Florists who have the conditions for the maintenance of flowering plants, have long bred gerberas in pots on their window sills. Caring for them is no more complex and no more easy than for other plants that can please the owners. But these flowers are so lush and beautiful that they become the decoration of a home garden. Those who are interested in this plant for the first time and are going to enrich their collection with it should understand its features for themselves.
First of all, most plants when moving from a flower shop to permanent residence requires almost immediate transplant. But not the gerbera room! The flower is quite delicate, and it takes some time to adapt. He simply will not survive two shocks in a row. So you have to wait a week or two or even longer. It is not difficult to catch the right moment: as soon as the plant gets brisk, the leaves will stir up - you can repot. Since the gerbera lived in the temporary ground in the store, it would have to be fed with complex fertilizers every three days before transplanting into suitable soil. And do not forget: when the home gerbera "moves", the ground in the pot must be changed completely, except for the one that stuck to the roots. Moreover, in order to avoid infection, the pot (preferably clay, breathable) should be poured with boiling water.
How to choose the soil
So, you bought gerberas in pots. Care after their habituation to your home begins with the selection of the soil in which you transplant them. Most often it is advised to take a soil consisting of leafy ground (2 parts), peat and sand (one by one). However, given that home gerberas in pots are prone to fungal diseases affecting the roots, many growers recommend planting them in perlite. It is very resistant to fungi, but at the same time it does not contain anything useful for plants, so it is very often necessary to give them complex fertilizers with the necessary microelements. In dry weather it is necessary to feed every other day, in cold weather and rain less often. So to resort to this method depends on your experience in growing gerberas in pots. Care, of course, in something becomes more difficult, but, on the other hand, it is not necessary to treat the plants, which is even more troublesome.
How to choose a residence
Gerbera room needs a lot of light. Moreover, unlike many other home colors, she is not even against direct rays - they do not harm her. However, the most favorable for it will still be the western and eastern windows. In the north, of course, it will be just dark, so you have to install a stationary additional lighting. In the south, at midday in the summer, the sun can burn the plant. So it will have to pritenyat.
If you want to prolong the flowering of your gerbera in pots, leaving in the winter time will also be complicated by the creation of the desired temperature plus a more highlight - the sun is clearly not enough for the flowers at this time.
What temperature do plants like?
Another subtlety of how to care for gerberas is in thermal mode. The plant is not too capricious, but does not like sudden temperature changes. But it is completely indifferent to drafts, so that in the heat it is quite possible to regulate the heat by ordinary ventilation. The only thing is that when the temperature drops below +10 Celsius, the gerbera will not start to bloom, and if the flowers have already blossomed, it will drop them. In winter, the framework is already due to a lack of light, so that it will be necessary to warm up the room for a blooming gerbera to at least +20. Moreover, the air should be even warmer so that the soil warms up to this temperature.
Water is the basis of the life of any plant, including gerberas in a pot. How to care for her during watering? First of all, we must take soft, not just separated, and warm water. In principle, the temperature of the water should correspond to the temperature of the soil. It is necessary to accurately determine its quantity: with an excess, root rot develops, with a deficiency flowering ceases and the leaves dry. The basic rule of how to care for gerberas during watering is that the drops should not fall on a sheet rosette. Otherwise, be sure the roots will start to rot. You can pour water from the edge of the pot, but it is better - in the pan, and the fact that the flower is not "drunk" for half an hour, you must remove.
Favorably perceives gerbera and spraying, as it dies in dry air. But there is a warning: drops should not fall on the flowers. Only leaves and stems can get wet!
Subtleties of care
For a beautiful and lush flowering of gerberas, it is imperative to remove the buds that have already bloomed. And they absolutely can not be cut off - just break off. If you ignore this rule, the rest of the peduncle begins to rot and destroy the whole gerbera.
All for the same delightful flowering plants need to be fertilized, and feeding must include a greater amount of calcium and potassium than usual. But for the normal growth and appearance of the leaves you need to choose fertilizers, which include iron. Or you can add his chelates to water for irrigation. This is because gerbera is vulnerable to chlorosis.
The warm months of home gerbera gladly spend on the balcony or in the garden - the abundance of air hardens and strengthens it.
And the last. This flower is rather short-lived. In order to prolong the life and flowering period, the gerbera needs to be transplanted into a slightly larger pot every year in the spring. Drainage at the bottom is obligatory, we also leave a lump of earth, but we fill up the cavities with new prepared soil - such an update is very useful for the plant.
What should protect the flower
First of all, from mistakes in care. At overflow, it can become sick with a gray mold, from which a whitish plaque appears on all the organs of the plant. From it can kill all your gerberas in a pot. How to care for a sick flower? Ruthlessly remove all affected parts, reduce the surrounding humidity and spray the gerbera with copper sulphate.
