Spicy and medicinal herbs

Basil: growing from seeds in open ground and on windowsill

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What pesto sauce? The main ingredient of Italian gravy - basil. Growing up It began as a cultural grass in Europe, but the home of the green is Asia. From there, spice and brought.

Army men of Alexander the Great made this, returning from the Asian campaigns. So, the Italian spice is not at all Italian, as the potato is not Russian. Well, that's not the point. The main thing is people's love. Let's make and Asian Russian. Learn to grow basil.

How and when to plant basil?

The vegetation period of the hero of the article is 140-160 days. Culture is thermophilic. Early planting in open ground, as well as late gathering, is impossible. Accordingly, you can immediately put the seeds on the bed in mid-May and enjoy the summer greens, but do not collect the seeds for next year.

There will be two green crops. This is the norm for central Russia. If you want to buy your own seeds instead of the purchased ones, you need basil seedlings. Growing up it starts in early spring. It takes a week for the seedlings, and another 7 for the development of bushes to the state suitable for open ground.

So we calculate the sowing time based on the climate of the region. By landing in open ground, the top of the beds should warm up to + 15 degrees Celsius.

Temperature basil growing conditions for seedlings - + 20-27 degrees. When lowering the thermometer below + 16 grass begins to stretch, the distance between the leaves increases. Lanky plants are weak and vulnerable to disease.

It is possible to add strength to the seedlings and competently made substrate. Seeds are placed in a mixture of sand, peat and humus. The latter can be replaced with old compost. Peat predominates in the ground. Its 4 share.

We take the 2nd dusts, and the 1st dunes. As you can see, the mixture is nutritious. That is what basil loves. Its seeds are planted in a pre-treated substrate. Composed independently sieved and steamed for an hour in a water bath. Soil from the store shed solution of potassium permanganate. These are disinfecting procedures that kill fungal spores and weed seeds.

The prepared substrate is filled in a tank with a depth of about 6 centimeters. At the bottom of the pots should be holes for the outflow of water. The earth is slightly compacted by shaking. As a result, a centimeter remains to the edges of the containers.

Basil seedlings on the photo

Fill it after a rash on the ground seeds. When gardening debut often planted several varieties at once, in order to choose the best. In this case, it makes sense to take the cassettes as pots and put labels in their compartments indicating the type of basil.

Growing basil from seeds

When planting, the seeds of culture should be centimeter underground. Water carefully, it is better to spray plentifully from the sprayer. After, crops are covered. Transparent film, glass or plastic bottle cuts will do.

They will create greenhouse conditions. Pots put on the light in the heat. Considering the love of the plant for the latter, watering is carried out with slightly heated water. The soil should always be slightly wet.

If the water goes into the trays, drain. The stasis of moisture in the bottom of the pot provokes the development of black legs. It is root neck rot basil grown from seed.

When to plant seedlings in separate pots? After the appearance of two true leaves. The process is called picking, although, originally, cutting the tip of the taproot was called so.

In the photo seeds of basil

This leads to the branching of the base of the plant. The more extensive the root system, the easier it is for the greens to get food for themselves. So, it is possible to carry out a picking in the classical sense, but after the development of the 6th leaf.

Basil is transplanted into the soil of the original composition with the addition of a couple of tablespoons of wood ash and one spoonful of mineral feeding. This is based on 5 liters of land. It is important that the fertilizer is distributed evenly in it. Must be thoroughly mixed.

Seedlings are placed at the same depth at which the grains were located. Repeated soil compaction and careful watering with warm water. When the vagaries of weather shoots pinch over the 8th sheet and re-fertilized with liquid fertilizing mineral composition. In theory, the landing in the ground should take place at the stage of 6-7th leaves.

Growing basil in the open field

Basil loves light. Beginning gardeners rarely decide to plant a plant under young trees. Meanwhile, the winning step. Young apple trees and pears almost do not give shade. The basil grabs light, and fruit seedlings protect. The spicy smell of grass scares off pests from trees.

To organize a symbiosis of basil with fruit young, or to plant grass separately, it turns out in the second half of May. Must go through return frost. While they rage, gardeners prepare the beds. Under the basil they are dug up for a month, adding a couple of kilograms of humus, peat, in general, organic matter per square meter.

A month later, seedlings are brought to the bed. Between their rows leave 30 centimeters, and between the bushes about 20. Preferably in the evening or overcast weather. In the first hours after planting, seedlings actively lose moisture, are vulnerable. The withering effect of the sun is superfluous.

Growing basil in the open field

Watered basil moved to the garden with warm, settled water. Remembering the intolerance of the grass to the cold, the first couple of weeks of planting are covered overnight. After, the grass will grow, no longer needing additional protection, but requiring frequent loosening.

During the season it is carried out about 8 times. Loosen before watering. However, this is a general recommendation, as well as breaking out flower stalks. I remove them from all crops grown for the sake of greenery.

Instead of wasting energy on the formation of buds and seeds, basil spends it on building up leaf mass. It needs an abundance of moisture. Water planting immediately after drying the soil.

Growing basil on the windowsill

Growing basil at home goes according to the scheme of work with seeds for seedlings. The only difference is that seedlings with 2 sheets are transferred to a permanent pot. We choose an attractive pot with a volume of about a liter.

In the photo purple basil

For one bush basil is enough. The desire to plant several sprouts in one pot requires greater capacity. Drainage is poured at its bottom. This may be expanded clay, fragments of ceramic vases or crushed eggshell.

By the way, before planting shoots, keep on light only 3-4 hours a day. The abundance of the sun is needed already sprouted sprouts. If they were born in the winter, use lamps. They have a light day adjusted to at least 15 hours.

This is a requirement of both young and adult basil bushes. Watering varies according to age. Up to a month a pot plant is irrigated every morning. With the advent of lateral shoots, basil is watered every 2-3 days.

The development of the side shoots - a signal to the introduction of organic fertilizer. A volumetric and healthy bush will be formed with it. True, the nuances of his appearance depend on the type of plant.

In the photo bloom purple basil

There are, for example, purple basil. Growing up He is actively practiced in the Caucasus. In local cuisine, basil is king. By the way, the name of the grass is translated from Greek as “royal”. However, we will talk about plant species separately.

Types and grades of basil

Basilica has 150 species. Each of them has a minimum of a couple of varieties. There are plenty to choose from. Practicing gardeners have already made their choice and are ready to make recommendations.

We take them into account. So, purple basil is a flavor centering. There are twice as many essential oils in species as in green grass. Last and taste more tender.

