Garlic: plant species, growing features


Features of growing spring garlic
Fertile loamy and sandy soils are most suitable for planting onion crops. Knowing how to grow onions and garlic, you can achieve a good harvest. These vegetables are not demanding, but still have some features of cultivation. Garlic is a light-loving plant, so you should not plant it in the shade of trees.

He can be allocated a separate bed or placed next to the fruit and berry crops or vegetables. Garlic feels good near strawberries, potatoes, raspberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, black currants, onions, gooseberries, roses, gladioli, tulips. It can be planted in areas where cabbage and legumes used to grow, but it is not recommended to combine them on the same bed.
Novice gardeners do not know how to grow summer garlic healthy and large. To do this, you need to choose a good planting material, remove sick and small teeth. From time to time it is worth updating varieties, because they can degenerate. To spring garlic quickly went to growth, it is germinated. The teeth are placed in a wet cloth bag and put in a plastic bag for a couple of days. But doing all this is not necessary.
Planting summer garlic
It is necessary to plant a crop in spring, as soon as the soil warms up to +7 ° C (somewhere in the beginning or middle of April). Dry soil requires abundant watering, if it is wet, then watering the beds is not necessary. Garlic sits at a depth of about 6 cm, it should be twice the height of the clove. Germinated seeds should be planted carefully, without damaging the root system.
The beds need to mulch. Rows should be made about 20 cm wide, the teeth are planted with a gap of 10 cm. Spring garlic is not afraid of frost, its shoots appear at +3 ° C. The initial growing season for the culture takes place at +10 ° C, the bulb forms at +15 ° C, and it matures at +25 ° C.
Care of crops
Many are wondering how to grow large garlic, especially if the summer is hot, and you can’t water the beds all the time. In this case, it is necessary to mulch the soil, while the mulch is better to choose light. During the growing season, you should try to provide garlic with abundant watering, because at this time it is actively growing.
When ripe bulbs moisture is needed in smaller quantities. In rainy weather, it is not worth pouring water at all. Waterlogging should not be allowed in any case, because it provokes the development of fungi and spoil the bulbs.
For spring garlic, it is recommended to hold two dressings: in the early spring, water the land with a solution of bird droppings or rotted cow manure, and in the middle of summer with a solution of ash. Mineral fertilizers are not used for culture, they do not benefit either vegetables or human health.
The recommendations on how to grow garlic should also include weed control and occasional loosening of the soil. Thanks to mulching, it is possible to ease care of the crop many times, not to weed the earth and reduce the number of waterings.
What is the difference between spring and winter garlic?
Culture varieties are divided into two large groups: arrow and non-arrow. Before you grow garlic, you should decide on the variety and its type. Gardeners argue that the arrows form only winter varieties, but in some cases they can appear on spring crops.
It all depends on the climatic features of the region. Winter garlic has large teeth, they are located around the stem. Spring is smaller, its bulbs are dense. Winter crops are frost-resistant and their productivity is extremely high, but in terms of shelf life they significantly lose to summer crops, which are preserved intact throughout the whole year.

How to grow garlic yourself

This powerful natural antiseptic successfully fights against viral infections, has immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties. The presence of such a huge number of useful properties explains the popularity of garlic in Russia. In our country it is almost impossible to find a garden plot where garlic is not grown.

Garlic is a perennial plant, originally from Central Asia. It has been known for more than 5 thousand years. His ability to be beneficial is explained unique compositionwhich includes:

  • B vitamins,
  • potassium,
  • essential oils,
  • enulin,
  • iron,
  • phytoncides,
  • vitamin C,
  • squirrels,
  • iodine,
  • manganese,
  • cellulose,
  • magnesium,
  • Vitamin PP.

And many more useful elements, all of them more than 400.

In Russian cuisine, garlic is really an indispensable thing. Pickled tomatoes, eggplants or cucumbers in general can not be cooked without adding this really miraculous plant. The basis of healing folk recipes, often also garlic. The popularity of this plant in our country is huge, and to find a kitchen where he was absent is probably impossible.