Another problem is too dry air. Because of it, the leaves turn yellow, and soon fall. This is a sign of spider mites. We'll have to urgently raise the humidity - at least sprinkling the gerbera 3-4 times a day. Did not help during the week - use "Aktellik".
If the flowers were attacked by aphids, they are treated with nicotine sulfate or anabazine sulfate, if the whitefly visited, we buy the drug with permethine and every three days we treat our garden to them.
There are three ways to multiply the gerbera's “population”. The first is the bush division. An adult plant is divided into 2-3 parts, each of them must have at least two points of growth. When seated, flowers break out of the nest, the roots (with excessive length) are pruned, the wounds are disinfected. In a month you will have full-fledged bushes.
The second way is grafting. Cut rhizomes with a couple of leaves and are deposited in a separate "dwelling". For them to start, you need a good warm one, degrees +25, air and high humidity of the earth - gerbera cuttings in a pot do not need anything else. How to care for transplanted plants, we have already told.
The third method is sowing seeds. For them, you can take the soil mixture described above, or you can get along with regular peat. Seeds are laid out on the surface and covered with a thin (0.5 cm, not more) layer of perlite, peat or sand. They will ascend in a week or two, and it will be possible to disarm them even after the same period. The very first flowers on new plants will appear in just six months.
What it is?
Gerbera is a perennial flowering plant, which belongs to the Astrov family. Flowers can grow both in open ground and in greenhouses. Their stem reaches 50 cm in height. In nature, there are low and miniature species that do not grow more than 30 cm. Gerberas have become widespread throughout the planet. There are more than 10 varieties of such a plant. In the wild, you can meet them in Africa and Madagascar. Gerbera's historic homeland is South Africa. This elegant flower looks like a simple chamomile.
The necessary conditions
- Gerbera is a plant that needs a long light day. If it blooms in winter or autumn, the light must come in for 12 hours. At the end of March, a gerbera can be located on the window - there will be more than enough natural light for it.
- The best solution is to choose windows that face east or west, as the leaves may start to fade from the strong midday sun.
- In June, when the frosts take place, the plant can be planted in a garden or put on a balcony.
- During the summer, the gerbera will delight in violent blooms. The optimum growing temperature is 18-20 degrees during the growth period.
- When flowering is important to avoid sudden changes in temperature. When the air temperature is reduced to a level of 12 degrees, the plant will go to rest.
- In the summer it is better to put it on a balcony or loggia - the gerbera is not afraid of the wind and drafts, but it needs protection from direct sunlight. Such actions will help prepare for re-bloom, which will continue from October to March. Additional lighting should be provided at this time.
- From early spring to late summer, the gerbera needs high air humidity. To create it, the pot is placed on a pallet filled with expanded clay and pebbles, and then air is sprayed around the plant. Spray on the leaves is not necessary - it is necessary to avoid the ingress of water into the outlet and the subsequent rotting.
Gerbera transplant in a new pot
It is important to ensure that the root neck is on the surface and is not covered with earth. If everything is done correctly, the young leaves will appear very soon. Starting a conversation about transplantation, it is worth noting that there is a lot of disagreement on this issue. Once every 2 years the substrate should be changed and the pot disinfected.. The procedure is carried out in the spring, before the gerbera begins to grow actively. Better to do it in March or April.
Gerber soil consists of:
- Two shares of leafy ground.
- One share of peat.
- One beat of sand.
Do not add humus or compost to the soil. The substrate used in the sale is often not suitable for home use. For an adult plant, you need to choose a container whose size is 1.5 liters. More dimensional pot should not be used. A good solution would be to use a ceramic pot with drainage holes - it will help save the plant from overheating on a hot day.
For the summer, the pot needs to be taken out to the balcony, since fresh air and natural temperature changes will bring a lot of benefit to the plant.
Watch the video about gerbera transplantation rules:
How to care after purchase?
- First, the flower is checked for the presence of pests.. When they are detected, the foliage is treated with Fitoverm or Aktar according to the instructions.
- The temperature should be at the level of 20-24 degreesso that the gerbera adapts faster. Resting occurs at a temperature of 10-12 degrees, with poor watering.
- Indoor flower likes watering with warm, separated water. Cold water should not be watered, because this way gerbera can start to hurt.
- High humidity is an important condition.. To secure it, the pot is placed in a pan, at the bottom of which water is poured. The bottom of the pot should not touch the moisture, and if desired, you can also spend the soil mulching.
A home plant is so unpretentious in its care that a child can cope with it. One has only to follow a few simple rules of cultivation.
- Gerbera prefers sunlight. It grows best in a well-ventilated area.
