Many amateur growers probably would like to learn how to properly grow a lemon tree at home. Caring for this plant is relatively simple. However, in order for lemon to grow lush and spectacular, you should follow certain recommendations regarding irrigation technology and fertilizing. This is especially true of the winter season.
How to take care in October - April: general rules
How do lemon trees are grown in the autumn-winter period at home? Caring for him in the winter is a little different from the summer. Green this plant remains all year round. However, in October-April, all the vegetative processes in it, of course, slow down. In the warm season, the lemon is usually fed twice. In winter, such an operation is not performed. However, this plant needs watering during the cold period. In the wild, lemon tree grows in humid tropics and subtropics. Consequently, the drying out of the soil is very sensitive. The only thing - to moisten the soil in a pot in the winter should be less. In the warm season, the lemon tree is watered 2-3 times a week, in winter - no more than once.
What should be the air temperature
In urban apartments and houses in the winter is usually quite warm. The air temperature can vary between 12-25 grams. In principle, such a microclimate lemon carries well. However, although the plant is not deciduous, its crown at such temperatures may thin out slightly. Therefore, some amateur growers install lemon in a separate room and periodically open a window leaf there. The fact is that at a temperature of 10-12 grams. at a tree photosynthesis processes are strongly slowed down. Its roots stop consuming nutrients, and it stops growth. But at the same time not a single leaf falls off a bush. The plant remains as spectacular as in summer.
Where is the best place to put a lemon tree
In terms of lighting, this plant is considered quite capricious. Best of all, the lemon tree feels on the southeast window. Of course, the ability to locate a plant in this way does not always exist. In principle, the lemon can be placed on both the north and south windowsill. However, in the first case, in the cold season (and preferably in spring and summer), the plant will have to be illuminated with an artificial lamp.
On the southern window, the leaves and branches of the plant should be slightly shaded, including in winter. Otherwise, they may burn.
Selection of planting material
As for seedlings, they can often be seen in specialized stores. However, experienced growers do not recommend buying such material. The shops usually sell plants brought from Brazil, Greece or Holland. In these countries, young lemon grows in greenhouses. This is done so that they are as lush as possible and have a marketable appearance.
Being transferred to a city apartment, these seedlings very quickly become unsightly and even stop growing. Changing the situation (especially for the worse) lemon transfers very badly. In this case, among other things, it will be very difficult to carry out a plant such as a lemon tree, home care. Disease, arrest in development, foliage dumping - these are the problems that most likely will be faced by the indoor color lover.
Therefore, in the conditions of an apartment, it is better to try to grow a lemon from cuttings or seeds. The first is simply cut from an adult plant. If there are no lemons in the home greenhouse yet, you can ask a familiar florist for a cutting.
Writing such material by mail is also undesirable. The stalk is likely to be poor quality and unviable. The fact is that in this way sellers usually just get rid of lemon leaves on plantation ejection.
A good solution would be to grow a seedling from a seed. This technique is considered even more simple. However, unfortunately, in this case it is impossible to quickly obtain a fruiting lemon tree. Care at home (from a seedling seed grows very slowly) for a plant in this case for a long time will be only in fairly frequent watering. But the fruits on this seedling will begin to grow, most likely, not earlier than in 12 years.
How to choose a grade
From seed you can grow, of course, only wild. As for the cuttings, in this case there is a choice. Many amateur growers are interested in what is best to grow, high or low, lemon tree at home. Care for compact and large plants is about the same. However, tall lemon still should be chosen only if the grower has enough free time. Watering, pruning and feeding such a plant will have a little more than a small one.
For tall are, for example, such varieties of lemon, as:
Of the undersized are the most popular:
Planting capacity and soil
Since a lemon is a plant that is quite capricious with regard to the rotting of roots, the pot should be selected as carefully as possible. Best for a sapling fit clay. The walls of such containers are well breathable, allowing the roots to breathe. Of course, the pot should have holes in the bottom. Earthen shards should also be laid on these drainage holes. Over them poured a layer of coarse sand.
Lemon soil also needs to be picked up correctly. The following composition is best for this plant:
humus sheet - 1-2 parts,
turf soil - part 1,
coarse sand - 1 part.
How to grow from cuttings
Planting material of this variety should have a length of about 10 cm. Pre-cutting should be soaked in warm water for 2-3 days, submerged in half the length. Then it is buried in the prepared soil for 3 cm. The roots of the cuttings of lemon appear after about 60 days. In the pot it is better to plant several. Then the chance to get at least one new plant will increase.
As long as the lemons do not take root, they should be sprayed periodically (at least once a day). The soil in the pot should have a moderate humidity.
Cultivation of seeds
This is also a very good way to get a luxurious lemon tree at home. Care of a sapling in this case will be even easier. An amateur florist will only have to ensure that the ground in a pot with lemon planted does not dry out.
Seeds should be taken from healthy, large fruits. Do not allow them to dry. As soon as they are removed from the lemon, they should be planted immediately. They are buried in the ground by 2 cm. The seed planted in this way is watered and covered with a jar on top.
Periodic transplants are something that is required for such an inhabitant of the room greenhouse as a lemon tree. Even the best care at home, otherwise it will not be particularly effective. The fact is that the roots of lemon, especially large, consume quite a lot of nutrients. Therefore, the soil in the pot under the plant is quickly depleted.
Transplant lemon in spring or autumn (later). Young lemons are transferred to other containers once a year, adults - no more than 1 time in 2 years. Actually this procedure itself is performed as follows:
A day before transplanting the soil in the pot carefully shed.
The plant is carefully removed from the old pot, holding the stem.
The removed lemon is placed in a new pot and the space between the lump and the walls of the pot is filled up with pre-prepared soil.
After transplanting the plant should be watered.
As already mentioned, in winter the lemon is not fed. Do it only in the spring and summer. And fertilize only adult plants. Lemonlets planted with cuttings or from a bone need not be fed at first. Trees that have reached the age of three or four? twice per season fertilized with double superphosphate (50 g per liter of water).