Of the green varieties are popular belonging to the "fragrant" mind. Its varieties are called camphor. The aroma of grass resembles camphor. But the taste of basil "Fragrant" is similar to cloves.

Recall the varieties Magial Michael, Mammoth and Genovese Gidante. The latter gives the very taste of Italian dishes, in particular, the Pesto sauce. Mammoth is a sharp-tasting variety with large foliage.

On the photo basil and purple

She, by the way, in different types of basil is elongated and pointed at the ends or almost round. The latter option applies to Magial Michael. The variety is soft to the taste and different bushiness.

Lemon basil is separated from the fragrant varieties. He has not only a pronounced smell of citrus, but also taste. In addition, "Lemon" basil spreading like a tree. Up to 300 grams of foliage is harvested from a bush with a standard height of 50 centimeters.

"Cinnamon" basil stands apart. It has green foliage, but purple flowers. They have spiciform plants. The taste varieties of the species differ notes of cinnamon. Hence the name of the basilica.

Basil Care

Basil Care carry out, as a rule, for the sake of its foliage. It grows coarse after the plant ejects peduncles. Therefore, the spice is cut to the ovary of the buds, or cut them themselves.

This was discussed above, as well as the love of culture for light, moisture, heat. It remains to mention the need for regular weeding. Weeds easily block the development of basil.

He is, in general, a sissy, at least in the Russian reality. Part of this reality can be diabetes, thrombosis, pregnancy, children under 2 years old.

All these are contraindications to the use and inhalation of the essential oil of the hero of the article. Therefore, to grow it is not all and not always. Otherwise, care will be needed not for the plant, but for the man.

It is a pity, because the basil has many advantages. Dentists, for example, advise rinsing agents based on spice juice. It kills 90% of the bacteria in the mouth. Down with stomatitis, caries, plaque and gingivitis.

Beauticians sing basil ode, as a means of soothing sensitive skin. Nutritionists notice that the hero’s juices of the article break down fats, which means they contribute to weight loss. The aroma of grass soothes. So, in the absence of contraindications, basil is a welcome guest both in the house and in the garden.

Content

  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Planting on seedlings
    • 3.1. When to sow
    • 3.2. Growing from seed
  • 4. Cultivation on the windowsill
    • 4.1. How to grow
    • 4.2. Watering
    • 4.3. Top dressing
  • 5. Cultivation in open ground
    • 5.1. Landing
    • 5.2. Growing up
    • 5.3. Watering
    • 5.4. Top dressing
    • 5.5. What to plant after
  • 6. Pests and diseases
    • 6.1. Diseases
    • 6.2. Pests
  • 7. Types and varieties
  • 8. Properties: harm and benefit
    • 8.1. Beneficial features
    • 8.2. Contraindications

Planting and caring for basil (in brief)

  • Bloom: late July or early August.
  • Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - at the end of March or in the first half of April, transplanting seedlings into open ground - in the second half of May. Sowing seeds in the ground - not earlier than the beginning of June.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: light, fertile, rich in humus, drained, breathable.
  • Watering: as drying of the top layer of soil.
  • Top dressing: once a month. The first time is 2 weeks after the seedlings are planted in the ground with a solution of 2 tablespoons of Nitrophoska in 12 liters of water, spending 3-4 m² of solution for each m².
  • Reproduction: seeds.
  • Pests: aphid, field bugs, spider mites.
  • Diseases: black leg, gray rot, fusarium.

Basil plant - description

The basilic root system is superficial, branching, tetrahedral stem, straight, branchy, leafy, reaching a height of 50-70 cm. Rare-toothed oblong-ovate basil leaves are located on short petioles. And the stems and leaves are covered with villi. Axillous pale pink or white, and sometimes purple flowers are collected in the wrong whorls. The fruit of the plant consists of nuts, separated from each other after ripening. Germination of basil seeds retain about five years.

Purple basil varieties have a sharper flavor, they are popular in Asia and the Caucasus, while in Europe they prefer green basil - it is one of the most sought-after spices of Mediterranean cuisine. The most powerful aroma of basil exudes before flowering.

In our article we will tell you how to grow basil from seeds, when to sow basil for seedlings, how to grow basil at home, how to plant basil in open ground, what can be the benefits of basil, and what can be the harm of basil in In general, all that may be needed by those who decide to grow basil at home or in the garden.

When sow basil on seedlings.

Basil can be grown both seedling and seedless, but it will be safer to grow seedlings first from seed, and then transplant seedlings into open ground. In the article "Planting vegetables for seedlings in April," we described in detail how this process is carried out. For those who have not had time to read the article, we will tell about it right now. So, when to sow basil on seedlings? Best in the first half of April.

Planting basil for seedlings is carried out in a prepared soil mixture of four parts of decomposed compost, two parts of humus and one part of washed river sand, which must be sifted and steamed for an hour in a water bath. Gardeners who prefer seedling mixtures sold in stores will need to shed the substrate for disinfection with a solution of Fitosporin or a strong solution of potassium permanganate.

You can grow basil seeds in a box, but then you have to dive seedlings after some time, or you can sow basil in cassettes 5-7 cm deep. Basil is sown in a well-moistened soil to a depth of about 1 cm. The distance between the rows in the box should be about 5 cm. After sowing, the container is covered with glass or plastic wrap and kept in a warm, bright place at a temperature of 20-25 ºC. In about a week or two, the first shoots of basil will appear.

Growing basil from seeds.

After seed germination, the transparent coating from the box can be removed, and the temperature should be lowered to 15-20 ºC. Caring for basil seedlings does not require any super-efforts: water the plants as needed, preventing the soil from drying out, however, over-wetting cannot be allowed, otherwise the seedling may be affected by black leg - a fungal disease that can destroy all crops. If you notice the symptoms of this disease, treat the seedlings with a solution of a teaspoon of copper sulfate in 2 liters of water or spill the substrate with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.

Growing in a common container, seedlings dive in the developmental stages of the first pair of true leaves into a larger container with the same substrate, into which a spoonful of complex mineral fertilizer and a couple of spoons of wood ash are added to 5 liters of the mixture. The depth of planting seedlings in a new container should remain the same.

When the basil seedlings take root and grow, they pinch it over a 6-8 leaf to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots. Two weeks before planting the seedlings in the ground they begin to harden, bringing to the balcony or courtyard, first for an hour, the next day for two, and so on, until the seedlings can be in the fresh air for a whole day. Planting basil in the open ground is carried out when they pass the return frosts - in the second half of May.

How to grow basil at home.

