More than 30 years ago, in one of the Moscow institutes, the Vasyugan variety of columnar apple trees was bred. And during this time he won great popularity not only in the territory
Russia, but also far beyond its borders. I have been cultivating this variety for over 12 years. During this time I managed to study Vasyugan in detail, learn all its features and am ready to share useful information.
The Vasyugan apple-tree belongs to the columnar varieties, which are characterized by low growth and absence of branches. The maximum height of the tree falls on 7-8 year and at the same time does not exceed 3 m. Crohn is represented by a single trunk and abundant greenery.
Tip! The lack of side branches makes this variety optimal for growing on small plots of land.
The Vasyugan fruits have a canonical and slightly elongated shape. The skin is a sufficient thin yellow-green shade and reddish side. The flesh is juicy with a fine-grained structure and a sweet and sour taste. One apple usually reaches a mass of 120-140 g.
Full ripening usually occurs in the second half of August and, depending on the climate, may shift until the beginning of September. With proper collection of fruits can be stored for about a month. On average, one adult tree gives 5-6 kg of crop and a maximum of 11 kg. Apples have sufficient hardness to tolerate transportation.
The first fruits can be seen already in the first year of planting the seedling, but the real harvest begins with 3-4 years of age and lasts about 10 years. For continuous production of apples, gardeners recommend planting updates every 9-10 years.
Description, characteristic varieties with photos
Apple Vasyugan low-growing, semi-dwarf. Growth of a tree directly depends on a scion. On a dwarf graft, an apple tree reaches 2 meters. On the high it grows up to 3 meters. The annual growth of the tree is 15-25 centimeters. The Vasyugan apple-tree has a strong trunk and a compact crown. The twigs of the apple trees are short and they are covered with rings. The average length of the branches is 10-15 centimeters. The tree is leafy. The leaves are large, elongated, green. The tip of the leaf is pointed. The edges are jagged. The roots are strong, resistant to disease.
The flowering period of the apple tree - the beginning of May. At this time, the tree is covered with large and fragrant flowers that attract bees. To increase the yield next to the apple tree Vasyugan need to plant a tree pollinator. Duration of flowering should be the same.
Fruits are formed on numerous kolchatka. Their maturation occurs in late August or early September. The first crop in the amount of 3-6 apples can be obtained in the first year after planting the tree, but it weakens the apple tree and it is better to immediately remove the ovary.
Every year, the yield of wood increases, and by the age of 4-5 years it reaches 6-8 kilograms. Harvested apples are stored no more than 1 month.
After 15 years, the yield of apple trees Vasyugan begins to fall and must be replaced with a new one.
Fruits have a thin and at the same time dense skin. The main color of the fruit is yellow-green. Covering red-pink. The apple is covered in blurry stripes. The shape of the fruit is elongated-conical. The size is average. Weight reaches 100-140 grams (sometimes 200 grams). The flesh is light, creamy white, granular, dense, sour-sweet, aromatic and juicy.
Tasting evaluation of fruits on a five-point scale is 4-4.6 points.
The fruit produces very tasty compotes, juices, jams, jam, jam, filling for pies and various culinary dishes. Because of the dense skin of the apples can be baked in the oven.
Advantages and disadvantages
Vasyugan apple-tree has many advantages, such as:
- Apples have excellent commercial quality,
- the fruits are suitable for the preservation and preparation of desserts and various culinary dishes,
- the tree is low and compact,
- fungal diseases and pests do not practically harm the apple tree,
- wood is highly frost resistant and tolerates temperatures up to - 42-45 ° С
There are practically no flaws in the variety, these include:
- Short shelf life of fruits (not more than a month),
- Close location of the root system.
Planting and care
Vasyugan apple tree need to be planted on a bright, closed from the wind, nepodteplyaemym place. Groundwater should lie no closer than 2 meters from the ground. The best soil for an apple tree is chernozem, loam or sandy loam. To plant an apple tree should be given the gap between the trees, which is 40 centimeters. Row spacing must be equal to 1 meter.