Diseases and pests
Subject to the technology of cultivation, thus, you can get a very beautiful lemon tree at home. Care for this plant, however, can be not only in the form of watering and fertilizing. Like all indoor flowers, lemons sometimes get sick. Most often trees hit:
Late blight. They fight this disease with the help of a weak solution of copper sulphate, or with the help of special antifungal drugs.
Black fungus. Ways of struggle in this case should be the same as in case of late blight.
Gomosis In this case, a crack appears on the stem of the diseased plant. In order to help the lemon, the wound should be cleaned and smeared with vitriol solution.
Malsekko. This is perhaps the most dangerous disease that a potted flower lover may encounter when taking care of a plant such as a lemon tree, home care. Fell off the leaves, the twigs began to dry up - it means that the bush, most likely, was picked up by Malsekko virus. Cure this disease, unfortunately, is impossible.
May affect lemon and insect pests. Most often these are white flies, mites or scale insects. With the first usually fight karbofos, the second is destroyed by infusion of garlic (1 head per half liter of water). Shchitovok can be expelled by wiping leaves, twigs and stem with a mixture of soap and kerosene in a ratio of 1: 0.5.
This is how a tropical guest, such as a lemon tree, is cared for at home. The photos on this page clearly demonstrate how effective it can be if you follow irrigation technologies, periodic transplants, etc. Give your tree more attention and it will please you with lush foliage, healthy appearance, and even fruiting over time. .
What care requires indoor lemon at home
Lemon is a tree, in room conditions it also tends to grow. There are several varieties that breeders have accustomed to room maintenance. But they rebel if the withdrawal is wrong. Before planting a seed, you need to know that only indoor varieties can share a home with a person. These include:
These varieties are characterized by rapid entry into fruiting and high productivity in the care of lemon at home. When buying a finished varietal seedlings need to wait two or three years.
Room lemon with good care lives up to 30 years. The lemon after setting is poured 9 months, but after it continues to increase in size, but becomes tasteless and thick-skinned.
It is important to prevent weakening of the flower and tear off the buds until there are 20 leaves on the bush. Scientists believe that each fruit is fed 9-10 leaves of mature age. Depending on the number of leaves you need to leave the harvest. For the same reason, you need to protect the leaves from shedding, which the plant protests when it is uncomfortable. At the same time, cutting the tops of the branches is obligatory in order to form new shoots, which means an increase in the number of leaves. Therefore, the care of the plant is carried out on the verge of knowledge and intuition.
Optimal conditions in the care of lemon
Only if you have a spacious bright room you can count on the creation of a citrus orchard. Even being in a permanent place, the tree does not like to be moved. And for a uniform development, it is turned a few degrees in 10 days, so that in a year a full turn will turn out:
- From the stand to the ceiling should be at least two meters.
- Lemon can not stand dry air. Optimal 70% humidity. This means keeping the plant away from the radiator, having a humidifier or an aquarium, equipping the humidity zone in any way possible and often spraying the leaves with a fine spray.
- In summer, it is useful for a lemon to stay in the sun for 2 hours, but not longer. Therefore, the morning sun on the east window for him just right. In winter, when growing lemon and caring at home, there should be organized a backlight of 5-6 hours.
- The temperature of the content for lemon should be from 14 to 27 degrees. During the flowering period, the lemon needs cool.
- The watering schedule in summer is very stressful. The pot is watered twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, soaking the whole lump of earth. Due to good drainage, water stagnation does not occur. At the bottom should be installed pan to collect water. For irrigation using soft settled water.
The temperature should not change dramatically. If the plant is brought from a cold veranda into a warm room, it will throw off the foliage. The ground in the barrel is cold and the leaves are warm! In winter, you need to find a lemon the coldest corner in the home. Without a full-fledged rest period, the flowering will later be scanty.
Of great importance in the care of lemon is the formation of it, keeping in growth with systematic pruning and pinching the green cone. The deepest pruning is done in spring. 5-6 live leaves are left on the branches, the rest are removed, and material for propagation of lemon is obtained from them by cuttings.
How to grow lemon at home
Of great importance is the selection of the container for the plant and the substrate. The tank should have good drainage holes. The lemon root system is compact, a young plant is good for an annual transplant, so it’s not worth creating conditions for acidification of the soil in a large pot. For older plants, the earth is changed less frequently, but the upper fertile layer is updated annually.
Composition of the land:
- leafy humus - 2 parts,
- humus from cattle - 1 part,
- washed river sand - 1 part,
- wood ash - 0.25 parts.
At the bottom lay out a layer of charcoal mixed with expanded clay, add vermiculite to the substrate for looseness. Transplantation of plants is carried out after the grown roots of a lemon will entangle a lump of earth, using the method of transfer.
When pruning the lemon tree there are a lot of planting material, twigs. They will produce cuttings, if you pinch a couple of leaves from below and put a green sprig in the water. Further, the stalk rooted in the substrate in a small volume. How to care for lemon, obtained from the cutting? After the stalk has been given leafy shoots, it is contained as an adult plant. At a height of 25 cm, the plants pinch the tip, limiting growth. The resulting central and lateral shoots in the amount of 4 pieces left, the rest cut off on the ring.
Side shoots grow 25 cm and pinch again, repeating the operation, as for the first time. A bush is formed twice more, as a result, enough leaves are obtained on a round tree, and flower buds are laid on the branches. Lemon is ready for fruiting; it has gained enough strength to feed the fruits.
Lemon propagation by seeds is a long process. The resulting seedling must be grafted to obtain a fruiting tree. The wilderness will develop for a long time, it will be little to bloom and the quality of the obtained lemon will be poor. Therefore, the grown plant should be planted by budding or splitting it in order to obtain a cultivated tree.
Seedling without vaccination will be an excellent ornamental tree with good disease resistance. It is necessary to form a crown so that the bush is neat and does not stretch its branches, occupying a large space.
Pros and cons of lemon
Lemon medicinal qualities great and undeniable. The plant is rich in fiber, sugar, pectin, acids, microelements and vitamins. Therefore, it can be found in the composition of many pharmaceutical drugs that reduce inflammation, help healing, have a strengthening effect and prevent sclerosis.