Growing basil from seeds at home begins at the end of February or at the beginning of March in the same way as growing seeds for seedlings, you only need to sow several seeds per peat pot or peat tablet. Before planting basil, the seeds for a couple of hours pour dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. Crops are covered with a transparent airtight material and kept under the conditions described in the previous section. Keep in mind that basil should be in the sun at least 3-4 hours a day.

When the seedlings develop the first pair of leaves, they are transplanted together with a tablet or a pot into a large container - a liter pot, at the bottom of which a drainage layer 2-3 cm high is placed from expanded clay, broken brick or pieces of foam. The substrate for homemade basil should be fertile, but light and permeable. For example, a soil mix from one part of humus and two parts of coconut fiber. You can pick off the first fragrant leaves for salads in a month and a half.

Watering basil.

Basil is moisture-loving, so the potted soil should be slightly moist all the time. Basil will have to be watered almost daily, and you yourself will understand this, when one day because of your forgetfulness, its leaves will hang like sails in calm weather. However, be careful not to over-wetting the soil, which can result in rotting of the roots. After watering once every 2-3 days, gently loosen the soil in the pot.

Planting basil in the ground.

Planting basil in open ground is carried out only in the second half of May, when the return frost will pass.

Basil loves open sunny areas protected from strong cold winds. Some gardeners successfully grow basil in tree trunks of young fruit trees, which barely give shade, which does not prevent basil from absorbing the sun's rays, and its strong spicy smell scares off harmful insects from seedlings. Here is such a successful symbiosis.

Soil for basil should be light and rich in humus, and most importantly - permeable. The site a month before planting is dug up with humus, peat or compost at the rate of 2 kg of organic matter per m² area. For planting, select the evening or overcast day, dig holes in the distance of 15-20 cm from one another and plant basil seedlings in them. The spacing between rows should be at least 30 cm. Water the transplanted seedlings well with warm, settled water.

Growing basil in the ground.

Growing basil is a series of activities that are familiar to every gardener: watering, weeding, loosening the plot, feeding, protection from insects and diseases. The newly planted, still weak basil seedlings cover the first two weeks with a film for the night in case it gets colder at night. Until basil grows, weed is regularly removed from the site. Loosen the soil will have quite often - 7-8 times per season before watering. As soon as the flower stalks begin to appear, gently break them out to stimulate the branching of the basil.

Top dressing basil.

If you planted basil in a not very fertile land, you will have to correct this with regular dressings. The plant responds well to universal fertilizers based on humates or compost, which are applied to the soil at a concentration specified by the manufacturers, no more than once a month.

Growing basil in the open field

Planting basil in the ground.

Planting basil in open ground is carried out only in the second half of May, when the return frost will pass.

Basil loves open sunny areas protected from strong cold winds. Some gardeners successfully grow basil in tree trunks of young fruit trees, which barely give shade, which does not prevent basil from absorbing the sun's rays, and its strong spicy smell scares off harmful insects from seedlings. Here is such a successful symbiosis.

Soil for basil should be light and rich in humus, and most importantly - permeable. The site a month before planting is dug up with humus, peat or compost at the rate of 2 kg of organic matter per m² area. For planting, select the evening or overcast day, dig holes in the distance of 15-20 cm from one another and plant basil seedlings in them. The spacing between rows should be at least 30 cm. Water the transplanted seedlings well with warm, settled water.

Growing basil in the ground.

Growing basil is a series of activities that are familiar to every gardener: watering, weeding, loosening the plot, feeding, protection from insects and diseases. The newly planted, still weak basil seedlings cover the first two weeks with a film for the night in case it gets colder at night. Until basil grows, weed is regularly removed from the site. Loosen the soil will have quite often - 7-8 times per season before watering. As soon as the flower stalks begin to appear, gently break them out to stimulate the branching of the basil.

Watering basil.

Frequent watering of basil has a positive effect on the emergence of new leaves, so they moisten the area as the soil dries. However, do not overdo it with moisture, because both insufficient and excessive watering of basil are harmful. Water for irrigation should be warm (about 25 ºC) and settled at least during the day. For settling and heating water, you can use roomy dishes (barrel, old bath), setting it in the garden in a sunny place.

Top dressing basil.

Feeding basil to stimulate growth of green mass is carried out once a month. The first time fertilizers in the form of a solution of 2 tablespoons of Nitrophoska in 12 liters of water are applied two weeks after the seedlings are planted in open ground. Mortar consumption - 3-4 liters per m².

What to plant after basil.

It is undesirable to grow basil in one place for many years, you need to alternate between different cultures on the site. The alternation of cultures is one of the main principles of success in agriculture. It is possible to return the culture to the place where it grew for 2-3 years only after 4-5 years. After the basil on the site you need to grow disease-resistant basil crops, for example: legumes, carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkins, early potatoes and tomatoes. For the basil itself, good predecessors are siderats, tomatoes, onions, cauliflower and early white cabbage, beets, strawberries and green crops.

Basil diseases.

Basil plant is extremely resistant to pathogens, but sometimes health problems occur with him. Basil most often amaze:

Blackleg - a fungal disease of basil seedlings, developing in conditions of high acidity, poor soil aeration and too frequent and abundant watering. The fungus infects the root neck of seedlings, as a result, the vessels feeding the plant become blocked, the stem and its base become soft, turn black, thin, the plant turns yellow and dies,

Fusarium - this fungal disease also infects the blood vessels of the plant, releasing toxins into its nourishing juices. In young plants, the stem becomes brown and thin, in adults the tip dries up, they gradually wither and die. Contribute to the development of the disease too high temperature on the background of high humidity,

Gray rot most often harms plants in greenhouses and greenhouses, but basil in the open field can also get sick. The disease manifests itself first on the lower, dying leaves, then covers the whole plant: dry spots of a light brown color are formed on the affected areas, which gradually become watery and become covered with gray fuzz.

As a treatment for gray rot and fusarium, treat basil at the initial stage of the disease with an infusion of onion peel: pour one volume of husk with four volumes of water and leave for 24 hours, then strain the infusion and spray it with basil. The black leg is treated by spilling the soil in the seedling tanks with a solution of potassium permanganate. Remove diseased plants together with the earthy lump, and spill the remaining hole after this with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. But if the disease has entered into force, you will hardly be able to do without fungicides - Fundazol, Fitosporin, Topaz, Toivita Jet and others.

In order not to have to resort to pesticides, observe the agrotechnical culture: do not grow basil in one place for more than three years, do not sow it too thickly, once a week powder the soil surface with wood ash, observe the water balance of the soil on the plot, loosen it and timely remove weeds from the beds.