Some gardeners grow this variety (on a dwarf stock) in a tub. The tree grows well and forms. The yield is almost the same as that of a tree growing in open ground.
When buying a one-year sapling, you need to immediately look at the condition of the roots and bark of the tree. If they are damaged or dried out, you can not take such a seedling! Any growths and dark spots are a clear sign of the disease and it is not recommended to buy such a tree.
Pit for planting need to prepare in advance. Depth and its width should be 50-70 centimeters. A mixture of earth, peat, dolomite flour, rotted humus or compost, 50 grams of potash fertilizer and 50 grams of superphosphate is poured into the pit. If the soil is clay, coarse river sand is added to the mixture.
After 2 weeks, when the soil in the pit will sit down, the tree can be planted. Pit before planting need to pour a bucket of water. Then a peg is driven in near the center in the pit. The sapling is set strictly in the center. In the harsh conditions of northern Russia, apple trees should be planted with a slight slope at an angle of 30 °. For additional protection from the cold, the tree can be planted in a trench.
Planting an apple in autumn
In any case, the grafting site for an apple tree should go 5-7 centimeters above ground level. The roots of the tree when planting should be placed freely in the pit. They need to be straightened, otherwise when falling asleep there may be creases.
After installing the apple tree, you can fill the pit. The earth is poured in layers, it helps to avoid air gaps inside the roots. The soil around the tree needs to be trampled, watered with warm water and covered with vegetable mulch (peat, humus, straw, sawdust). The tree is tied to a peg.
From further care depends on the health of the young apple.
Caring for an apple tree Vasyugan includes:
- loosening and removing weeds,
- preventive work from diseases, pests and rodents.
When planting in the fall all the leaves from the tree need to be torn off. This will allow the tree to take root faster and easier to survive the winter. With the spring planting of an apple tree, all the flowers need to be removed, this will allow the tree to better strengthen in a new place and gain strength for the next fruiting. In the second year you need to leave 6 ovaries, then 12 pieces. From the fourth year, the largest ovaries remain on the tree, which contributes to an increase in the size of the fruits and their better quality. If the fruits on the apple tree begin to shrink, their number should be reduced next year.
The best option for irrigation varieties Vasyugan is drip irrigation. In addition to this, surface watering of the crown is made for the tree once a month. If drip irrigation is not possible to arrange, then the tree should be watered every 3 days. The amount of water depends on the age of the tree. For a young apple, 1-2 buckets are required, and for an adult apple you need 2-3 buckets of water.
After watering is loosening.
In the columnar apple, the root system is located near the surface of the earth. When removing weeds and loosening the soil, all these procedures should be carried out with special care to avoid damage to the roots.
After watering, the near-stem circle is covered with a layer of mulch from peat or humus.
In the second year, the area around the apple tree can be sown with dill, cilantro, cereals, lawn grass, lemon balm. When the grass grows, you just need to mow it. From spring to mid-summer, the tree is fertilized once a month with organic matter in the form of chicken manure, slurry, and ammonium nitrate.
On foliage 2-3 times during the growing season it is necessary to produce fertilizing with a solution of urea.
In the apple in the first years of tree formation, you need to monitor the apical bud. From it grows the main escape. If the kidney is damaged, it must be replaced with a new one. Next year, from 2-4 shoots growing up, you need to choose the strongest, this will be the new conductor. Other branches are pruned. If the branches leave a columnar shape at the tree is lost, but the gardeners at the same time note a high yield.
Tree pruning is needed to save strength and increase yields. Lateral branches are trimmed to 2 buds. A year later, 2 escapes appear. One remains to grow, and the second is shortened by 2 buds. A horizontal branch that has not been pruned will bear fruit. It can be removed next spring. This stimulates the formation of new branches. Dry, damaged branches should be removed once a year before the sap flow in the tree.