In cooking, citrus also occupies a special place, as it gives dishes a unique taste and aroma.
Lemon has a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis, lung diseases, vitamin deficiency, poisoning. Very useful for pregnant women.
However, there are contraindications. Citrus is not recommended to take suffering from gastritis, hypertensive patients and patients with pancreatitis, because it can cause allergies and heartburn.
As you can see, there are more pluses than minuses.
Planting lemon at home
Before you start planting lemon at home, you must choose a grade. This will help to choose the most accurate atmosphere and methods of growing trees.
The lemon tree differs in size (at home, preference is given to undersized) and the level of adaptation to existing factors.
Varieties for breeding at home Numerous, but the most popular are the following:
- Mayer Lemon,
Having decided on the choice of a variety, it is necessary to decide on the goal - should a home plant perform a decorative function or bear fruit? It is possible to grow a tree either by cuttings (with proper care it will start to bear fruit faster), or from a kernel (the plant will be stronger). Для тех, кто хочет получить все сразу, следует обратиться в специализированные магазины.
Также можно вырастить лимонное дерево из косточки. Для отбора семян следует брать спелые, жёлтые плоды без всяких следов порчи и гнилости.
Подготовьте почву из равных частей торфяного и цветочного грунтов. Заполните горшочек слоем дренажа и полученным субстратом. Plant a lemon seed to a depth of two centimeters. Remove the seed from the fruit immediately before planting.
Keep the sown grain in a well-lit and warm place, at temperatures from + 18C to + 22C. Moisten the soil slightly, the main thing is not to overdo it.
After the appearance of two sheets, select the strongest sprouts and transplant them into a separate container with a diameter of 10 centimeters, cover them with a glass jar (you will need to remove it daily to ventilate the container). Thus, the necessary microclimate will be created.
In such conditions, seedlings are as long as until you reach 20 centimeters tall. To achieve this height, the plant needs to be transplanted into another container, slightly larger in size. The pot for each subsequent transplant should not be too spacious. Each time, take a container whose diameter is 5-6 centimeters more than the previous one.
In the process of planting a lemon the bottom of the pot should be filled with a mixture of soil and humus.
Do not bury the seedling too deeply, as there is a chance of rotting.
Lemon tree care
Caring for this plant requires the presence of proper soil, adequate light, full irrigation, making the necessary fertilizer.
Do not discount pruning, transplanting and protecting against pests.
Capacity can be used wooden, ceramic, plastic. Some gardeners believe that an earthen pot is suitable for growing lemon tree, which lets in air and absorbs excess moisture, which it can return if necessary.
It is desirable that the height of the pot reaches 20 cm, and the diameter in the upper part does not exceed 15 cm, there must be holes (their absence will lead to acidification of the soil).
The older the plant, the less change the soil in the pot. However, the top cover is updated annually. Drainage for lemon may consist of sand and wood ash, but the best option is considered to be a special primer, which you can buy in the store or prepare it yourself.
For the preparation of such soil will require the following components:
- leafy humus soil (taken - up to 10 cm in depth) - 2 cups,
- wood ash - 1 tablespoon,
- river washed sand - 1 cup,
- humus - 3 tablespoons.
Vermiculite can be added to loosen the soil. All ingredients stir in water to the consistency of thick cream. Fill the pot with the resulting mixture, completely covering the lemon roots.
After six months, the tree must be transplanted into a larger pot, which is also filled with the mixture.
Lighting and temperature
The following important care conditions are: lighting and temperature.
Start by choosing the location of the seedling: it should be bright, but direct sunlight is undesirable. The main thing is that the location should be constant, since the lemon does not like moving. With constant movements, the crown of a tree may form incorrectly and one-sidedness will arise.
Despite the fact that the lack of lighting is not an obstacle in the growth and occurrence of fruiting, still put a container with a tree on the windowsill on the south or east side. Protect it from the bright sun. In winter, use daylight lamps, using them for 5-6 hours a day.
It is necessary to monitor the temperature of the air. It ranges from + 14 ° C to + 22 ° C at various stages of lemon tree growth. During the formation of buds should be from + 14С to + 18С, during the period of leaf growth - + 17С, during the ripening of fruits - + 22С.
In summer time fresh air is desirable, but it is recommended to cover the plant at night.
With the onset of cold weather, from November to February, the plant will be comfortable in a room with a temperature of not more than + 14 ° C and away from heating appliances. Do not forget about the temperature balance.
Drying of the soil is unacceptable, but an excess of moisture can also cause damage to the plant.
It is enough to pour lemon twice a week with boiled water at room temperature. However, no specific amount of watering is indicated anywhere, since drying out of the ground in a tank depends on several factors:
- age of the plant
- pot volume,
- air temperature,
Just carefully watch the soil moisture.
If you do not follow the uniform irrigation and overdo it, immediately replace the potted earth. Irrigation water and indoor air should be almost the same temperature.
From autumn to spring the tree requires more careful care.. In the heating season, it is advisable to cover the radiators with a damp cloth and irrigate the lemon crown.
Place a container with water next to a lemon, its evaporation has a good effect on the plant. Be sure to wipe the leaves with a damp cloth from dust.
Systematic soil fertilizer is a necessity for the full development of the tree. Feeding is carried out regularly.
Growth requires nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, they will help in the formation of ovaries and ripening fruits, will strengthen the wood. Full vegetation is impossible without manganese, fluorine, magnesium, calcium and iron. With the growth of the tree needs frequent fertilization in the soil.
Top dressings are root (carried out with irrigation) and foliar (by spraying).
Among the organic fertilizers suitable for lemon, the following are distinguished:
- Infusion of ash.
- Tenfold dilution of manure extract.
- Infusion of quinoa and birch. For its manufacture, finely ground grass and birch leaves are defended in water for 5 days, filtered, if necessary, more water is added. Lemon fertilize this infusion, a few hours after the main watering.