- Mandatory watering should be abundant - for this purpose use warm water about 20 degrees. Gerbera can not stand watering with cold water even in extreme heat. This can lead to the death of the plant. The best option would be to water in the pan - so you can avoid rotting the roots. It is better to wash off excess water. In a great way, the plant will feel when spraying, but you should also avoid getting water on the flowers.
- The temperature during the flowering period should be 20 degrees. In the summer it is worthwhile to take the flower to the air, and it is necessary to keep it in winter at a temperature of 14 degrees. This dormant period plays an important role as in the fall and winter the plant grows leaves and prepares for flowering.
Watch the video about gerbera care after purchase:
Many flower growers are interested in the reason why the home gerbera may not have flowering. The fact is that this flower is very fond of light, and when it receives it in insufficient quantity, it immediately stops blooming. It is necessary to arrange additional lighting - then it will please the eye both in summer and in winter.
When the gerbera leaves begin to turn yellow and even crumble, this indicates that a spider mite appeared on the plant. This can happen if the flower is not watered in a timely manner. It is important to spray it every day and check the leaves. Tick can be detected with the naked eye.
Diseases and pests
The most common diseases and pests include the following:
- Fusarium. This is a fungal disease that penetrates all tissues. Infected specimens will be stunted, wither and die. The disease spreads with remnants of vegetation, can be transmitted through the soil.
- Rot. It gradually affects the organs of the plant. A gray color is formed on diseased tissues, and the only way to fight the disease is to take Rovral and treat the gerbera once every 10 days.
- Mealy dew. Plaque on the leaves is white in color - it gradually leads to wrinkling. The fungus can infect inflorescences, flower stalks and buds. Plants can lag behind in development, and processing can be carried out 3 times, maintaining an interval of 10 days.
- Verticilous wilting. The main symptom is wilting of the leaves - they can turn brown, and then shrink. The fungus remains in the soil for a long time.
- Downy mildew. On the leaves of gerberas there are oval spots of red color. At the first symptoms, treatments are carried out by Acrobat MC, Previkur, Strobe. All this can take up to 7 days.
- Whitefly. She settles on the leaves and flowers below. The affected parts turn yellow or brown. Spraying is carried out with such preparations - Aplaud, Mospilan.
- Thrips. This - peddlers of viruses. Signs of infection can be pink and yellow spots. Adult individuals settle on flowers, and to get rid of them, they use solutions of Decis-Extra and Actellic. The number of treatments is 2-3 times, and the interval - from a week to ten days.
- Spider mite. He sucks the juice from the plants. The first signs are the formation of small dots on the leaves, in the lower parts of which ticks begin to settle. The next stage is drying and leaf fall. Plants are covered with cobwebs. As a treatment, you can use Fitoverm, Vertimek. Re-treatment can be carried out after 3 weeks.
In this article, you learned about how to care for gerberas, and what features this flower has. If you follow all the recommendations, care will not seem difficult, and the plant will delight with its beauty and elegance. For those who want to create a small greenhouse in their home, gerbera is the best choice. Varieties of flowers and abundant flowering will decorate the window sill and make it a real pride.
Types and varieties
In nature, there are more than seventy of its varieties, but they are almost not used by growers. The most popular are the gerbera jamson and the green leaf gerbera.
These species underlie a variety of varieties of various sizes (mostly from 4 to 15 cm) and flowers (except blue) (almost all varieties that are grown are hybrid gerbera, derived from the varieties of James and green).
Rosalin and Lancaster are Pink Gerberas.
Alice, Sympathy, Mirage, Rudite - Orange Gerberas.
Tamara, Elegans, Gelios - Yellow gerberas.
Gerbera Revolution is a relatively new variety - it grows quickly and blooms for a long time, bred mainly for indoor breeding. When they say hebrer room, they mean undersized varieties.
Gerbera room care at home
Caring for different varieties is the same, but caring in general has its own difficulties, so you need to know how to care for a gerbera. These flowers require bright lighting, but protect them from direct sunlight. In spring, plants can be kept on the glazed balcony, and planted in open ground in summer. For the winter, provide additional lighting.
Blossom is directly related to lighting. Although the flower is light-loving, its excessive amount can interrupt flowering. These colors need a day to last a maximum of 12 hours. That is why in the fall there is such abundant flowering. By artificial lighting can achieve flowering in winter. Summer is a time of peace - no buds are formed, green mass is accumulated.
If the gerbera does not bloom, then you have gone too far with fertilizers or planted it in a larger pot than you need and all the strength of the plant needed for flowering is spent on growing large roots. The flower will grow well and develop only in heat. The best temperature is 20-24 ° C.
Caring for a room gerbera after flowering consists of tearing out under the root of withered inflorescences, otherwise they will begin to rot and cause infection.
How to water a gerbera in a pot
Coming to us from South Africa, this tropical guest requires constant watering. Water the gerbera in the pot should be extremely warm water - 20 ° C and not lower, otherwise the disease follows.