Trim the tops
For the prevention of diseases and pests for wood, it is necessary to spray fungicides (copper sulphate, iron sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, foundation) and insecticides (Ankara, Fufanon, Konfidor).
With frequent rains there is a possibility of scab damage. When it appears on a tree, leaves and fruits are damaged. An apple tree at the first sign of illness needs to be treated with a solution of Bordeaux liquid.
If a grayish-white bloom appears on the leaves, then these are obvious signs of powdery mildew. The ovary at defeat does not form inflorescences and the tree does not give fruit.
With this disease, first of all, all damaged areas should be removed. And the tree and the soil around it is treated with copper sulfate. For prevention, the tree should be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. Top dressing is made in spring and early summer.
At the first signs of the appearance of pests need to make protective measures. For the control of ticks, caterpillars and aphids the drug Fitoverm is used.
Before wintering, mulch around the tree should be removed. To protect against rodents and cold, the trunk of the apple should be covered with roofing material or lapnik. When snow falls around the tree, a snowdrift is formed. In spring, the soil around the tree is cleared of debris and old leaves.
Vasyugan apple trees are grown in many regions of Russia. This tree with good care annually gives up to 10 kilograms of high-quality fruits.
Apple-tree colony Vasyugan: video
In our lane, not every apple tree can take root, let alone bear fruit. In order to avoid frostbite, I planted a Vasyugan apple-tree in a trench. The tree stuck well and the next year gave the first harvest. Delicious, sweet and sour apples are quite large. So far there are not many of them, but I look forward to the new harvest.
Apple Vasyugan in my area has been growing for 13 years. It's a pity, of course, that soon it will have to be uprooted, but for the time being I enjoy delicious and fragrant apples. They make a pleasant, refreshing juice. Apples are good both in jam, in compote, and in pies. Great variety for a small lot! This fall, I again want to buy and plant a new seedling of the Vasyugan variety. There is little need for landing, so there will be no problems with this.
Apple trees Vasyugan bought over the Internet. I was afraid that the roots of the tree would be dried up, but they were closed and fresh. Apple trees quickly settled down and the very next year the first apples appeared on them. I cut them off, I decided to give the tree time to strengthen. A year later I took about 2 kilograms of apples. Apples green-red color. The taste is sweet-sour and juicy. They are stored 25-35 days.
The first columnar apple varieties came to Europe from the American continent in 1964. And the variety "Vasyugan" was bred about thirty years ago, at the end of the 80s, at the Institute of Gardening in Moscow by crossing the undersized "Lingonberry" and "KV-5".
Apple tree immediately fell in love with amateur gardeners for its pleasant dessert fruit flavor, affordable care and frost resistance. Tests of the variety ended in 1995, after which its mass breeding began.
Its semi-dwarf tree reaches its maximum height at the age of 6–8 years, while it does not exceed three meters. The crown is formed into a single trunk, without side branches and with abundant foliage. Kollyakh depart directly from the barrel. Due to the lack of side branches, the tree occupies a small area, which is an advantage when growing it in conditions of limited space, for example, in the country. The peculiarity of the variety is its increased frost resistance: “Vasyugan” maintains temperature well to –42 ° С, which allows it to be grown in the conditions of northern latitudes. In addition, the unusual appearance of the variety will be a wonderful decoration of any garden.
The description of the fruit of the columnar apple variety "Vasyugan" is as follows:
- weight - 100–150 g,
- shape - conical, elongated,
- color - yellow-green with a partial reddish blush,
- the flesh is juicy, fine-grained, white or slightly creamy,
- taste - sweet-sour, saturated,
- the aroma is pleasant.
How to choose seedlings when buying
It is best to buy seedlings in nurseries from trusted vendors who have the appropriate documents for their products. When buying a well inspect the seedling so that it is not dry or with a damaged root system. In the presence of stains or any traces of infection should abandon this instance. It is not worth saving and buying trees in random places, because the funds invested in the seedling will more than pay off with a high yield of tasty fruits.