You can use mineral fertilizers:
- 50 g of superphosphate must be dissolved in one liter of water,
- 30 grams of ammonium nitrate is diluted in a liter of water.
Ready-mixes of citrus fertilizers are used according to the instructions.
Young lemon trees need additional feeding less frequently (monthly) than adults (every 10-15 days).
The plant already suggests its appearance do I need to apply fertilizer. For example, the deciduous mass grows and develops, but the fruits do not appear, change, the composition of top dressing - remove the nitrogen part, at the same time increase the phosphoric.
During the rest of the plant does not need to feed.
Pruning helps shape the crown. To do this, cut the top of the tree, cut side shoots at the level of 5 leaves, remove the lower twigs.
This procedure helps to develop the trunk. The lower branches should be longer than those above.
Trim only as needed.. If the plant is often subjected to the removal of branches, it may weaken.
After the lemon has grown and formed, pruning is done to sanitize wood. This process is best done in March, when the buds appear and the tree begins to blossom, or after the fruit is removed.
When pruning there are enough branches that can become planting material. Do not rush to throw them away. Pinch a couple of leaves from the bottom of the appendix, put it in water and get a cutting ready for breeding.
Remember that the cause of the disease is the lack of proper care. And the result of neglect will be fungal diseases, bactericidal disorders, as well as all sorts of pests.
Yellowing leaves - One of the common diseases of the lemon tree. The reasons can be various factors:
- lowering the amount of moisture in the air,
- unsystematic fertilization,
- elevated temperature in the room during the rest period of the lemon tree (it should not be higher than + 10C).
In addition, the widespread is the defeat of the plant spider mite, disposal of which will require considerable effort. Mainly chemicals will help solve this problem.
In the fight against parasites, you can try garlic tincture - Add 150 grams of garlic per liter of water, leave for a week. Next, dissolve a few drops of the obtained extract and process the plant.
At home, growing a lemon tree is not quite easy. However, if you follow the rules of care, there will undoubtedly be a great result.
Interesting facts about lemon
There are a number of interesting facts related to this citrus:
- soft fruit is better than hard
- yellow does not mean ripe,
- whitens the skin and brightens the hair, helps to get rid of freckles,
- one lemon per day will fill the body with vitamin C (you need to eat a lemon completely),
- tea with lemon will relieve excess weight.
So many useful properties of lemon fruits makes them simply indispensable in every home.
Lemon tree varieties for home cultivation
As a result of the continuous work of the breeders, many varieties were bred, both for agriculture and indoor floriculture. There are varieties that can bear fruit year-round, as well as extremely decorative. There are undersized and tall forms.
Among the most popular varieties adapted to housing conditions, stand out:
- "Meyer's Lemon" is a ripening variety with two or three times blooming throughout the year. A plant with a height of up to 1.5 m produces fruits weighing up to 150 g with slightly acid pulp.
- Pavlovsky is the result of domestic breeding, so the variety is well adapted to home cultivation and is most common among gardeners.
- "Lisbon" - a variety of good adaptability to the residential environment, which gives him the opportunity to cope with dry air. A fast-growing plant up to 2 m tall produces fruits weighing 150 g.
- Genoa is a high-yield variety of Italian breeding that can bear fruit several times a year. The maximum tree height does not exceed 1.5 m.
- Kursk is a domestic variety, distinguished by drought resistance, shade tolerance and rather high yields. Average fruit weight - 120 g.
- "Kiev large-fruited" is a low-growing variety with fruits up to 1.5 kg, which can be harvested every season with proper care, including systematic pruning.
What is best to grow a lemon tree
When choosing a pot for lemon tree at the initial stages (planting and 2 subsequent transplants), you can stay on the plastic. However, because of its disadvantages, which consist in lightness and water resistance, preference should be given to wooden tubs.
Despite its fragility, wooden dishes have all the necessary qualities for growing lemon:
- water permeability
- easy disinfection
Before filling the selected container with substrate, it is necessary to place a drainage layer of expanded clay, crushed stone or gravel on the bottom.
Attention! The diameter of each new container should not exceed the same parameter of the previous pot by more than 6 cm. The soil that is not occupied by roots has a tendency to sour.
How to choose a plant location
Lemon is a plant of short daylight, which makes it possible for it to tolerate a normal lighting deficit. In the case of a long day, the tree will grow more actively, but the fruiting phase will come later. The optimal place in the house will be the sill of the east or south window with a slight shading after dinner. In winter, when cloudy weather prevails, an artificial light source is installed that operates about 6 hours a day.
Tip! In order for the plant to develop equally from all sides, the pot should be turned clockwise by 10 ° every 10 days.
Watering and humidity
From the end of spring to the beginning of autumn, the inhabitants of subtropics need daily watering, which should be done with purified water at room temperature.
In other periods, it is enough to moisten the lemon twice a week so that the substrate has time to dry slightly. An exotic plant, despite its adaptability to low humidity, requires daily spraying, which can be stopped only when the tree is cool in winter.
To increase the green mass of a lemon tree, it is enough to provide a temperature regime of 17 ° C.
- During the formation of the buds and the ovary, the mercury column should not rise above the mark of 18 ° C, otherwise it could threaten with the discharge of future fruits.
- But when citrus ripening, the temperature rises to 22 ° C and higher.
- With the arrival of winter, if possible, it is worthwhile to arrange a lemon tree a rest stage at a temperature of 12-14 ° C, so that the plant accumulates energy before the upcoming season.
Top dressing and fertilizer
To save vitality, a lemon needs regular supplements, which are carried out for young plants once in 6 weeks, and for adults - every 3 weeks with the help of complex mineral fertilizers. In winter, the interval between dressings increases. If the plant is at rest, then stop altogether.
Caution! An excess of nitrogen fertilizers can suspend the onset of the fruiting phase due to the active growth of green mass.
If the goal is to obtain fruits, the formation is carried out according to the following scheme:
- When the seedling reaches a height of 25 cm, pinching is carried out.
- After the stem grows another 20 cm, it is pinched a second time so that 4 growth buds remain between the pinch points, from which the skeletal branches will develop.
