stock, cut at an angle,
- connect the oblique sections of the stock and the graft (grape varietal lilac for breeding),
- fasten (wrap) with a cloth or rope.
This method is also called copulation.
Pests and diseases of lilac
Lilac, like all plants, are prone to disease and exposure to pests. Most often lilacs affect diseases, such as:
- Bacterial Root Rot. Help in this case can spraying a young bush with copper chloride concentrate.
- Late blight disease. This problem can be solved with the help of the Bordeaux mixture, sold in garden stores,
- Moth moth. Dies from exposure to chlorophos or rotor lilac foliage.
- Lilac hawk moth. A pest that needs to be cleaned up as soon as possible by treating the bushes with a solution of phtholophos (0.1% composition).
From the huge variety of lilacs on the territory of our country, lilacs of diverse leaves and Persian lilacs have long and successfully grown. All other species were imported and cultivated from other regions, so they are not found on a large scale. However, in the botanical gardens you can see, and in the lilac nurseries you can purchase any elite variety for exclusive planting.
Adding an article to a new collection
Some love the thunderstorm in early May, while others prefer the lush blooming of fragrant lilac. What kind of varieties to give preference to spring flower bed played with bright colors?
Lilac of all varieties exudes a pleasant smell, which we often associate with the approach of summer. Therefore, no matter what variety you choose, fragrant garden is provided to you. But to heighten the effect, it is better to combine plants of different shades and with varying degrees of flower terry. Let's see what varieties of common lilacs have already won the hearts of many gardeners.
1. Aukubafolia (Aucubaefolia)
In this attractive plant, the main advantage is not even the inflorescences, but the motley leaves, which are decorative not only in late spring, but also until the autumn. Saturated light green leaves with yellow specks and stripes are ideally combined with lilac-blue semi-double flowers.
Sometimes called Aucubaefolia implemented grade Dappled dawn - not with semi-double, but with simple flowers.
2. Beauty of Moscow
This lilac variety is popular all over the world, it was brought out by the Soviet self-taught breeder Leonid Alekseevich Kolesnikov. Thanks to the delicate white and pink inflorescences, this plant creates a romantic atmosphere in the garden. The flowers are quite large (2.5 cm in diameter), terry and very fragrant.
Lilac Beauty of Moscow awarded the title "The most beautiful lilac of the world."
5. Katherine Havemeyer (Katherine Havemeyer)
Variety breeding Lemoine. The plant is a sprawling multi-stemmed shrub or tree (3-5 m tall) with dark green leaves and dense terry inflorescences, which consist of large purple-purple flowers. This fragrant lilac is resistant to urban conditions, smoke, gas, heat, wind and frost.
7. Massena (Massena)
This plant is loved by many thanks to its purple and reddish-purple flowers. Former president of the International Lilac Society, Colin Chapman, described Massenu so: "The inflorescences of this variety in buds look like clusters of purple grapes, fully revealed - like big fluffy pompons of cheerleaders."
The flower stalks of this lilac are quite heavy, so the branches often bend down.
12. Primrose (Primrose)
The uniqueness of this variety is uncharacteristic for lilac color. The buds are greenish-yellow, and the flowers are creamy-yellow (they resemble a primula in color). In the summer, in the bright sun, the petals fade and often turn white, but at the same time the inflorescences emit a no less saturated pleasant aroma.
This variety was bred in 1964. Flowers are collected in large inflorescences up to 20 cm long, can be both simple and double. Their color varies from a delicate lilac-pink to pinkish-white with an unusual mother-of-pearl shade. And at the end of flowering petals become white. The variety is winter-hardy and resistant to temperature and air pollution.
Refined and delicate inflorescences of this lilac fit perfectly into the design of a romantic garden. In summer, pink flowers fade and turn purple-white, but due to their similarity to the buds of polyanthus rose and curving, pointed petals, they continue to attract attention.
What varieties of common lilac are your favorites?