Rules for planting apple seedlings in the area
The columnar apple "Vasyugan" requires proper planting and further care:
- care should be taken to preserve the apical bud, since the apple has no side branches,
- when planting seedlings need to make fertilizer
- after planting should be plentifully pour water over the tree.
The best time to buy and plant seedlings of the same age is spring, namely: the second half of April or the beginning of May. In this case, it is possible to see the first flowering of the seedling this year, however, the first flowers must be removed so as not to overload the plant. The next suitable period for planting seedlings is September – November.
It is necessary to plant seedlings in quiet, windless corners of the garden, since young trees are still afraid of frost. Like all columnar apple trees, it is better to plant Vasyugan on a flat, well-lit area, located as far as possible from wetlands and cool lowlands. This tree feels uncomfortable on the slopes, the sun and in places where the groundwater is located closer than 1.5 m from the surface level. The soil in the area should be of neutral acidity, chernozem soils are well suited, since they are saturated with all the nutrients necessary for the development of apple trees. In addition, there should be convenient access to the trees, as they require constant thorough care.
Site preparation and seedlings
Selected seedlings carefully inspect the absence of disease and damage. Slightly dried up roots can be rehabilitated by holding them for a day or two in the water. If there were numerous plantings in the selected area, then it is necessary to cultivate the soil by adding nitrogen fertilizers and compost. After which you should dig a good plot. The pit for planting should be prepared in advance (10-15 days before planting), since the ground can crumble and injure the seedling.
Process and scheme
The pit for planting should be large enough (not less than 0.9x0.9x0.9 m in size) so that the root system of the seedling can easily fit in it and the tree does not lack nutrients. When digging a hole, the upper soil fertile layer must be discarded separately. If the ground is heavy enough, then drainage from coarse sand or gravel should be provided at the bottom. Then 3-4 buckets of compost or humus, superphosphate (50-100 g) and potash fertilizers (50-80 g) are brought into the soil fertile layer. Dolomite flour (100-200 g) is also added to the acidic soil. The resulting mixture is laid in the pits. The trees should be planted at a distance of not less than 0.5 m from each other with a minimum distance between rows of 1 m. The root neck of the apple should be slightly above the surface of the plot. After planting, water the trees abundantly.
"Vasyugan" has a shallow surface root system, which requires more intensive watering than regular apple trees. Ideal in this case would be the use of drip irrigation. However, it is not worth over-watering the tree, because stagnation of water leads to rotting of the roots of the plant. If it is impossible to install drip irrigation, it is necessary to water the tree once every 3-4 days in the dry and hot period and once a week - at other times. After watering, you need to mulch pristvolny circle with straw, which is removed for the period of wintering. Due to the weakness of the roots of apple trees, it is not necessary to loosen the soil around them, you need to tin it. For this purpose, cereals are planted around the trees, which are carefully mown from time to time. Instead of cereals, you can plant spices - lemon balm or dill, which, moreover, will be an additional protection against pests.
The yield of the garden is directly dependent on fertilizers, so in the spring you need to remember to add nitrogen, which activates the vegetative growth of plants. The source of nitrogen can be - humus, bird droppings and mineral fertilizers.When using fresh manure, fertilize trees in the fall. In addition, before and after flowering apple trees should be applied potash fertilizers. And one of the activities to prepare the garden for the winter is the introduction of superphosphate. By the way, specialized shops offer ready-made forms of feeding for any plants and trees.
To prevent diseases of the apple, it is necessary to regularly spray them with fungicides and insecticides. This should be done twice a year - in the spring before the first flowers appear, and in the autumn - after the harvest. As a preventive measure against scab, spring trees are treated with Bordeaux liquid. The same remedy together with “Fundazol” will help in the fight against other diseases of apple trees - powdery mold and rust.