- First-order shoots pinch at intervals of 25 cm, and after they mature, they are shortened by 5 cm below the pinching.
- Each subsequent branch should be 5 cm shorter than the previous one.
- Pruning fourth order shoots completed formation.
In addition to the forming haircut, if necessary, sanitary pruning is carried out: weak, injured, growing inside the shoots are removed.
The plant is transplanted according to the following scheme:
- A pot of the desired volume is prepared, at the bottom of which a drainage layer is placed.
- A plant with an earthy clod rolls over from an old tank.
- The remaining space is filled with a light substrate for lemon.
Fight against diseases and pests
Because of the moisture-loving culture, fungal diseases such as powdery mildew and gray mold often develop on it, the best defense against which is compliance with the agrotechnical care requirements.
Among the pests on sprouts of lemon there are damages of spider mites, whitefly, scutes, mealybug and aphids. If harmful insects are detected, it is worth resorting to treatment with an insecticide, since folk methods are far from always effective, especially with a strong population.
Growing a lemon tree often raises many questions, for which you should determine the reason:
- Lemon yellowing. The problem arises for a number of reasons - with a low level of humidity, a lack of food, high temperature in winter, or due to the settlement of the plant with a spider mite.
- Fall foliage, ovary. If such a difficulty arises, you should pay attention to the level of soil moisture and air. As a rule, this is due to the lack of moisture.
- Leaf curling. If leaf plates start to dry and curl on a lemon, this is due to a violation of the general content requirements. A review of ongoing activities will reveal the cause.
So, despite the fact that the cultivation of lemon is quite troublesome, the result is worth it: the high decorative effect, the wonderful aroma during flowering and the healthy fruits rich in vitamins will surely inspire the florist to new experiments.
Indoor lemon variety selection for home cultivation
Growing a lemon at home is a matter that requires regular care and suitable conditions. Not everything is as simple as it seems. Correctly pick varieties of indoor lemons is not a difficult task. There are many kinds of citrus, but we will tell you which are the best varieties of indoor lemon for home growing.
- Pavlovsky. Perhaps the most popular of all. Lemon tree up to 2 meters high. Fruits already on 3-4 year of life. Gives 20-40 fruits per year, their size up to 500 grams. The plant can do without spraying and in a partially darkened room. This variety has a strong strong aroma that will fill the whole house.
- Meyer. This variety is a hybrid of lemon with grapefruit. A low tree giving fruit up to 3-4 times a year, with a weight of about 150 grams. May bloom inflorescences and usually earlier than other indoor citrus. Behind him need a thorough care: spray leaves, protect from drafts, do not put in a dark room. But a large amount of light is undesirable, as it will slow down the setting of flowers.
- Ponderosis. Compact homemade tree, reaching 1.8 meters in height. A feature are large fruits that can reach a weight of up to 1 kg. Very whimsical house plant, needs feeding and reacts poorly to excessive acidity of the soil. Loves scattered bright light. He is also often confused with the variety “Kiev large-fruited”.
- Genoa It is considered a rare homemade lemon. Fruits weigh about 110 grams, but an adult tree can produce up to 150-180 fruits per year. The rind is edible and not bitter, but the flesh is tender. This variety of homemade lemon needs a lot of light, without which it develops poorly.
- Anniversary. In height to 1.5 meters. It adapts well to room conditions. It blooms very copiously. The whole plant is covered with white flowers with a purple tinge. Fruits up to 600 grams with a thick peel.
How to plant a lemon from the stone
Проще всего получить домашнее лимонное дерево – это вырастить его из косточки цитруса. Такие растения начинают поздно плодоносить, но зато хорошо приспосабливаются к комнатным условиям жизни и более выносливые, чем черенковые или привитые деревья. Лучшим временем для проращивания домашнего цитруса считается конец зимы – начало весны, когда световой день увеличивается.
To plant a lemon will require several simple manipulations:
- Take out the bones from the lemon. It is better to have about 10 of them. So of them something is sure to sprout and take root.
- We soak the citrus seeds in cold water for a day to get enough moisture.
- We take small pots with holes at the bottom so that the excess moisture does not linger inside and destroy the roots of the plant.
- At the bottom of the pot pour a little pebbles or coarse sand. We buy ready-made soil or make it ourselves from sand, humus, earth and charcoal. The soil must be wet, but not too much.
- Planting stones to a depth of 2-3 cm. If desired, from above you can cover the pot with film to create more favorable conditions.
- Spray the soil every 2-3 days. The temperature for seedlings should not be below 18⁰ C.
- After 3-4 weeks should appear the first shoots.
How to choose the capacity and soil for planting indoor lemon
Good soil for homemade lemon should be breathable and permeable. And also loose and light. Particular attention should be paid to acidity. The normal level for citrus is closer to neutral. But in an acidic and alkaline environment, lemons grow poorly.
To choose a suitable pot, it is important to pay special attention to its size. The diameter of the top must match the height of the pot. In addition, the top should be wide. It is better to choose a flat pot. If the top is narrowed, then during transplantation there are difficulties in getting an earthen coma from such a container.
Annual domestic trees are planted in pots with a diameter of 15 cm above. As the citrus grows, it is transplanted into pots 2-3 cm larger in diameter. Drainage holes should be about 1.5-2.5 cm. It is better to make several additional holes. If you immediately use a larger pot for young seedlings, then the soil in it can easily sour, and the lemon in the pot get sick.
There are three types of pots: clay, plastic and wooden. All have their advantages and disadvantages for citrus trees, but you can use any of them.
How to care for lemon at home
Growing a lemon from the stone is not a guarantee that you will get a healthy, strong fruit tree. Lemon care plays a huge role. It is important to comply with everything: watering the plant, fertilizer, timely transplanting, crown formation, temperature, lighting. If you follow all the favorable conditions for the home tree, you will receive a grateful fruiting homemade lemon in return.