A huge amount of useful medicinal and taste properties explains the fact that even in a small garden area, you can always find beds with growing garlic. Grow it easy, and knowing some of the nuances proper planting and plant care, you can easily get good, large heads.

Types of garlic

This unique culture, depending on the time of planting, is divided into 2 types:

The biggest advantage spring garlic is that, unlike winter, it can be stored for a long time, until the new crop. Spring has smaller teeth, and in a bulb there can be up to 30 cloves. Spring breeds only teeth. The kind to which he belongs is not shot. Spring yield is slightly lower than winter.

Winter is planted before winter, about 1.5 months before the expected frosts. This species is prone to bolting, in the head is usually not more than 10 teeth. It has a very high yield, but is not able to be stored for a long time. Due to the fact that this variety is very susceptible to rot, it is recommended to use it immediately for cooking or preserving.

For garlic, it is desirable to allocate a separate bed. If this is not possible, the neighbors of the plant can become such berries:

These vegetables get along and grow well with garlic:

Good predecessors, but unwanted neighbors are:

If you plant garlic next to roses or tulips, it will help preserve the beauty and health of the flowers, as its smell frightens off slugs and caterpillars.

Planting spring garlic

The most favorable time for planting spring garlic is the first half of April. It is important not to delay planting dates, as the roots grow at temperatures from +4 to +10 degrees. If the temperature rises - the growth of the roots will stop. And to get large heads without a good root system does not work out, the yield will also significantly decrease.

The plant has its own requirements for soil, therefore prepare it in advance. It is better that its acidity is neutral. Due to the fact that the roots of the spring variety are in the upper layers of the soil, they must be provided with the best nutrition.

For the beds you need to choose a place where the sun's rays fall freely. In addition, on the site where the plant will be planted, there should not be a stagnation of water. Usually, the soil is filled with humus and compost in the fall. It will not be superfluous to ash, which will provide additional food.

Most popular Spring varieties are:

  1. Gulliver,
  2. Victorio,
  3. Gafurian,
  4. Degtyarsky
  5. Yelenovsky,
  6. Yershovsky.

Choose only large teeth for planting, otherwise you should not expect a good, large head. And in the event that the gardener is more interested in obtaining juicy greens, it is necessary to take smaller teeth and plant them separately.

Planting material necessarily need to heal before planting. First of all, it is necessary to reject the soft, out of shape, small and sore teeth. You need to choose only large, with a solid dense shell. After rejection, the selected material should be disinfected.

For disinfection use ash liquor. To do this, dissolve 400 g of ash in 2 liters of water. The mixture is boiled for 30 minutes. Then, when it is completely cooled, the teeth selected for planting are soaked in it for 3 hours.

Respect landing density - An important condition that must be met by anyone who is interested in how to grow garlic. The distance between slices should be at least 8 cm, and between rows at least 30 cm. The development of garlic can slow down the deep planting, so you should not dive deeper into the ground deeper than 2 cm. Fresh beds must be mulched with sawdust, peat or straw.

Spring Grade Care

This variety during the active growth of greenery needs abundant watering. By the end of July, watering is significantly reduced, and in August they stop altogether. Due to the fact that excess water can help the bulbs to clear out and retards their development, watering is completely stopped in case of frequent precipitation.

To grow good on the garden, large heads help correct and timely feeding, which must be combined with watering. In total, for the growth period, garlic needs 3 supplements:

  1. After the first few leaves have formed, you can do the first feeding. For it use humus, a solution of bird droppings, mullein. Make fresh manure can not, because it is bad for the further preservation of the bulbs,
  2. fertilizers or ashes conduct a second dressing a few weeks after the first,
  3. the last time fertilizers are applied in early July, using phosphorus-potassium mixtures.

By the end of August, when the leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow, it can be collected. Onions dig in, shake off the ground and dried. Keep heads in a cool and dry place for up to 2 years.