Cropping and crown formation
Pruning varieties "Vasyugan" has some features: since these trees do not need side branches, it is worth cutting them into two buds. By the end of the first year of growth, several upward shoots appear on this site, which must also be trimmed. Thus, in the summer of the third year after planting, the uncircumcised horizontal twig will begin to bear fruit, and the trimmed vertical will bring several young shoots. If the frost has damaged the apical bud, then it is necessary to remove all new shoots, except the most viable, and to treat the cut sites with lime.
Protection against cold and rodents
An apple tree, especially in the first year after planting, must be protected from the cold and various rodents by wrapping it with fir branches, straw or wood chips. It is important that the shelter remains dry from the inside and has no gaps.
An excellent protection against mice is also a grid of metal wire, which protects each tree trunk to a height of approximately 120 cm and is buried in the ground to a depth of 30 cm. Also, many amateur gardeners use dense nylon nets or cut plastic bottles.
In addition, in the winter, you can thoroughly powder the root circle of the apple tree with snow. However, when trampling on snow, one should be very careful not to damage the root system of the tree located close to the surface.
Despite the seeming complexity of caring for the Vasyugan variety, by planting these trees, you will get an excellent result in the form of delicious, fragrant and early ripe apples. And the unusual appearance of the trees will be an interesting decorative element of your garden.
Apple tree "Vasyugan": description of the variety
In terms of growth, the columnar apple Vasyugan refers to semi-dwarf, a tree grows in one trunk. The maximum height of an apple tree is 3 m, it reaches “Vasyugan” at the age of 6 - 8 years.
The krone is very compact, without side branches. Fruiting apple varieties "Vasyugan" focused on shortened internodes (kolchatkah), abundantly covering the trunk in the form of a column. Due to the complete absence of branches and due to the shortened internodes it seems that the fruits grow right on the trunk.
Apples grow of medium size, the average weight of one fruit is 100-150 g, but in some cases it can go up to 200 g. The shape is conical and elongated, the skin color is yellowish-green with a reddish striped blush. The flesh has a fine-grained structure and is colored in a white-cream tone. The taste is rich, sweet-sour, according to the tasting criteria, Vasyugan apples belong to the dessert type. The fruit is very fragrant.
The average yield of "Vasugan" is 5-6 kg from one tree, the maximum is 10 kg. The undeniable dignity of the columnar apple is its precocity. After landing on a permanent place, you can get the first fruits in the first year, in the future, the yield increases. Apple tree is able to effectively bear fruit for 15 years, after which the yield is significantly reduced. According to gardeners, it is necessary to plant new copies every 10 years to update the planting.
Rules for planting a columnar apple
It is possible to start planting seedlings of the columnar apple variety “Vasyugan” in the fall and spring. It is recommended to choose a sunny place, because in bright light the apples become tastier and acquire a special taste. However, it is best to avoid its location in the sun and drafts, as well as with groundwaters above 4 meters.
The best for planting are loamy and loamy-sandy loam soil types. The soil should be loose, with good permeability and aeration.
Pits for planting apple seedlings "Vasyugan" should be prepared in advance. Do this as follows:
- Dig a hole 50 cm wide and 80 cm deep. In this case, the upper layer lay in one direction, and the lower, less fertile - in another.
- The top layer of soil is mixed with wood ash, compost and superphosphate and lay the substrate in the prepared pit.
- Apple seedlings "Vasyugan" placed at a distance of 40 cm from each other, between the rows - 1 m.
The tree is planted together with a support-peg, to which it must be tied with a soft cloth. It is installed on the leeward side. This is done in order not to damage the bark. After planting, the seedling should be shed with plenty of water and mumbled with mowed grass.
Nuances of care for the columnar apple "Vasyugan"
In the first year after planting, the apple tree must be watered, loosened the soil in the tree circle and apply fertilizer. If it seldom rains during the season, then spend the wetting once a week in the evening. After watering or rain, it is recommended to break through the soil. Do this with care not to damage the roots.