The most important time in the care of lemon is spring. It is during this period that the citrus tree begins its growth and the budding period. The temperature in the room during this period should be 14-18⁰С. If it is warmer, then a beautiful tree will simply start dropping buds, and this can lead to its death. When the outside temperature is the same temperature, the lemon can be taken out into the courtyard, to the balcony, so that it grows as much as possible in its natural environment. In winter, the temperature should be around 16-18⁰С for good growth and ripe fruits. In such conditions, the lemon tree does not turn yellow and leaves do not fall. You can not keep a homemade lemon in a hot room, and also do not allow large temperature drops.
Humidity in the apartment should be 60-70%. In the summer heat, you need to spray a homemade lemon daily, and once a week bathe under a warm shower.
How to water and feed the lemon
Anyone who wants to grow citrus at home should know how often to water a lemon. It all depends on the time of year. If it is winter outside, once a week is enough to irrigate the lemon tree. With the arrival of spring, and then in the summer, and in the beginning of autumn, it is necessary to daily water the home tree with warm water. At the same time, the earth is periodically loosened, to prevent the moisture retained in the soil, which leads to rotting of the roots. But it is not necessary to dry the earthen room. Then the leaves will curl and fall off. Water for irrigation suitable rain or settled room temperature. It can be a couple of degrees higher. In the spring it is advisable to water the lemon in the morning, and in the fall and summer closer to the night, in the evening.
Feed the indoor citrus plants need to constantly. In winter, fertilizer is applied once a month if there is fruit, and in summer 1 time a week. On the day when you feed the tree, water it 2 hours before, so as not to burn the roots. Fertilizer can be both organic and minerals. And in order to enrich and disinfect the soil, 2 times a year, water the homemade lemon with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
To get more fruits, not leaves, lemon does not require a long day of light. It is best if the window will be facing east. On the south window in the summer you need to protect the homemade lemon from direct sunlight, because due to excessive lighting, burns may appear on the leaves. Homemade lemon tree will bear fruit well in diffused bright light. If the plant is in the shade, the leaves grow more slowly, and the fruits are sour. In order for the lemon in the apartment to become overgrown with a uniform beautiful crown, you need to turn it towards the sun on either side every two weeks.
How and when to prune the plant
Pruning a plant is needed so that the tree does not stretch up and grow like a candle. Such a lemon will never begin to bear fruit, and all its strength will be spent on growing up.
The best period for pruning is considered to be early spring, when flower buds appear on the home tree. But you can make pruning in winter after harvest, then the number of fruits for the next year will increase with success.
The first time you need to cut a room lemon in the first year of life. You need to cut about 20 cm of the trunk, while leaving 4 buds, of which later will be the basis for the branches of the first order. Since the young lemon tree gives only one vertical shoot, all the other branches will grow to the sides. They need to be cut, leaving only 4 pieces. The first fruit homemade lemon will give after the branches are formed 4 orders. If the cut is thicker than a pencil, it should be treated with an antiseptic.
Lemon blooms very copiously. This is a beautiful sight, pleasing the eye. But flowering takes a lot of strength and weakens the indoor tree. There may be a lot of fruits from this, but their quality will be worse. Therefore, some of the colors are best removed. If there is a whole branch with weak flowers, then it can be easily cut off. Then the home tree will be stronger, and the fruit crop will be of high quality and tasty.
Transplant room lemon
It is worth thinking about the first transplantation already for the 2nd year of life of a homemade lemon. Do not replant homemade lemon tree during flowering and fruiting.
Soil for citrus fruits can be purchased at the store or made independently of earth and humus with the addition of wood ash and calcined sand. The proportions should be 4: 1: 1: 1.
To transplant a plant you need to cross, while shaking off part of the old earth in a pot with soil. In this way, you do not need to think about how to root your home plant in a new pot. New house for the lemon tree should be chosen 4 cm more than the previous one. Then you need to replant lemon every 2 years. Do not forget to pour 2 cm of drainage on the bottom of the pot.
How the lemon blooms
If all the favorable conditions are created for the homemade lemon tree, the plants bloom for the first time in mid-May, less often in late April. Flowers form in the leaf axils. They themselves are white with yellow stamens and stigma. Have 4-5 oval-shaped petals. Lemon tree can bloom for 2 months, and maybe the whole year please with its color.
During flowering, the plant is very depleted. Therefore, do not forget to remove some of the colors manually. It is best to leave no more than 2 flowers on each branch, which will form the number of ovaries that the indoor lemon can grow on itself. The plant does not need pollination, it self-pollinates.
At the first flowering, you need to cut off half of the flowers and leave only up to 4 fruits of the formed ovary. At the second flowering - 6, at the third - 8, etc. So that the homemade lemon tree grows healthy and strong, so that each ovary has 10 healthy, developed leaves.
Why leaves fall from lemon
Sometimes it happens that with insufficient care the leaves turn yellow in a lemon. It can be difficult for a beginner florist to observe all the rules for growing this subtropical plant at once. Still, to create in the artificial environment the necessary favorable conditions for a room lemon, not everyone succeeds.
In order to revive, restore the health of the diseased tree, you must first deal with the reasons why suddenly the homemade lemon throws off its leaves:
- Little lighting
- The soil is too wet or, on the contrary, dry with insufficient watering,
- The soil lacks nutrients
- Not enough fresh air in the room. It is hot and dry
- The low temperature in the apartment and the tree froze,
- If sudden changes in temperature occur,
- Perhaps the lemon does not like the new habitat when carrying,
- Overdo it with fertilizers
- Negative impact on the transfer to a new pot.
Having dealt with the cause, and there may be several of them, it's time to understand, if the green leaves curl and fall off, what to do?
In winter, with a short light day, you need to turn on the plant fluorescent lamps in the evening. If you overdo it with watering, then this leads to acidification of the soil, which is not saturated with oxygen. And if the root system ceases to receive enough oxygen, then some roots die off, then the home plant drops part of the foliage, as it is unable to provide it with food. If you forget to water a lemon tree, it will happen, the same as with excessive watering, only this time because of the drought. Drying is so bad for the lemon tree that it can kill the plant.