Basil pests.

Among harmful insects, basil and field bug are dangerous for basil.

Aphid - the most harmful of pests, sucking the juice from the leaves and stalks of basil, as a result of which the leaves curl up, the stems cease to develop, the plant dries out. Sugar aphids are a beneficial environment for soot fungus, covering the plant with a dark patina. In addition, aphid carries viral diseases for which there is no treatment. You need to get rid of aphids as soon as you detect its presence. To combat aphids, they use decoctions of wormwood, tansy, bitter pepper, dandelion, yarrow, onion, garlic, tomato or potato tops, mustard. It is necessary to process basil in the ground two or three times with an interval of 7-10 days. A good remedy for aphids is a solution of 100 g of grated tar soap in 10 liters of water or an ash solution prepared according to this recipe: 300 g of ash is poured with boiling water and boiled for half an hour, then settled, filtered and added up to 10 liters of water. In severe cases, when natural formulations do not help, process basil with a solution of Karbofos in accordance with the instructions - this insecticide has no taste or smell. Do well with the pest Akarin, Bankol, Aktellik.

Lugovoy, or field bug as well as aphids, feeding on the basal cell sap, it deforms its leaves, they become covered with whitish spots, then turn brown and die. Both adults and bedbug larvae inflict damage to the plant. These pests overwinter in the fallen leaves and in the upper layer of the soil. Ways of dealing with a field bug are the same as aphids.

Plant description

At the basilica is a straight tetrahedral leafy stem. It is very branched, reaching a height of fifty to seventy centimeters. The leaves are rarely toothed, have an oblong ovoid shape, attached to the stalk with the help of short petioles. Stems and foliage covered with a short but abundant down.

Inflorescences in the form of irregular whorls consist of axillary flowers, which can be painted white, pale pink, rarely purple. The fruit resembles small nuts fastened together, which ripen, separate from each other and fall off. His germination seeds of basil retain for five years.

Purple varieties have a rather sharp aroma and are very popular in the Caucasus and in Asian countries. Europeans prefer green basil. Today it is one of the most sought after herbs of Mediterranean cuisine. Before the start of flowering, the aroma of the plant is enhanced.

From our article you will learn how to grow basil, how to get seedlings from seeds, how to grow such a spice in the home and in the open field. We will also tell you about the benefits, healing properties of basil and do not forget about the harm this plant can cause to the body.

Planting basil seedlings

This spice is grown both seedless and seedling way. The safest thing is to grow seedlings from seed beforehand., and only then transplant it into open ground.

Planting seeds for seedlings is carried out in the first half of April. To do this, you need to prepare a special soil mixture according to the following recipe:

  • 400 grams of rotted compost,
  • 200 grams of humus,
  • 100 grams of washed river sand.

The sand is pre-screened and steamed in a water bath for one hour. The number of ingredients depends on the required volume of the finished soil mixture, the main thing is to strictly adhere to the stated proportions.

Gardeners who prefer to buy ready-made mixtures for seedlings in stores should disinfect the purchased soil before use. To do this, pour it with a solution of Fitosporin or a strong solution of potassium permanganate.

At first, you can sow planting material in boxes, but after some time, the seedlings will have to dive. If you don’t want to do double work or you don’t have a simple picking procedure, it’s best to initially plant the seeds in cassettes five to seven centimeters deep. Sowing is done in well-moistened soil to a depth of about 1 cm. The distance between the rows should be 5 cm.

After landing seedlings need to provide greenhouse conditions. To do this, the box is covered with a transparent film or a piece of glass and placed in a warm, bright room with an air temperature from 20 to 25 degrees above zero. If the above conditions are met, after about a week or two, the first shoots will appear.

Seedling care

After the seeds germinate, remove the improvised greenhouse from the box and lower the room temperature to 15–20 degrees Celsius. Caring for seedlings does not require much effort, just water sprouts as needed, monitor the condition of the soil, it should not dry out.

Do not allow waterlogging, it can lead to the defeat of seedlings with a black leg - this is a fungal disease that can ruin any crops. If you suddenly stumble upon the symptoms of this dangerous disease, process the seedlings with a special solution. For its preparation, dissolve one teaspoon of copper sulfate in two liters of pure water. Also you can pour the soil with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.

If you still sow the seeds in a common box, then after the development of the first true leaf, the seedlings will need to dive into a larger container. Use the same soil mixture as for planting seeds, just add a tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizer and two tablespoons of wood ash to it (proportions are for five liters of soil). The depth of planting seedlings in a new box should be 1 cm.

After the seedlings take root and go into active growth, it is pinched over the sixth-eighth leaf. This procedure stimulates the growth of lateral shoots. Two weeks before transplanting plants into open ground, they need to begin to harden. To do this, move the box with the seedlings onto the glassed-in balcony or veranda. The first time you keep it on the air for an hour, then every day, extend the procedure for one hour until the seedlings spend the whole day on the balcony. Landing is carried out in the second half of May..

Cultivation of seeds on the windowsill

To grow herbs from seed at home begins at the same time as the seedlings: in late February and early March. Only sowing is not made in boxes, but in peat tablets or peat cups of several seeds in one container. Before planting, the seed for two hours is placed in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate.

The procedure for sowing seeds for cultivation on the windowsill is similar to sowing to obtain seedlings. Then the crops tanks are covered with an air-permeable material and are kept in the conditions that we analyzed in the previous section. It is worth noting that seedlings must be in the sun at least 3-4 hours a day.

When the plants have the first pair of leaflets, they, along with tablets and cups, are transplanted into large containers, for example, liter pots. The bottom of the pots is pre-sprinkled with two to three centimeters layer of drainage material. To do this, usually use crushed foam, expanded clay, crushed stone, pebbles, broken brick or clay shards. The soil for home cultivation should be fertile, nutritious, but light and loose. For these purposes, a perfect mix of two hundred grams of humus and four hundred grams of coconut fiber. You can harvest the first crop of fragrant herbs for your dishes within a month and a half after transplantation.

Home care

Basil is a very moisture-loving plant, so you should monitor the condition of the soil in the pots, it should always be slightly wet. Watering will have to be done almost every day.. From lack of moisture foliage loses elasticity and hangs like a sail in calm weather. You also need to prevent strong overwetting of the soil, otherwise it will lead to rotting of the root system. After watering once every 2-3 days, carefully loosen the soil in the pot.