Growing garlic with a large head

To grow really big heads on your bed, you need to follow a few simple rules that experienced gardeners know well:

  1. Be sure to loosen the beds. Do this necessarily after each watering,
  2. in order to get a good harvest, you must update the varieties on time,
  3. there is a way that helps a plant to direct all its strength to the growth and maturation of the bulb, and not green. To do this, in early August, in order to reduce the nutrition of greenery, tie all the leaves of a plant in a knot.

Planting winter garlic

Winter garlic is not suitable for long-term storage, so most often it is planted in order to get big harvest and consumed first. Landing is usually carried out in early October, about six weeks before the first frost.

It’s not worth worrying about the cold winter and frost, as the winter variety, with proper care and planting, calmly tolerates even the most severe frosts.

The procedure for winter varieties is almost the same as when planting spring. That is, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with compost and humus, to dig up to 25 cm. It is important not to forget to destroy all weeds in the garden. Before sowing, cover the soil with foil.

At the bottom of the furrow, the depth of which should be up to 15 cm, you need to fill up some sand. This must be done so that the clove does not form rot, coming into contact with the soil. The larger size of the heads of winter varieties requires more space than the spring one, therefore the distance from the teeth on the garden should be at least 15 cm. If the bulbs are sown at the same time, they are planted to a depth of 3 cm.

A prerequisite for good growth of the winter species is mulching sawdust or peat. The thickness of the mulch can be thicker than 3 cm, since it is she who is able to protect the young plant from frost. If the winter is cold but not snowy, the beds are covered with thick polyethylene. When snow falls, the polyethylene is removed.

Most common varieties winter garlic:

  1. Lyubasha,
  2. Alcor,
  3. Gribovsky jubilee,
  4. Belorussian,
  5. Sail,
  6. Near Moscow
  7. Komsomol member

Winter Garlic Care

Winter garlic requires abundant watering at the time when its teeth are formed, therefore in the beginning of May the first watering is carried out. It is necessary to water a plant 1 time in 10 days. A month before harvesting, the garlic is stopped watering.

As in the case of spring, the winter view requires at least 3 feedings:

  1. For the first feeding, granulated preparations are best suited, since it is carried out on frozen ground. Ammonium nitrate, for these purposes, is best suited,
  2. exactly one month later, fertilizers are applied again, using this time bird droppings or herbal extracts,
  3. The last dressing is carried out with potash fertilizers, while the plant head has reached the size of a walnut.

After the floral arrows start to appear, they need to be removed. Despite the fact that their removal delays the ripening of garlic, this process affects the size of the head in a positive way. Several arrows can be left to use for future seeds.

The broken shell of the peduncle indicates that garlic can be harvested. It is necessary to gently shake the ground from the heads, in no case should you strike garlic against each other. This will damage the teeth and they will start to rot.

The main mistakes when growing

To grow on your garden bed garlic with healthy and large heads, you need to know the basic mistakes that inexperienced gardeners make:

  1. planting plants in acidic soil, which the plant does not tolerate,
  2. if you don’t go through planting material and do not reject damaged heads, you shouldn’t count on a healthy harvest,
  3. lack of oxygen in the soil adversely affects the plant, so loosening the soil will be superfluous,
  4. if you do not mulch the beds, it may result in a shredded crop,
  5. garlic will not grow large, if the teeth are planted too tight.

Pests and methods of dealing with them

Growing garlic can be accompanied by diseases that affect the plant, most often during the growing season. The most common are:

  1. gelmintosporiosis. The cause of this disease is fungus. Brown spots appear on the teeth, which eventually turn black. The head begins to rot. The plant can infect directly on the garden, from potatoes or tomatoes, as well as from onions. In addition, poor quality material for planting may cause illness,
  2. white rot. The cause is also a fungus,
  3. fusarium The fungus that causes the roots to die and the bulb to rot,
  4. neck rot. Infection can occur from the soil or from planting material,
  5. bacterial rot. The causative agent is bacteria that cause ulcers to appear on the bulbs and a strong smell of rot is felt,
  6. Stemfiliosis (black mold). The disease is manifested by yellow spots that infect the leaves, then these spots are covered with black mold,
  7. penicillosis (green mold), which is also caused by a fungus,
  8. peronosporosis. The disease is manifested by a gray bloom on the leaves,
  9. stem nematode.