You also need to not forget about dressing, because in a pot a small amount of soil and new fertilizers have nowhere to take, you will need to add them yourself. If some important element is missing a lemon, the leaves may turn yellow, curl, blotch and fall off.
In winter, hot and dry conditions are created in the apartment, which often leads to falling leaves. During this period, you must choose a place for the lemon tree away from the radiator. Spray plants more often and make warm showers. Good use of a humidifier.
At temperatures below 10 ° C, the lemon will freeze and shed its leaves. The same applies to drafts and ventilation of the premises. Sudden temperature drops have a bad effect on the home tree.
Sometimes a lemon is sick. Homemade tree can infect aphid and spider mite. They need to be removed or used to control pests.
With proper care, homemade lemon tree will be grateful, and please with its sunny fragrant fruits all year round.
Lemon is a citrus representative of the Rut family. Homeland plants are Argentina, Mexico and the subtropical forests of the Mediterranean. In the wild, it can also be found in Central Asia, the USA and the Caucasus.
They found out about such a tree in Russia at the end of the 16th century, and the word “lemon” was borrowed from the Persian language. But the plant became especially popular among the population of Russia only in the 18th century.
Today, Russians use lemon to make pastry, icing, jams and drinks.
Citrus slices many like to add to tea. In the west, such a drink is even called "Russian tea."
Often, lemon is used as a snack under vodka and brandy.
It is believed that the benefits of lemon for the human body due to the high content of vitamin C. However, besides him, the composition of this fruit includes many other beneficial substances:
- malic and citric acid,
- copper and potassium,
- vitamins B and P,
Use lemon pulp with caution, as it can cause a strong allergic reaction, which is not always associated with the substances contained in the fruit. Sometimes this leads to residues of chemical agents that remain on the skin of the fruit after processing the trees to protect against pests. Therefore, purchased lemons must be washed well before eating.
They are not recommended for use in food to those people who suffer from any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as increased acidity of the stomach. Hypertensive patients should also avoid lemons. All the rest can grow their own citrus tree directly on the windowsill to feast on fresh fruits, untreated chemicals.
Fragrant and strong lemon tree is familiar to everyone, its yellow fruits can be found on the shelves. The plant fits perfectly into the interior of any premises, so it is often grown as an indoor flower. Its dense, leathery leaves of dark green color look very nice, and also have a beneficial effect on the human body, transforming carbon dioxide into oxygen. They also emit special substances - phytoncides, which perfectly refresh the air and at the same time give it a light, pleasant aroma.
It is possible to grow a lemon tree on a windowsill for decorative purposes or for getting fresh fruits.. The plant from seeds will turn out more healthy and will actively develop, and the lemon from the cutting will begin to grow slowly, but it will bear fruit earlier.
In order not to bother yourself with the process of sprouting seed, you can buy a ready-made tree in the flower department, online store or from breeders.
Types and varieties
There are many different varietal forms of lemon, from each other they differ in shape (bushy and tree), seasonality, and also their fitness for growth in certain climatic conditions.
In Russia, the cultivation of fruit lemons are engaged on the Black Sea coast. The city of Pavlovo-on-Oka has long been known for its fruits. There is even a Pavlovsky variety, with such trees you can get about 30−40 lemon per year. Also, citruses for sale are brought to our country from Morocco and Turkey.
Today it has become fashionable to contain a lemon tree at home. It is quite simple to care for him, but for beginners it is worth getting acquainted with the rules of cultivation before planting such a tree.
It should be understood that from seeds will grow only wild. Cuttings provide an opportunity to get a tree with more juicy and tasty fruits. At home, you can grow as small lemons, similar to the bushes, and high.
To undersized include such varieties:
From among tall flower growers, particular popularity was gained:
Caring for such plants is the same. But big lemons should be chosen if there is a lot of free time, as they require more attention. The maintenance of a compact tree will be mastered even by a beginner florist.
It is much easier to grow trees from grains than from cuttings. However, the seedling carries all the characteristics of the parent tree, while the seeds are deprived.
For the seed method, you will need a ripe and beautiful fruit without damage and flaws. It can be purchased at any grocery store.
All the bones are extracted from the pulp, only smooth, regular shapes are suitable for planting.
- Soil mixture is prepared from floral soil in a 1: 1 ratio.
- At the bottom of the cups from under the yogurt (you can also take disposable) fall asleep a thin layer of drainage material. To do this, you can take the river sand, broken foam, clay shards, gravel or expanded clay.
- The remaining space is filled with soil, and then the grains are dredged into it by 1 centimeter.
- The earth is well moistened with an atomizer.
After 10−14 days, shoots will appear, when this happens, the containers with seedlings should be placed in plastic bags or covered with foil.
Daily improvised greenhouse cleaned for a while to water and ventilate the plants.
After the appearance of the second pair of true leaves, young lemon leaves should be transplanted into pots.
The next transplant in more voluminous pots should be carried out when the trees are stretched to 20−25 centimeters in height.
For grafting, you can ask for a sprig from friends who grow lemons, or buy them in a store. A proper shoot should be about 5 millimeters thick and at least 10 centimeters long. Also, at least three buds and a few leaves should be present on the sapling.
For rooting, the cuttings are placed in a container with water for 3 days. Then the seedlings are planted in the soil of humus and sand, deepening by three centimeters. The earth should always remain wet, and the leaves should be sprayed every day. A month later, rooted plants are transplanted into new pots.
It is worth noting that a lemon grown from a stone will bear fruit only after 8–10 years, but if the tree is obtained from a seed, the waiting time will be halved.
Accommodation in the apartment
Taking care of a lemon tree at home should begin with choosing a suitable place to place it, because such plants do not like if they are moved from place to place. В отношении освещения цитрусовое дерево можно назвать довольно прихотливым комнатным цветком. Особенно хорошо расти оно будет на окне с юго-восточной стороны дома. Конечно, не у всех есть возможность именно так разместить зелёного квартиранта.