Be sure to spray the stems using warm water. It is also harmful to overwet the ground - the sheets from below will start to rot. Even in the wet soil infest worms.
How to transplant gerbera after purchase
When you buy a gerbera in a pot, remember that moving it from the greenhouse to the apartment is already stressful for the flower and therefore wait a little with transplant. It is worth waiting until the adaptation takes place, it usually takes a couple of weeks.
Gerbera transplantation has its own nuances you can not engage in transplantation during the flowering period - this is knocking down the biorhythms of the flower. When repotting, select a pot 3 cm larger than the past. Prepare a light soil. We advise to plant in such a ground: two lobes of leafy ground, the proportion of peat, the proportion of sand.
Do not use compost and humus - they harm this plant.
Gerbera fertilizers differ at different stages of development.
In the first spring months and in the summer, during the stage of increasing the green mass, it is necessary to use fertilizers, including nitrogen, but remember that a weak solution is needed, that is, it should be diluted with a large amount of liquid than is indicated in the instructions. During flowering fertilizers are used with potassium, but again - it is necessary to dilute the fertilizer more.
As you can see care for a gerbera at home requires care and some knowledge.
Gerbera leaf breeding
To do this, cut a part of the stem with a knot and a sheet and plant it in a warm soil (approximately 25 ° C). During the week, the leaf starts up the roots, it must be removed, the rhizome is divided into parts and seated. produce this procedure from May to July.
As in the case of gerbera propagation by seeds, when using the leaf, varietal characteristics often disappear.
Gerbera room diseases and pests
Why leaves turn yellow room gerbera
- If the yellowness appeared immediately after the purchase, then perhaps the flower just adapts to the new conditions, but if the yellowing did not pass within a week, then it is better to think about other reasons,
- Possible lack of moisture, the plant is not sprayed,
- Excessive watering during the growing season also leads to this effect
- But most often the leaves turn yellow due to a lack or a large amount of light. Place your plant correctly and everything will be fine.
If the gerbera leaves fade
- Most likely, you violated the water balance of the plant - either a little or too watering. If the leaves start to rot, cut them off immediately.
The same answer to the question "why do gerberas wither flowers?»
- The whole point is in the water balance, water as the flower requires, and it will long delight you with flowering.
It often happens that gerbera leaves dry.
- The reasons for this may be several: the wrong light or water mode,
- Harmful soil acidity level. It is necessary that this indicator was in the zone from 4.7 to 5.4 pH,
- Improper feeding with fertilizer.
Often the disease of this flower, which causes the leaves to dry, is fusarium.
To cure a flower, it is necessary to decontaminate the earth with a solution of potassium permanganate, but do not overdo it, so the excess means will lead to the exhaustion of the ferum in the soil.
White bloom on the leaves
Quite often there is a white bloom on the leaves of gerbera. This may also be several explanations.
Flour mildew- it is determined by wiping the sheet. If the white dirt has gathered in a lump, and the piece has become clean - it is dew.
- The treatment is as follows, a solution of potassium permanganate is prepared: one and a half grams per ten liters of water. It works best at an early stage of the disease.
- Mullein infusion - one share of three shares of water. It is necessary to give the drug to insist for three days. Then it is filtered and sprayed on the plant every seven days. But you can use a simple serum. It is diluted with water 1: 7 and mixed with a teaspoon of copper sulfate.
Mold- it forms a fibrous or wool plaque. If it is not quickly cut and not disinfected, then you can lose the plant.
White rot - It is a mushroom that forms a white greyish down. Fluff is just the beginning, and then the plant rots. The disease is spreading rapidly.
- For treatment, you can use any of the above methods.
If the gerbera is planted in open ground, then it can become infected with aphids. Before transplanting into the house again, be sure to treat it with an insecticide.
Gerberas in a pot - how to care?
Before planting this plant you need to pick a pot. It should be primarily breathable, so the best pot for a gerbera flower is clay. The optimum temperature of the content during the flowering of gerberas is 17–23 degrees. In winter, after flowering until February - 11–13 degrees.
Start of care
Basically, all flowers after the flower shop require immediate transplanting. But this does not apply to room gerberas. This flower itself is very delicate and it needs time to adapt. Therefore, transplantation is carried out in two to three weeks.
Gerbera herself will let you know when to replant it (the plant itself will embolden, and the leaves will start). This means that the flower is ready for transplanting. In the store, the gerbera was in temporary soil, so after transplantation it should be fed with complex fertilizers - once every three days.
It must be borne in mind that the land must be changed completely, not counting the one that remained on the roots. Before planting the pot, it is advisable to pour over boiling water so as not to infect the infection.