Prevention of all diseases is the careful selection of seed. And with the manifestations of diseases can be dealt with the insecticides "Keltan" or "Rogor". The treatment of colloidal sulfur has proven itself well.

Features of the plant

This light-loving plant, as a rule, is grown on a separate garden bed. Also, garlic can be planted densely with other garden crops or berries, if the space on the site is not enough. Best of all, the plant feels close to black currants, raspberries, tomatoes, cucumbers and strawberries. Also near the garlic, you can grow such flower crops as roses and gladioli. In this case, garlic scares off various plant pests.

Garlic - description, composition

On a note! The popularity of garlic lies in its unique properties - the plant scares off various parasites (slug, caterpillars, and so on). Gardeners say that even moles bypass garlic and don’t like to dig holes near it. Flower growers also love garlic, because it prevents the development of a number of diseases - for example, it protects roses from root rot.

But there are plants that can not be planted next to garlic because of its negative impact on these crops. It is about beans and cabbage. But at the same time, cabbage is the best predecessor of garlic, which must be considered when choosing a place in the garden. The same can be said about pumpkin crops.

Culture grows well in loose and fertile soils.

Optimum landing time

Growing spring garlic involves planting in the first half of April, but during this period the soil is still quite solid, so it is very hard to dig. As an option - the preparation of the site for spring varieties occurs in the fall. If we talk about winter varieties of garlic, then they should be planted in the fall - from the beginning of September to the end of October. The time interval is selected in such a way that before frost the plant has managed to acquire a strong root system, which penetrates the earth by 9-11 cm. The plant can winter under the snow, and with the onset of heat produce a good harvest.

Planting winter garlic

Variety selection

Существует много различных сортов чеснока — как озимого, так и ярового — и все они отличаются друг от друга по декоративным, вкусовым или урожайным качествам. Consider the most common winter varieties in Russia.

    Petrovsky. High-yielding variety of garlic, which is characterized by good keeping quality and dense flesh. Standard taste for garlic, spicy. The plant is very resistant to various diseases. When growing gives an arrow.

Garlic varieties "Gribovsky 60"

Winter Komsomolets garlic

Features of the choice of varieties of garlic

The popular spring varieties of garlic include the following.

    "Gulliver". A good sort of garlic, which is well kept. It has a flat circular bulb painted in sulfur color. Dental teeth have a sharp taste - characteristic of garlic.

Photo garlic "Degtyarsky"

Growing garlic in spring

As noted earlier, it is desirable to grow garlic in the beds where beans, zucchini, cabbage, and so on were previously grown. Also, gardeners plant this plant next to some types of flowers to protect against diseases and pests. The process of growing garlic is not much different from that for any other garden crop, with the exception of some nuances. Every gardener can cope with this, the main thing is to follow some recommendations for creating optimal conditions.

Spring planting garlic

Preparation of beds

As practice shows, narrow beds are best suited for growing garlic, regardless of its type or variety. Soil preparation involves the introduction of ash or lime to reduce acidity - these conditions are most suitable for garlic.

Homemade landing pattern

On a note! It is also desirable to fertilize the soil with mineral fertilizers or humus. This is carried out at the rate of 10 g of phosphorus and potassium, 8 kg of humus per 1 m² bed. With fertilizer should be careful not to harm the plants.

Preparation of planting material

Not everyone prepares garlic before planting, believing it to be a useless process. In fact, this is not the case, because soaking the teeth in warm water for about 3-4 hours will accelerate the growth of the plant. After that, the teeth should be sprinkled with moistened sawdust or moss, and then put under the battery or other warm place. After a few days, the rudiments of the roots form in the form of small white formations on the teeth. This suggests that the plant is ready for the next stage - planting.

Garlic cloves preferably prepared before planting