If basil grows in insufficiently fertile soil, you will have to correct this situation with regular dressings. The grass responds well to universal fertilizers based on compost or humates. They should be applied to the soil no more than once a month, using the concentration indicated on the package.

Growing basil in the open field

Planting basil in open ground should be carried out in the second half of May, when the probability of the return of frost will be reduced to zero.

For the cultivation of this spicy grass you need to choose sunny open areas, well protected from strong winds and drafts. Many gardeners choose tree trunks for young fruit trees, from which so far there is almost no shade. Thus, two birds with one stone are killed at once, because the strong and tart aroma of the spice deters harmful insects from the trees.

For the cultivation of basil suitable light, permeable, humus-rich soil. A month before planting, the land on the site should be dug up with compost, peat and humus, calculated to 2 kg of organic matter per 1 sq. Km. m of soil. Plant plants need in the evening or on a cloudy dayFor this, prepare the wells, there should be a distance of 15-20 cm between them. The interval between rows should be at least 30 cm. When the garden bed is ready, transplant the seedlings into the wells and water well with warm settled water.

Watering and feeding

Caring for basil does not require special skills, it is just a series of activities familiar to any gardener. Watering, weeding, loosening the soil, feeding, protection from various diseases and pests - all these procedures are familiar even to novice gardeners.

Only the seedlings planted in the open ground are still quite weak, so the first two weeks of it are covered with film in the evening. This is done in case at night it becomes suddenly cold. Until the bushes do not go to growth, weeds should be regularly removed from the beds. To loosen the soil before watering will have quite often, namely, 7-8 times in one season. Over time, the basil begins to form peduncles, carefully remove them to stimulate the branching of plants.

Frequent watering has a positive effect on the growth of foliage, so you need to moisten the bed every time the soil dries out slightly. But still don't get too involved with watering, because an excess of moisture in the earth is as harmful to basil as its deficiency.

Water for irrigation should be quite warm (about twenty-five degrees) and at least separated by day. For heating and settling water, usually capacious containers are used, for example, you can install a large barrel directly in the garden in a free, sunny place.

Top dressing, as well as watering, is necessary for stimulation of a gain of deciduous weight. It is carried out no more than once a month. The first time fertilizers are applied two weeks after transplanting seedlings to open ground. To do this, use a solution of two tablespoons of nitrophoska in 12 liters of water. For one square meter of beds you need 3-4 liters of such a solution.

The alternation of crops on the site

For the cultivation of basil in the open field is better not to use the same place for several years. At the selected site should alternate between different cultures. The alternation of different garden crops is one of the main principles of successful farming. If you have grown a plant in one place for about 2–3 years, it will be possible to return it to the former bed only after 4−5 years.

After the basil on the site should grow those crops that are resistant to its diseases. These include:

Good precursors for growing basil are:

  • tomatoes,
  • cauliflower,
  • early varieties of white cabbage,
  • bow,
  • Strawberry,
  • beet,
  • various salads and herbs that are consumed in green (onions, spinach, etc.).

Useful properties and harm

Now that you know how to grow basil in your plot or window sill, it's time to learn about its beneficial and harmful properties.

This spice is useful to eat with bacterial, viral and fungal infections. It helps the body get rid of excess mucus in the nasal passages, and also improves memory and strengthens nerve tissue.

But since basil has a tonic effect, it is contraindicated in diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is not recommended to use in large quantities, as the plant contains a small amount of mercury.

Introduction to basil: plant description

Basil (Ocimum) is a fragrant annual herb belonging to the family Yasnotkovyh. Its name can be translated from Greek as “royal” or “royal”. Among the wide variety of spicy herbs and greens, it occupies a dominant position.

For the cultivation of basil in the open field are suitable for a variety of varieties of this culture, which differ not only in leaf color, but also in taste. The ground portion of the plant may have a yellowish green, dark green and dark purple color. The tetrahedral stems of this grass do not grow more than 0.3–0.6 m and are covered with shiny and rough leaves of an ovate-oblong form. Escape ends in inflorescence, consisting of several white or pinkish-purple buds.

Essential oils contained in fresh and dried herbs give the dishes an exquisite and refined, subtle taste of allspice, delicate notes of spicy cloves and a bitter lemon scent. The plant contains a rich set of useful substances (phytoncides, camphor, tannins), vitamins (E, A, C, PP, K, group B), minerals (potassium, manganese, iron, magnesium, copper, zinc, sodium, mercury and others).

Seeding Basil

Sowing basil can be carried out directly in the open ground on the garden plot or previously in individual tanks for seedlings, which moves to the garden after the onset of sustainable heat. Seedlings method allows you to get a harvest of fragrant greens much earlier. In addition, seeds are ripe for ripening in the fall, and they can be harvested for planting next year. This option is considered the most preferable when growing a crop, although with the first method you can also collect a lot of fragrant herbs.

When sowing basil: planting process

Planting basil seedlings is carried out approximately 55-60 days before the expected day of moving seedlings into open ground. It is recommended to do this in late March or early April. For the full development of seedlings of this time is enough, planting earlier does not make sense. First, prepare the soil mixture from equal parts of peat, garden soil and well-rotten humus. You can use the universal garden compositions sold in stores.

The soil is poured into boxes or individual pots with an obligatory device of a drainage layer with a thickness of at least 3-4 cm.

To accelerate germination, it is recommended to additionally fertilize the earth with a special mineral composition prepared from potassium chloride, urea, superphosphate and potassium sulfate (½ tsp per 5 l of water). The soil in the box is sprinkled with a saline solution and allowed to warm to room temperature for several hours. Seed material is prepared in advance. To do this, it is kept warm for about 2 weeks, and immediately before sowing it is soaked for 9-10 hours in a solution of potassium permanganate or any growth stimulator (Zircon, Appin).

Sow basil need for this technology:

  • the seeds are buried in the soil no deeper than 0.8-1 cm,
  • neatly watered with settled water at room temperature
  • the container is covered with glass or plastic transparent film and exposed to a well-lit sunny place (sill) with a temperature of at least +23 ° C,
  • when the first shoots appear (after 7-10 days), the temperature must be reduced to + 17 ... + 20 ° С, so that the seedlings do not stretch,
  • when there are 2-4 full leaf, the seedlings can dive into separate pots.

How to care for seedlings?