The peculiarity of care for the variety "Vasyugan" is apple pruning. This procedure differs from the standard formative and sanitary pruning characteristic of ordinary varieties. Colony-shaped apple trees do not require lateral branches. They are pruned in the spring into two buds. By the fall on this place there are several shoots growing up. They are also cut into two buds.
Description of the columnar apple Vasyugan
These fruit trees have an attractive decorative look. Apple grow Vasyugan in one trunk. They are considered semi-dwarf plants. Fruits of apple Vasyugan have a beautiful presentation and good taste. Kolonovidnye Vasyugan apple trees are perfect for growing in small summer cottages, as the trees are quite compact. Their height is about three meters, and the maximum of its height, these fruit plants reach at the age of eight. In appearance, the apple tree resembles a column twined with green leaves and juicy red-green fruits.
Planting seedlings columnar Apple Vasyugan
The Vasyugan apple variety is quite popular, so it is easy to find and buy saplings of this tree. Before the purchase need to evaluate the appearance of seedlings. It is safe to get seedlings without spots, the roots of which are not dried out and not damaged and have a healthy appearance. In order to transport the purchased seedlings, their roots must be moistened with water.
Planting pits are made quite large so that the tree has enough nutrients. Their height and diameter should be about sixty centimeters. It is advisable to prepare planting pits (apply organic fertilizers) a few weeks before planting seedlings. Directly during the planting of seedlings, it is necessary to ensure that the roots in the planting hole are located freely and do not bend. It is important that the vaccination site is located above the ground. Planted seedlings in a certain pattern. The interval between the trees should be about half a meter, and between rows of at least one meter.
After the tree was planted, the first few years need to protect the soil. This will allow the tree to get stronger and grow as much as possible. If the seedlings were planted in the spring, then in the first year it is necessary to cut off all the flowers on it. The following year, the root system will get stronger and you can leave about six ovaries. In the following years it will be possible to gradually increase their number.
If the apple tree produces too small fruits, it means that it is overloaded and needs rationing. It is carried out during the flowering of the tree or when the ovaries develop. In the second year it is necessary to cut the side branches into two buds. The following year, the growing shoot is cut in the same way. In the third year, this branch can be completely removed. Flower buds, which can be sprinkled with tree trunks, must also be pruned. All these pruning activities will retain strength and increase the yield of the fruit tree.
The root system of the columnar apple Vasyugan quite fragiletherefore it is easy to damage when loosening or trampling. To prevent this from happening, you can plant dill or mint around the fruit tree.
Cultivation and care
This variety of apple requires careful, regular care. Especially neat is to care for the top bud of the tree. It is considered, so to speak, the top of the growth of the fruit tree. The root system of these columnar trees is superficial, so they need frequent watering.
Many gardeners recommend use drip irrigation. Care should be taken to avoid stagnation of water, as this can lead to rotting of the roots of the apple tree.
Combating diseases and pests varieties Vasyugan
Traditional diseases, these trees are exposed to a small extent. In order to prevent their occurrence, it is necessary to conduct timely preventive processing of fruit plants.
Consider in detail what activities need to be carried out in order for the tree to develop well and bear fruit.
- The garden should be regularly fertilized and sprayed with fungicides and insecticides.
- In spring, plants need humus, mineral fertilizers, as well as extracts from chicken manure.
- Fresh manure is usually used in the autumn season.
- Before the onset of winter, superphosphate must be applied under the trees and it is advisable to wrap them in order to avoid damage, for example, from mice or hares. Straw or spruce branches will serve as a good protection against the sharp teeth of these rodents.
- Be sure to monitor the condition of the leaves of the apple Vasyugan. They can be attacked by a green aphid or apple leafworm. In order to prevent the attack of these pests, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment with Nitrofen or Enterobacterin.
- If the land is with high acidity, then dolomite flour can be used as a fertilizer.
In conclusion, we can highlight the advantages possessed by the columnar apple Vasyugan.
- decorative look (fruit tree is a bit like a cypress),
- high yield,
- good presentation
- excellent fruit taste
- excellent frost resistance
- ease of care, as the plant height is not too big,
- good resistance to traditional diseases and various pests.