Nuances of care
- Lighting and location. Since the home gerbera plant is light-loving, and the duration of flowering depends on the daylight, you need to choose a place where bright ambient light. The room must be well ventilated. When the temperature is warm outside, it is better to take the gerbera to the balcony, as she loves the warm fresh air.
- The soil. It should be weakly acidic. Leaf soils, peat and sand are best suited for a 2: 1: 1 ratio. Sheet soil is needed twice as much as peat and sand.
- Water Gerbera in the pot should be so that the soil was always wet - it can not dry out. Watering should be carried out with separated water at room temperature, as it does not tolerate cold water. Watering should be in the edge of the pot, so that water does not get into the rosette. Another method of irrigation is through a drip pan: pour water into it and drain the excess water in half an hour to prevent water stagnation, as this may lead to the formation of powdery mildew or fungal diseases.
- Spraying At least once a day, you should spray a home gerbera (only leaves, but not flowers) so that there are no drops in the outlet. When the room is dry air, especially in the heating season, the gerbera grows poorly.
- Top dressing. Gerbera flower does not tolerate organic fertilizers; in no case should humus or humus be added to the soil. Feed it should be 3-4 times a month only with complex mineral fertilizer.
- Transfer. It should be carried out as needed in the early spring in a pot that is a little more than the previous one. If you plant this flower immediately in a large pot, it will not bloom for a long time.
- Crop. At home, the gerbera does not need pruning. Flowers that have bloomed need to be removed (it is better to break it out, but not to cut it off), as they will inhibit the growth of the plant.
- Reproduction. Gerberas can be propagated at home by seed, cutting, or dividing a bush. Seeds are sown in spring in leaf soil with the addition of sand to a depth of 5 mm. After the fourth leaf appears, the plants are planted in separate pots. From sowing seeds to flowering - 11 months. By dividing the gerbera multiply only after four years. Thus propagated gerbera valuable and rare varieties.
Diseases and pests of room gerbera
If there is not enough moisture in the soil or there is dry air in the room, then on gerbera spider mite can start. The first sign of this disease is yellowed leaves, which later fall off. To avoid this, you need to regularly spray the leaves with water several times a day.
Powdery mildew appears when sudden changes in temperature, watering with cold water or with repeated use of nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
With a lack of moisture, the gerbera is affected by the aphids and the whitefly, and with increasing moisture - by the white and gray mold. At home when caring for a flower for such diseases diseased leaves are removed. More care is the following: it is necessary to reduce the humidity, and the flower itself is sprayed with copper-containing solutions (solution of blue vitriol).
If you comply with all the conditions of care for the gerbera at home, then this flower will always delight the eye with its beautiful flowering.
Food for the gerbera
Gerber must be additionally fed. After planting, after 7–8 weeks, fertilizers are applied. Fertilizing this plant is carried out in the spring twice a month, in the summer - three times a month.
When pale areas appear on the leaves of the gerbera (lack of magnesium), introducing magnesium sulfate solution - 10 g per 5 l of water.
Herbaceous perennial of the Astrov family. Grows wild in Madagascar and in South Africa. As a house plant, gerbera is grown due to its beautiful and long flowering. In appearance, very reminiscent of chamomile. It differs from it in large colors and bright colors. There are such gerbera names as Transvaal daisy or daisy.
The plant is small and neat - the gerbera room rarely grows above 30 cm. The leaves are pinnately dissected, oblong, with a slight pubescence. The leaves are folded into the rosette. Long peduncles are rare. Inflorescences - large, bright. Flowers are simple, semi-double or terry. Prized for a variety of colors. There are gerberas of all colors except blue.
Flowering begins in late August, ends in November. Until February, the flower rests, then goes into rapid growth. After 3-4 years, it is recommended to rejuvenate the flower - a mature plant does not bloom so abundantly. Gerbera flowers become smaller, flowering time is shorter. Rejuvenate the bush by dividing.
Interesting! Experienced flower growers achieve almost year-round flowering gerberas. The result - the plant constantly pleases with beautiful flowers. Minus - in 2 years the bush is completely exhausted.
In nature, there are more than 70 species of flower. Not all of them are suitable for home cultivation. The most popular and unpretentious are Gerbera Jameson and green. On their basis, most modern varieties are derived. In home gardening using stunted varieties.
- "Pam" - flowers of bright pink color, the core is brown.
- “Sweet Surprise” - light crimson flowers, the middle - green with a border of yellow color.
- "Rachel" - bright red flowers. A distinctive feature of the variety is elongated stamens.
- "Valerie" - Two-tone flowers. Below - purple, above - white and pink. The core is yellow-brown.
- Sophie is an interesting fuchsia flower.
Tip! When buying a gerbera in a pot, be sure to pay attention to the variety and its characteristics. Sometimes tall varieties are treated with chemicals that inhibit growth. The plant seems miniature, beautifully blooms, decorative looks. But without subsequent treatments, the plant begins to rapidly stretch, lose its appearance and eventually dies.