Basil when grown from seed requires the following conditions:

  1. Regular airing of seedlings. Shelter removed daily for 10-15 minutes.
  2. Good lighting. Otherwise, the seedlings will stretch out and be stunted. Periodically, they need to be rotated so that they do not grow crooked. With a lack of light, the planting is completed by fluorescent or phytolamps.
  3. Watering. Be carried out carefully and gently, only with warm water. Excessive waterlogging of the substrate can cause the development of a black leg, which will destroy the seedlings. If this happens, the basil seedlings can be sprayed with a solution of urea (½ tsp per 1 liter of water).
  4. Loosening. About once every 10-14 days.
  5. Feeding. After the appearance of 5 leaves, the seedling is pinched to increase bushiness. When the side shoots grow up a little, seedlings are fertilized with organic matter (humus, manure).

Planting seedlings in the ground

Planting of basil seedlings in open ground is done only when warm weather is established and the soil warms up to + 15 ... + 17 ° С. In most regions, this time falls on the end of May or the first decade of June. Experienced growers recommend starting to harden seedlings about a week before the expected date.

For this, containers with plants are carried out and left outside for 15 minutes, gradually increasing the time spent in the open air to several hours. To get a good harvest of spicy greens, it is necessary to comply with certain conditions of agricultural technology.

What should be the soil for planting basil?

For this spicy grass choose the illuminated sunny places on the site. But the culture does not tolerate cold winds and drafts, therefore, it is desirable to plant the seedlings under the protection of large trees and shrubs, as well as near fences and various buildings. Basil grows well on loose, fertile and well-drained light soils. The best predecessors for him will be cucumbers, tomatoes and legumes.

Land for planting is recommended to prepare in the fall. When digging to a depth of at least 25-30 cm, the following fertilizers are applied per 1 m²:

  • humus or rotten compost - 3.5–50 kg (depending on the nutrient composition of the soil),
  • granulated superphosphate - 20-25 g,
  • potassium sulfate - 10—12 g.

Immediately before planting, the soil is poured abundantly with a solution of fertilizers (½ tsp. Of potassium chloride, urea, and potassium sulfate into ½ of a bucket of water).

If the selected area is in a lowland, then it is better to make the beds high and fence them with boards or other material. On damp, marshy and air-tight soils, basil will grow poorly.

How to plant seedlings?

It is better to plant seedlings on a cloudy and rainy day in order to avoid sunburn on tender leaves. The holes are dug 9–10 cm deep at a distance of 15–17 cm from each other, and at least 25–30 cm are left between the rows, otherwise the bushes will be cramped. You need to pour water into the pits (at least 1 l), then basil can be planted in the wet ground.

The soil around each plant is gently compacted and watered again. The first time landing at night is covered with a film. When the seedlings take root well and start growing, the shelter is completely removed.

Care of basil: features of growing aromatic plants

Basil is a heat-loving plant, it should be considered when choosing a variety for planting. It must be adapted to local climatic conditions. In the middle lane is recommended to grow this culture seedling way. The best varieties for this region are:

  • Russian giant purple (clove-pepper).
  • Dragon (clove-pepper).
  • Pepper flavor (spicy pepper).
  • Yerevan (pepper tea).
  • Ararat (anise).
  • Valya (clove).
  • Greek (peppermint).
  • Velvet (mint).
  • Aniskin (anise).

To grow basil, it is necessary to carry out competent care for it, which consists in timely regular watering, loosening of the soil, weeding and dressing.

Watering and gardening

For the proper cultivation of basil it is important to observe the watering regime. Moisturize the soil only after the drying of its upper layer. Severe dampness can lead to decay of the root system. Watering is recommended after weeding and loosening, so that more air enters the roots and the moisture seeps faster. It is imperative to remove weeds, as they take away nutrients from the cultivated plant and their powerful root system interferes with the growth of spicy grass. We pour the ridges with extremely warm, settled water.

When do you need plant nutrition and how to do it?

To get a good and abundant growth of green mass of fragrant basil, it is necessary to feed fertilizers containing nitrogen. To do this, you can use a simple nitrophoska, spreading it in the following proportions: 2 tbsp. l granules on 12 l of water. You need to water each bush, consumption is about 3-4 liters per 1 m² of planting.

The first feeding is carried out in late June or early July, the second - in 3-4 weeks.

This spicy herb belongs to disease-resistant crops. All basil diseases are associated with adverse weather conditions or errors in agricultural technology. When thickened plantings, low temperature and excessive moisture it can affect fuzaroiz and gray mold. Sick bushes are removed, and fresh ones are planted in their place.

As a preventive measure and at the initial stages of the development of pathology, spraying of onion peel extract (4 parts of water and 1 part of onion peel) is used. It is not recommended to plant this spicy plant for more than 2 years in one place, as this increases the likelihood of infection with fungal infections (Fusarium).

Insect pests of basil are extremely rare, they are not attracted by the volatile volcanics found in its leaves. Many gardeners even use this crop in mixed plantings to scare aphids and spider mites from other crops.

Harvesting: How to harvest greens?

Harvesting basil can be done throughout the growing season. Single leaflets for eating can be torn constantly. But you can not completely bare bush, as he will die. After the beginning of flowering, the ground part loses its aroma and original rich taste, it even becomes bitter. Therefore, floral brushes on specimens that are not intended for the subsequent receipt of seed material should be cut off.

When and how to cut?

Massive basil harvesting is done twice per season:

  1. Before flowering (beginning of July), as soon as the buds appeared, the large grass is cut. Gather only the upper part, leaving the lower branches.
  2. When the side shoots grow well on the bush, they can also be cut. This occurs 4-5 weeks after the first harvest (beginning or mid-August).

To obtain spicy greens all year round, several copies of basil can be transplanted into flower pots and kept at home on the windowsill throughout the winter.

How to prepare basil?

Growing basil requires a temperature not lower than + 20 ... + 25 ° С, therefore at the end of August the bushes stop growing and useful greens need to be harvested for winter for storage. This is done in several ways:

  1. Drying. It can be dried in a natural way, in which cut branches are scattered in a thin layer and placed in a dry, well-ventilated place without access to direct sunlight. You can dry the herbs in the oven at a temperature of about +40 ° C or in the microwave. Store dried spice in tightly closed glass or porcelain containers.
  2. Frost. Green mass is crushed, frozen, then laid out in individual bags or plastic jars and stored in the freezer.
  3. Canning. There are many different recipes in which basil is salted and preserved. From it you can cook basil paste.

The most common method of harvesting this spicy grass is drying. In this form, basil lasts the longest to retain its original flavor and a large amount of nutrients.