There are enough pluses in the columnar apple trees, however these fruit plants have one rather significant minus. The disadvantage of these trees is considered short time to keep fruits fresh. Apples are desirable as soon as possible to eat or preserve.
Apple tree seedlings Vasyugan, planted in the autumn, must be especially carefully prepared for the winter.
- Good to insulate.
- Protect from hares, mice and others.
- If a situation arises when a tree is bought in the fall, but weather conditions do not allow planting, it is necessary to prikopat it before the spring period in a dry place without drafts, to cover with special material or branches of conifers and snow.
Caring for a columnar apple variety Vasyugan is practically the same as caring for any other apple tree. but there are some special moments, namely:
- Mandatory feeding of trees several times per season. Top dressing Vasyugan apple is carried out with diluted manure or chicken manure, divorced one to thirty. Perhaps the use of saltpeter per dessert spoon per ten-liter bucket of water or urea.
- In August, it is necessary to remove about two-thirds of the leaf strip near the top four leaves, so the rate of aging of the apex will increase.
- Prophylactic treatment with special insect drugs is necessary.
- Watering should be abundant and regular, but stagnant water on the soil should be avoided.
- If during the winter period, some branches froze, they should be cut, and the cut point should be covered with garden pitch or diluted lime.
- Weeds around the apple tree need to weed.
- The columnar apple-tree Vasyugan stretches upward, therefore it is necessary at first to monitor the apical bud, preventing it from being injured.
- The harvest is standardized. If there is a large number of ovaries on a young apple tree, there is a great risk that many of them will not mature. That is why most of the ovaries should be removed, especially in the first year of growth, in which you can leave up to six ovaries, the second one is twice as large, and so on. How to understand that the number of ovaries was excessive? Very simple - look at the size of a ripe apple. If the fruit is too small, the conclusion about congestion follows, which means that next year a part of the ovaries will be removed.
- The apple tree Vasyugan fragile and small roots that are easy to hurt when loosening. To save the roots, you can hold tin, that is, planting the adjacent land with cereals that do not harm the growth of the tree. And you can just grind the ground.
To grow a good fruitful apple tree, it is necessary to protect it from insects and diseases. One of the biggest problems is the scab. Scab is a fungal disease and often appears in rainy summer. First, yellow spots appear on the leaves, which gradually become brown in color, after which the scab passes onto the fruit itself. Thus, the entire harvest of apples may disappear.
This disease will be easier to prevent than to cure. It is necessary in the spring to carry out the treatment of Bordeaux liquid. The treatment of an already infected tree is also carried out with the help of Bordeaux mixture, but more weakly diluted, so as not to “pump” the fruits with a harmful substance.
Prone to apple trees and attacked by harmful insects. (for example, moth, fruit moth, aphid and others). The only way to deal with them is treatment with ready-made insecticides, which destroy both adult individuals and their larvae. Processing takes place in the spring, before the apple tree begins to bloom. You can use drugs such as copper sulfate or colloidal sulfur. After the flowering period is over, the treatment is repeated for the complete destruction of pests. Used drugs Lepidocide, Chlorophos and the like.
It is necessary to control the concentration of drugs used, according to the instructions. If, after processing, the young leaves are curled or changed color, the concentration should be reduced.
Not every gardener can afford to plant ordinary apple varieties on a plot - someone has very little land, somewhere does not allow a harsh climate, but everyone wants to eat fresh apples from his garden. And in this case, help out columnar apple Vasyugan - compact, high-yielding, cold-resistant and not too whimsical. Even a very experienced gardener is quite capable of caring for her, and delicious fragrant apples will delight the whole family. That is why gardeners should pay attention to this variety and be sure to plant these apple trees on their site.
The good tolerance of low temperatures makes it possible to grow this variety in the middle zone of the Russian Federation. Without freezing, trees endure winters with frosts down to -42 ° C. But still, before wintering, it is necessary to prepare Vasyugan:
- create water-charging irrigation,
- dig around the ground,
- protect the trunk from rodents.