For a long and lush flowering, it is important to organize the right care for the room gerbera.
- Lighting. The plant does not like heat and direct sun, but prefers high light conditions. Fit windows facing east or west. In the summer withstands small daily temperature drops. With the onset of steady heat, the gerbera is allowed to be carried out on the balcony or in the garden.
- Temperature. It prefers a moderate temperature range of 20-22 ° C. In the heat and stuffiness quickly dies. In winter, a dormant period at 14-16 degrees is required.
- Watering. Watering regular, but moderate. Equally dislikes drying and over-wetting the soil. The soil is kept slightly wet. Water temperature for irrigation is slightly higher than room temperature. From cold water gerbera sick.
- Humidity. It does not matter. It grows well with dryness and slightly high humidity. Gratefully responds to spraying.
- Feeding. During active growth make complexes with a high content of nitrogen. Closer to the period of flowering begin feeding means for flowering plants. Bring them no more than once a week. The recommended concentration of solutions is halved.
- The soil. The best soil for room gerbera is a mixture of peat, sand and leafy earth (1: 1: 2). Adding hydrogel granules helps maintain constant moisture.
- Transfer. Transplanted when the roots no longer fit in the pot. New capacity should be slightly larger, but not more than one and a half liters. In large tanks gerbera ceases to bloom.
Tip! Within 2 weeks after purchase it is not recommended to repot the flower. He must adapt to the conditions of your apartment. After acclimatization, the plant must be transplanted. The soil used in stores is a temporary substrate. The flower will not be able to grow in it for a long time.
Practiced several ways of breeding gerberas. All of them are successfully used by growers.
- Growing from seed. The optimal time for sowing is March. Sow the seeds in a loose substrate of sand and peat, moisten the soil, cover the container with glass. Conditions for rapid germination - stable humidity, temperature not less than 18 ° C, daily ventilation of the greenhouse. In the phase of 2-3 true leaves, the first pick is performed. The second pick is at the stage of 4-5 true leaves. Varietal plants are obtained from store seeds. Seeds collected from home plants, lose the bright characteristics of the variety.
- Cuttings. Cut off part of the stem with leaf and knot. Place the cut in wet sand. Maintain the temperature at 25 ° C. Roots appear quickly - in 1-2 weeks. Saving varietal traits is not guaranteed.
- The division of the bush. It is considered the most reliable way. Divide the bush at the age of 3-4 years, planted in separate pots. In the early days provide enhanced care for the gerbera. In the pot should be kept stable humidity. Varietal signs do not disappear.
The natural development cycle of exotic chamomile
To properly care for room gerbera, you need to recreate natural environment for her at home. It looks like this:
- the gerbera from late summer to late fall pleases with beautiful flowers,
- November - February the flower needs peace in order to gain strength for the next flowering,
- since mid-February, watering is increased, the number of dressings, at this time the gerbera is actively beginning to grow,
- supported by such a rhythm of growth, after four years, the flower is replaced with a new one or rejuvenated.
Can a gerbera deprive of rest, but after two years it will get tired and such flower will be unsuitable for further cultivation.
Among the different varieties of gerberas, in addition to home, there are garden ones. The flowers are also different shades and they are as beautiful as room gerberas.
Description of plants
This plant became quite common in 1887. Gerbera first gained popularity in Europe, and then gradually spread throughout the world. Gerbera belongs to the aster family. In all its features and properties, this plant is very similar to aster. But if aster is an annual plant, then a gerbera is a perennial. At home, it can grow and bloom for several years.
Like asters, they can have simple or double flowers. Petals can be needle or twisted. Color variations should not be listed, since different varieties may have a wide variety of colors.
Generally, gerbera flowers are about 80 varieties. As home flowers, as a rule, undersized varieties of the Jamesa gerbera are grown. But you can successfully grow other varieties of gerbera. These varieties have a small height of about 25-30 cm.
How to care for a gerbera?
In order for the flower to please its beautiful flowering, you must follow the rules for the care of a room gerbera. Care at home is as follows:
Before you start care it is necessary to decide on a placewhere the flower will be located. It is best to pick up the east or west window. But it is worth remembering that high temperatures do not like gerberas. Also do not forget that direct sunlight should not fall on the stems and flowers of gerbera. Despite the fact that this plant loves well-lit places, direct sunlight will prevent the plant from blooming, and in some cases even destroy the whole plant. Pot plant should not be in the draft. The pot is placed in a room where there are no strong temperature drops.
In the summer, the ideal location would be the glazed balcony. You can also put a flower on a shaded part of the garden, but do not forget to care for it.