Types and grades of basil

In the culture most often grown such varieties of basil: camphor (or fragrant), Mexican (or cinnamon), purple (ordinary or regane) and lemon (Thai). Numerous varieties of basil vary:

  • in shades of smell. They are cold, tart, warm or sweet. The basic basil smells are: cinnamon, anise, pepper, lemon, vanilla, caramel, clove and menthol. Varieties with caramel, lemon, vanilla and cinnamon flavor are used for preparing dessert dishes and beverages. Those that have aniseed odor are needed for preparing fish dishes, and clove and pepper aromas are for meat,
  • by color: purple basil and green basil. Purple basil varieties have a sharper smell and are more often used in Caucasian cuisine and in Central Asian dishes. Green varieties are more popular in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean,
  • in size and shape of the bush Basil varieties are upright, spreading, half-sprawling, compact, although there are intermediate forms. In height, stunted varieties are known in height from 18 to 30 cm, varieties of medium height — from 30 to 60 cm, and tall varieties — from 60 to 85 cm. At home, it is more convenient to grow stunted varieties,
  • maturing - early, medium ripening and late varieties.

The best varieties of basil include:

  • Mauritanian - productive fragrant mid-season purple variety with upright spreading shrub up to 65 cm,
  • Table - upright shrub up to 60 cm with large light green leaves with ovate shape and delicate texture. This is one of the most fragrant mid-late varieties, characterized by good productivity,
  • Dreamer - one of the most productive varieties of rich green color with a massive spreading bush, branchy stem and lanceolate-oval leaves,
  • Balconstar - low-growing variety with small fragrant leaves of excellent taste, suitable for salads. It grows well in pots on the windowsill,
  • Genoese - in plants of this fruitful variety, the leaves are large, glossy, dark green, fragrant and pleasant to taste. Use leaves of Genoese basil in fresh and dried form, sometimes it is put in soft drinks instead of mint,
  • Gourmet Clove - a fruitful variety with a massive upright bush of medium height with medium-sized green elliptical leaves. This basil perfectly complements the taste of fish, meat, potato dishes, as well as rice and cheese dishes,
  • Basilisk - compact variety for cultivation at home and in the open ground with clove-pepper aroma. Shrub upright, up to 20 cm tall, densely leafy with small, green leaves, half-raised shoots,
  • Yerevan - one of the most common productive varieties with clove-pepper aroma. Bush medium height, the leaves are purple, egg-shaped, medium size,
  • Troll - mid-season fruitful small-leaf and compact variety for growing at home, resistant to sudden temperature changes. The leaves of the plants in this variety are dark purple. Bush looks very attractive
  • Magic mauintin - the grade of the Israeli selection differing in endurance to high and low temperatures and lack of moisture. Its neat round bush with green leaves with a purple tinge looks great in the garden and as an ornamental plant,
  • Red Rubin - a variety of American selection of mahogany-purple color, in which edible are not only the leaves, devoid of the bitterness of green varieties, but also the buds, which in America are usually added to omelets.

The following basil varieties have also proven their worth: Charm, Marquis, Ararat, Velvet, Violet, Greek, Robin Hood, Dragon, Gigolo, Green Flavored, Orion, Pepper Flavor, Tempter, Baku, Fascinator, Lemon, Dwarf, Kinky, Philosopher, Shirokolististny other.

Useful properties of basil.

The aroma of basil is due to the presence in its above-ground part of an essential oil of complex composition that has a bactericidal effect. Contains basil vitamins C, B2, PP, provitamin A, carotene, sugar, volatile production, rutin. Basil protects the body from infections by stimulating the immune system. It even holds back the growth of HIV and cancer cells. Basil has antipyretic, antibacterial, antioxidant, tonic and tonic effects.

Eating basil in food is indicated for viral, bacterial and fungal infections, respiratory and pulmonary diseases. It helps to get rid of excess mucus in the nasal passages, excess gas in the rectum, improves memory, strengthens nervous tissue.

Базилик легко справляется с воспалительными явлениями полости рта – кариесом, язвами, зубным камнем, налетом и неприятным запахом изо рта. Обладая вяжущим действием, он укрепляет десны, предотвращая преждевременное выпадение зубов.

Базилик помогает организму справляться с метеоризмом и желудочно-кишечными заболеваниями. The enzymes contained in it accelerate the breakdown and burning of fats in the body, and estragol and evengol stimulate mental activity.

Essential oil of basil successfully heals wounds, relieves spasms of various nature, is used for inhalation of the upper respiratory tract. The juice of basil leaves is used in the fight against fungal lesions of the skin, water extracts from the plant give good results in the treatment of gastritis and food poisoning.

Dried basil brewed tea or make compresses, relieves headaches and eczema. Basil alcohol extracts are treated with colitis, pyelitis, whooping cough, neurosis, bronchial asthma, low blood pressure, inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, flatulence and the common cold.

Basil - contraindications.

Since basil has a tonic effect, it is contraindicated in afflicted cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypertension, and especially to those who have suffered a myocardial infarction. Basil is also dangerous for patients with lower extremity venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, vegetative-vascular dystonia and diabetes mellitus. Hypotonics can eat basil without fear.

Basil is not recommended in large quantities during pregnancy, especially purple varieties of plants, but it is shown to lactating mothers as a good lactogonic agent, and if your baby is not confused by the strange taste and aroma of your milk, you can not refuse from basil during breastfeeding.

Basil contains a small amount of mercury, so in large quantities it is better not to use even completely healthy people.

Basilica General Information

People knew about the basilica more than 5,000 years ago. And it was used both in cooking and for medicinal purposes. Africa is considered the birthplace of this greenery, and it came to the territory of our country in the eighteenth century. In those years, basil-based cosmetics — tonics, masks and creams — were especially popular.

Basil is an annual plant with oblong leaves in the form of petioles. The height of the bush reaches 50-70 centimeters. The basilic root system is branching and is located fairly close to the surface of the earth. The leaves and stems of the plant are covered with fine hairs, and during the flowering period the basil is covered with small pale pink flowers. The fruits are dark seeds, similar to small nuts, which remain viable for 5-6 years.

Classification of varieties

There are many varieties of basil, suitable for growing in their area. The main division of basil is made on green and purple varieties of greenery. The first includes varieties such as Italian, broadleaf and Evenol. The following basil varieties have purple leaves: ordinary, Yerevan, Dark Opal, Tulasi and Osmin.