For planting this variety is well suited bright place without drafts and close adherence of groundwater. The ideal soil for Vasyugan trees is sandy loam, black soil and loam. Planting seedlings occurs at the rate of 1 m between the rows and 45-50 cm between the holes.
Some prefer cultivating a columnar apple on a dwarf stock in special tubs. At the same time, the tree grows, forms and brings harvest the same as when it is planted in open ground.
Tip! When choosing a seedling, it is important to pay attention to its root system, which should not be dry or damaged.
The hole for the landing should be prepared in advance. First of all, the place that is optimal for the Vasyugan variety is selected and a hole is dug out with a depth and width of 60-70 cm. Then a mixture of compost, dolomite flour, soil and peat is poured into it.
After 2-3 weeks, the pit is filled with a bucket of water and after that you can plant a young apple tree. It is recommended to do this strictly even in the center of the hole, and for a harsh climate at an angle of 30 0. The root system during the landing should be completely placed and be straightened.
After the seedling has been installed, it is possible to make the pit fall asleep In order to avoid the formation of air interlayers, the earth is covered with layers. Then the soil is slightly trampled, poured over with water and covered with a layer of mulch (sawdust, straw, peat, etc.).
The Vasyugan apple care procedure involves the following features:
- Careful care of the tip. Так как яблоня растет только вверх и не имеет боковых ветвей, необходимо особенно тщательно оберегать верхнюю почку, в противном случае дерево остановится в росте и уменьшится количество урожая.
- Нормирование количество плодов. It is especially important to do this in the first 2-3 years after planting, since a large number of ovaries severely overload the tree and impair its full development. Every year the number of left ovaries can be increased, gradually preparing the tree for a big harvest. You can understand the need for this process for small fruits.
- Tasting or mulching. Due to the fact that the Vasyugan root system is very fragile, it is necessary to abandon loosening and plant a grain crop or dill in place of the hole. Over time, this landing is recommended to update and prevent its spread. An alternative to tinning is mulching. To organize it, a layer of humus, peat, straw or sawdust is laid out in place of the hole.
- Watering. It is best of all to carry out soil moistening in a complex, combining plentiful watering and a drop irrigation. In the absence of the latter method, it will be necessary to water the apple tree every 3-4 days.
- Fertilizer application. Organic fertilizers with a frequency of their application 1 time per month are used as top dressing. For this purpose, nitrate, manure and bird droppings can be used.
- Protection from rodents. The variety has good resistance to low temperatures and diseases, but it is defenseless in front of rodents, so it is important to organize spruce branches for the trunk or wrap it with snow.
Sergey, 43 years old
I have long wanted to grow columnar apple trees in my garden by planting them at the fence. As a result, a large number of seedlings to buy failed.
I purchased three young trees of the Vasyugan variety and planted it in the garden. I regret only one thing - I did not create a beautiful fence from a number of apple trees. Caring for this variety was quite simple, the fruits are delicious, and the appearance is very beautiful.
Svetlana, 31 years old
Living in Murmansk in a private house, I thought about growing a garden, but the harsh climate does not allow me to fully implement my idea. The columnar apple trees Vasyugan have become an ideal option for growing apples in their orchards. In a short summer they manage to ripen and the trees themselves are able to tolerate severe frosts.
Anton, 25 years old
Having a small garden area, I decided to plant it with columnar trees. As for apple trees, my choice fell on Vasyugan.
On a low tree a large number of fruits are tied, which as a result grow into large and tasty apples with a slight sourness. These varieties make it possible to obtain the yields of many fruits and at the same time, not having a large plot of land.
Video “Apple-columns“ Vasyugan ”,“ President ”and“ Dialogue ”
This video presents a small review and comparison of the fruit-bearing columnar apple trees “Vasyugan”, “President” and “Dialogue”.