Северный и южный подоконники тоже подойдут лимону, но в первом случае его придётся дополнительно подсвечивать с помощью ламп дневного света. There will be too much direct sunlight coming through the southern window, and they can cause burns on the leaves of the plant. Therefore, the flower will have a little shade, for example, curtain with thin gauze or tulle.
In urban apartments, thanks to central heating, even in winter, a rather warm microclimate is preserved. Typically, the temperature in the rooms varies around 15-25 degrees Celsius, which the lemon, in principle, carries well. The only drawback is that at this air temperature this non-deciduous tree may begin to partially reset the foliage.
Therefore, experienced collector growers tend to place such plants in a separate room, where they periodically leave the window open for some time. At a temperature of 10−12 degrees above zero, lemon slows down the processes of photosynthesis, the root system stops pulling nutrients from the soil, which stops the growth of the tree. Wintering in such conditions allows you to save the crown of the plant, and it remains as spectacular and lush as in the summer, because the foliage does not tend to fall.
Reproduction from a stone
In order to grow a lemon tree does not need large material costs and physical. For successful germination will need:
- lemon pits,
- universal land,
- regular watering.
There are two ways to seed a lemon tree from bone:
First: remove the largest bones from the lemon, wash them. Lightly wet a cotton swab and place the bones in it, then you need to let stand in a moist environment for a couple of days, then you can plant in the ground.
The second way is even simpler - planting the seed immediately into the ground. In order to be sure that at least one bone will come up, plant 4-5 seeds in one pot. The germination of citrus from seeds is almost 100%, so you can be sure that 3 will sprout exactly under certain rules.
They do not sprout only those bones that were extracted from the immature fruits, or they themselves were underdeveloped - crooked, shriveled, small and "thin".
Take large and beautifully formed grains - these are ideal candidates for a beautiful healthy plant.
After planting in the ground for further action, you can choose one of two ways.
- Cover the pot or container with a plastic wrap or transparent lid and set it to the south side. Once a day, be sure to air the ground.
- Put the pot or container on the sunny side without any ventilation or other manipulations.
The first method is relevant if you plant bones in the winter and at home you are cool enough. And the second is very good in spring and summer.
After the plant has declined, it is important to observe special care. Citrus, especially lemon, important sunlight - at least 2 hours a day of direct contact with the foliage. Citruses love and need regular spraying.
Therefore, humidity in the room for lemon has a huge role, especially in winter - if your home has very dry air due to heating, then spraying should become daily, and if possible, moisten the air with a special device. If this is not available, then you can put a large container with water nearby.
The plant does not tolerate a nomadic lifestyle, so it is better to initially determine the place where it will live on a permanent basis.
Do not forget about how to care for lemon - when the topsoil dries, the plants need to be watered. Water should not stagnate, so there should be a layer of drainage in the pot other than fertile soil, otherwise the root system may start rotting.
Top dressing in winter should be done 2-3 times per season. To do this, take a piece of ash, and insist it in water. After, this mixture plentifully pour citrus. In the summer you can use nitrogenous fertilizer, for example, made independently of herbs and weed crops.
Feeding for citrus and the following is possible:
- specialized purchase for citruses,
- for indoor plants, universal,
- mineral supplements,
- rich in calcium
- cooked with his own hands (ground egg shells, onion peels, green manure, ash, and so on).
Transplant and plant formation
Lemon transplantation should be made 1 time per year in a pot that will be 1-2 cm larger than the previous one in diameter.
In this case, the plant will be comfortable and without much stress. The main thing to keep in mind when transplanting is that the root system cannot be damaged, the earthen room should be carried very carefully, as well as filled with a pot around the clod.
Care of the plant should also consist in pruning the plant and the formation of its crown or trunk. Lemon can be, as an independent tree, and grown in the bush method. Everything is decided by pruning - citruses tolerate crown formation well.
When the plant reaches 30-35 cm, you can pinch off the top centimeters by 10 - you get a cutting. Put it aside, as it can get another indoor citrus pet. Further watch where new branches will grow. And if you want everything, also pinch off the disagreeable.
In order to form a spray lemon, the main trunk must be cut low enough. After new shoots appear on the trunk, the plant needs particularly close care - in this case it is very susceptible to drying out.
The tree always stretches to the light, and in order to form a beautiful lush crown it is important to roll it. But in no way abruptly, but half a centimeter a day so that the leaves have time to move beyond the sunlight.
Lemon can let the ovary on the fruit for the second year of life, but you need to remember that the plant itself at such a small age just to spend all their vitality, vitamins and juices. Therefore, it is desirable to trim the floral ovary or tear.
Lemon can begin to bear fruit from 4-5 years of age, but still it is better to wait until 8-10 years old. Then you can safely enjoy the whole harvest of lemons, and not 1-2 fruits.
Reproduction by cuttings
Lemon can be grown and cuttings. However, when growing lemon cuttings there is no guarantee that the plant will take root, especially if it is brought from a tropical country. In comparison with the variant of the plant from the bone, this plant will be more frail, but it will be regularly fruitful with proper care.
The period of cultivation before the first fruiting will be halved - in 3-5 years. Plus the growth of cuttings - the branch retains the DNA at 100%.
Cultivation of growing requires material for germination - it can be brought from hot countries, tearing a sprig from a tree growing in open ground. Or you can use a ready-made plant that needs crown formation.
Bringing and growing from the cutting is quite troublesome, so consider the option when to grow a lemon is much easier.
When forming the crown of the finished plant, better than the actual one grown, cut off the top and plant it in the sand, deepening it by about 1-1.5 cm. With all this, it is advisable not to remove the lower leaves, but rather the best upper leaves should be cut off.
Rooting lasts from 30 to 60 days, so you should monitor the condition of the cutting and its watering. After the stalk has taken root, it should be transplanted into the pot with the ground and the drainage layer.
Home grown lemon is not only a houseplant, but a grown friend with love and care. Its beautiful bright and juicy look will give the room a unique look, the essential oils will fill the room with a refreshing faint aroma.
And during the flowering scents will spread throughout the apartment. What can we say about the juicy ripe fruit, which is sure to give the lemon a caring owner. Good luck in growing lemon!