Оптимальной температурой для выращивания является 22 градусов. In late autumn and throughout the winter, the plant should be in a cool room. A temperature of 14 to 16 degrees will help the plant to properly conduct a period of rest. Properly organized rest period will be a guarantee that the plant will bloom profusely and continuously. In the period of rest for the gerbera do not need to care for.
How to plant a gerbera?
As a rule, after the acquisition of flowers taken to replant. But the gerbera in this period can not be transplanted. Within two weeks, the plants should get used to the new growing conditions. If during this period the plant is transplanted, then it will be difficult for him to adapt to new conditions and to new soil. You can wait for the rest period.
When the gerbera in the pot is a little used to the new conditions, it is necessary to transplant it into a new soil.
The substrate in which the plant grew should be completely replaced with a new one, because it is unsuitable for long-term plant growth.
The substrate should consist of leaf soil, sand and peat.. Leafy ground should be the same amount as peat and sand. Instead of sand you can use dry moss. It is important to remember that compost and humus can not be used when growing gerberas. Some experts recommend adding hydrogel granules to the substrate. They absorb moisture during irrigation and then gradually give it to the roots, thereby preventing the soil from drying out.
The pot should be chosen a little more than the previous one. For example, if a pot with a diameter of 22 cm was used before, a subsequent transplant should be made into a pot with a diameter of 24-26 cm. Expanded clay is poured at the bottom of the pot, it will drain excess moisture from the roots. The shrub is carefully removed from the old pot and the condition of the roots is checked. Old substrate must be shaken off the roots. Damaged roots can be cut. A layer of earth is poured into the new pot and the bush is carefully planted. The substrate is compacted and watered.
The next transplant can be carried out in 2-3 years, when the roots grow in the volume of the pot. The best time for a transplant is a rest period.
Plants love abundant watering.. Watering is only warm water. Water temperature for irrigation should not be below 20 degrees. If you water the gerbera with cold water, the root system will experience stress and, eventually, the plant may become ill.
At high temperatures, watering is done daily. If the soil is often overmoistened, then the lower leaves of the plant rot.
Gerbera care is to sprinkle. Spraying is carried out with warm water daily. But water should not fall on the flowers, water droplets spoil the petals.
Gerbera - home care can not be complete without fertilizer. At different stages of development, they need different nutrients. Therefore, when fertilizer should take into account the phase of flower development.
The main dressing gerberas:
- In summer and in early spring (from February to April), the bush actively builds up its green mass; during this period it needs a large amount of nitrogen. As a fertilizer, you can use special dressing with a high nitrogen content. If a solution of industrial production is used, it must be diluted with water. Fertilizer for gerbera should be of low concentration.
- During the flowering gerbera fertilizer is necessary with an increased amount of potassium. This element will help the plant grow more flowers.
Reproduction of gerbera seeds quite rarely used. When using this method, it is rarely possible to obtain healthy plants that will retain all maternal characteristics. Yes, and seed germination is low. To germinate seeds, you need to use only fresh seed, that is, you must independently collect the seeds from the plant. This is quite problematic to do at room gerbera. And buying fresh seeds in the store is not always possible.
Sowing should be carried out in the spring. Seeds are sown in a mixture of sod land, leaf soil and sand. Sand must be present, because it makes the substrate lightweight and breathable. Seeds are sown on a compacted and moistened soil, sprinkled with a thin layer of substrate, about 0.5 cm is enough. The substrate is compacted and watered. The seed container is kept under the same conditions as an adult plant. When 3-5 true leaves are formed on the seedlings, they are transplanted into separate pots. From the moment of planting seeds before flowering should take at least 10 months.
Reproduction division bush
Using this method You can get several new plants. In addition, the adult plant after such a procedure will grow faster. The division can be made in late summer or at the very beginning of autumn. During this period, the plants begin a period of rest, flowering is over. Mature plants need to dig out of the pot and divided into several parts. Moreover, the division should be done only with a sharp tool, for example, a knife. Each new plant should have several sprigs of green.
Each new bush must be planted in a separate pot. Gerbera in a pot to pour well. Further care for new plants is watering, spraying and fertilizing. For full rooting, plants need 6 months. Next spring you can expect the first flowers from new plants.
Cuttings should be cut from an adult plant in early spring. You can choose not too beautiful branches and cut them with a sharp knife. For cuttings suitable parts of the branches with a few leaves. Leaves can not be cut. The cut must be sharp, so rooting will happen more successfully. Cut cuttings can be put in the root former solution. And you can leave the cuttings in this solution before the formation of the roots. And you can hold the cuttings in the solution of the creator for 30-60 minutes, and then plant them in a wet substrate.
Planted cuttings cover with a thick film and put in a sunny place. Periodically, the film is removed and airing the seedlings. Also, do not forget about watering. After 20-30 days, new leaflets will appear on the cuttings, which will be an indicator of a good survival rate and the start of intensive growth.
What hurts a gerbera?
Most often this flower affected by pests and diseases with the wrong care. Therefore, it is worthwhile to organize competent care and prevention of diseases. A diseased flower purchased at a garden store can infect healthy plants. Therefore, after the acquisition you need to keep the flower apart from others. The quarantine gerbera should be about 1 month. If you comply with this condition, the infection of new plants will not occur.
How to care for indoor gerberas?
Caring for a gerbera in a pot does not present any particular difficulties. However, acquiring a flower or receiving a gift, the owner must know that the plant, the owner of which he becomes, needs proper care, enabling the tropical plant to fully develop and bloom.
Lighting and temperature
The flower needs a lot of light, well tolerating the direct sunlight of the morning and evening sun. In the summer, you should put the gerbera in the fresh air or organize a systematic ventilation of the room where it is located. In the winter season, artificial additional lighting should be provided, which will increase the length of daylight, prolong the flowering period.
Temperature control is provided depending on the season:
- in the summer - 20-24 ° C,
- in winter - 16-20 ° C.
Important! Lowering the temperature to 12 ° C leads to immersion of the flower in a state of rest, in which all processes slow down, flowering becomes impossible until awakening.
Tropical flower requires constant watering. Humidification should be carried out with separated water not cooler than 20 ° C. Watering with cold water is a great danger: the plant can get sick and even die.
The procedure can be carried out in two ways:
- The plant is watered around the edge of the pot to prevent water from entering the outlet.
- Moistening with a pallet involves placing the pot in a container with water for half an hour.
Attention! Re-moistening of the soil should not be allowed: an excess of moisture can cause the development of rot on the rosettes and dangerous pests - nematodes.
An exotic representative does not like dry air and will be very grateful for systematic spraying. However, the plant should be sprayed from a small spray gun that creates a water mist so that water drops do not fall on the flowers.
Room gerberas need additional feeding and enrichment of the substrate with various macroelements depending on the development phase:
- In the phase of growing green mass, observed from February to April and in the summer months, the plant is fed with nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers.
- In the gerbera flowering phase, additional fertilizing with a high content of potassium is required, which ensures the flower opulence.
Important! When preparing a nutrient solution, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of mineral fertilizers by half of that indicated on the package. And also not allowed to use organic matter because of its intolerance to a tropical plant.
At that time:
- Prepared pot 2-3 cm more than the previous one.
- A drainage of expanded clay or gravel is placed on the bottom.
- The tank is filled with a special soil for growing gerberas.
- The flower gently, so as not to damage the delicate root system, together with the earthy ball come from the old pot and placed in a new one.
- The root neck should be 2-3 cm above the surface of the substrate.
Gerberas prefer subacid soils. The substrate for the indoor representative of the culture is purchased in specialized flower shops or prepared independently from leafy land, peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
The main method of gerbera breeding is dividing a bush: when grafting, the varietal qualities may not be preserved. Upon reaching the age of three or four, the flower already forms several new bushes and can be seated. When separating bushes, it is necessary to control that there are at least three points of growth on each specimen. Rooting of a new plant lasts about six months, and flowering occurs ten months after planting.
The method consists of the following steps:
- Seeds are sown on seedlings.
- For the first time, seedlings spike when a single pair of true leaves is formed on the shoots.
- After forming the second pair of leaves, the second picking of the plants into separate pots is carried out.
The generative method is rarely used because of the laboriousness and low productivity.
Among the reasons that can lead to yellowing of leaves, stand out:
- excessive watering, leading to stagnation of water and provoking the development of rot,
- water ingress into the plant outlet,
- excessive soil and air dryness,
- non-compliance with the spray rules
- watering with cold water.
By ensuring appropriate conditions of detention, problems can be avoided. If they have already occurred, the adjustment of care measures will allow them to solve.
The abundance of flowering is directly dependent on compliance with agrotechnical requirements for growing gerbera at home:
- Lighting. For a gerbera to bloom, it requires a certain length of daylight - 12 hours. It blooms most abundantly from August to November when this condition is fulfilled naturally. Also, the flowering state can continue until June, subject to the creation of additional lighting. But from June to August, when the sun is at its highest point, the gerbera ceases to bloom and increases its green mass.
- Top dressing. Do not use too many nitrogen plants. They should be replaced by mineral fertilizers, which include potassium and phosphorus - superphosphate, potassium nitrate.
- Transfer. When the plant is transplanted, it is necessary to choose the size of the pot correctly: a gerbera will not bloom in too large a pot, spending all the energy on growing the root system.
Thus, if you follow all the recommendations for the care of the indoor flower, the gentle and beautiful gerbera will reward its owner with a long beautiful flowering.