Basil is also classified by flavor:

  • Clove. It includes Darkie, Stella, Perfection, Dark Night, Clove Scent and Red Rubin.
  • Clove pepper. The varieties of Marquis, Dreamer and Basilisk have a similar smell.
  • Pepper aroma has camphor basil, Aramis, Orion, Magic of the East, Ruby and Compatto.
  • Citric. A pleasant note of lemon in the aroma is present in Moscow Bogatyr, Novinki, Iskra and Lemon Basilica.
  • Caramel Such original flavor have varieties of Pet, Caramel and Red Rubin Nem Zaden.
  • Basil Variety The Tempter was specially bred for making marinades. Large leaves are used in both fresh and dried form.
  • Anisic. Such smells are of such varieties as Anisovy Gourmet, Anisoviy Delight and Anisovy Aperitif.
  • The variety of basil Velvet is famous for its menthol aroma. The height of such a bush reaches 30 centimeters, with a length of leaflets about 8 centimeters.
  • Vanilla. Variety Aroma Vanilla is used for the preparation of confectionery thanks to its original savory taste. The bush is unpretentious in care, especially in home-grown conditions.

The main features of sowing

Growing basil from seeds can be done in two ways:

  • sowing seedlings
  • one-step landing in open ground.

Using the first method, you will not only get fragrant greens, but also have time to collect the seeds before the onset of autumn - and this means that it will be possible to sow basil next year. By opting for an easier way to grow basil in the open field, you will not be able to collect the seeds before the cold weather comes. Of course, you have the right to choose a landing method independently. The following sections of the article will discuss the preferred (seedling) method, how and when to plant basil for seedlings, as well as about caring for this plant. This process is moderately troublesome, but is rewarded with fragrant greens.

When to sow basil and how to care for seedlings?

Basil seedlings are sown 60-70 days before transplanting into open ground, that is, no later than the end of March - the beginning of April. Two months will be quite enough for growth and the necessary development of a plant ready for transplantation. Growing basil from seeds is carried out in boxes with soil mixture consisting of equal parts of humus, peat and garden soil. In addition, it is important to qualitatively fertilize the soil for planting seeds. To do this, use top dressing from superphosphate fertilizer, urea, potassium sulfate and potassium chloride, diluted in water. Before planting basil soil is sprayed with this composition and warms to a temperature of 22-24 ° C. Seeds are sown on the surface of the soil, without deepening, then sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, watered and covered with film or glass. The box with seedlings is sent to a warm place.

When growing basil it is worth remembering that this is a moisture and heat-loving plant. Therefore, with the appearance of even several shoots, the box with the seedlings immediately moves to a well-lit place. The first shoots appear within a week after planting. At the same time, in order to create comfortable conditions for growing basil, it is important not only to maintain a constantly warm air temperature in the room, but also to organize regular but moderate watering. Excessive humidity is detrimental for young plants - the disease “black leg” begins to develop. A solution of copper sulphate prepared from one liter of distilled warm water and a teaspoon of the drug will help to cope with it. It is also important to periodically turn over the boxes with seedlings - this will ensure a uniform growth of the seedlings and prevent one-sided sprouts.

Transplanting seedlings to ground

Basil loves the most nutritious and fertile soil. The use of soil with a high content of sand can lead to thinning of the stems and poor leaf development. Therefore, before transplanting seedlings, it is important to fertilize the soil generously with peat and compost, which, by the way, can be replaced with humus. It is also worth noting that the cultivation of this spice should be carried out in warm soil, and therefore the transplanting process can be started only from the moment when the earth warms up well and the night frosts stop. Knowing when to sow basil, you are sure to prepare seedlings on time, and there will be no problems with the transplant dates.

Basically, the transfer of plants to open ground is carried out in June. To transfer this process to July is not rational, as this month is often characterized by too hot weather. Seedlings are planted in pre-prepared pits, at a distance of at least 20 centimeters. The distance between the rows of basil should be about 30 centimeters. Such a planting scheme allows the plant to develop freely and to be well ventilated. Additional fertilizer at this point is not required, however, it is worthwhile to compact and water it a little. The first couple of weeks of basil cultivation, it is desirable to cover it with garden wrap - this will protect the greens from temperature changes and help to take root.

Planting in open ground without seedling stage

This method of growing basil is more suitable for the southern regions with a warm climate. Sowing of seeds in open ground is carried out in the second half of April. For residents of middle latitudes, these periods are postponed to May, subject to the complete absence of night frost. Before planting, seeds are soaked in warm water, and then planted in the prepared soil to a depth of about a centimeter. The distance between plantings is the same as with the rassadny method - not less than 20 centimeters. The first pinching is done after reaching a height of twenty centimeters with basil stalks. Caring for the plant in the future is absolutely the same with both methods of planting.

Watering, tillage and fertilizer

In this section, you will learn how to water basil and care for the soil during its cultivation. Hydration of the soil depends on weather conditions - the hotter the air, the more often it is necessary to water it. But do not overfill the plant, not letting the soil dry a little. Too frequent watering will lead to stagnant water at the roots and rot them. Since basil is a thermophilic plant, it must be watered with separated, warm water.

For better penetration of moisture and fresh air to the roots, the soil is slightly loosened before irrigation. It is very important to immediately remove the weed plant. They interfere with the proper development of green bushes, and also take most of the nutrients from the soil.

Every 3-4 weeks after the transplantation of basil it should be fed with nitrogenous fertilizers, which contribute to a better growth of greenery. The most commonly used nitrophoska at a concentration of 2 spoons per 12 liters of warm water. For each bush usually consumes about 3 liters of this solution.

Features of the harvest

It is possible to start cutting leaves from mid-summer and continue it until autumn. In addition, removing young shoots together with inflorescences, you will provide the basil with a better sprouting of leaves, which means a higher yield. To collect the seeds, which are not made before September, you should not hurry to dig up the bushes, even when they dry. With insufficient ripening of seeds, you will not be able to get seedlings and harvest next year. Yes, and the cultivation of basil on the site is useful for other crops. The aroma of the leaves of this plant attracts a lot of insects, pollinating cultures that bloom at the same time. Also, essential oils scare away various pests, and therefore a long stay of the plant in the soil will only benefit.

Harvesting basil for the whole year

Basil has a pleasant spicy aroma, not only fresh, but also dried. Basil can be dried in the open air, in the oven and even in the microwave. Both basil leaves and whole bunches can be harvested. The second method is more preferable, as it allows to preserve the aroma of the plant as much as possible. Collected greens are washed, dried on a towel and sent for further drying. In the case of a microwave, three minutes is enough. In the oven basil dries in 2-3 hours. Dried greens are stored in paper bags or glass jars.

In addition, basil can be frozen. Freezing is subjected to whole leaves of greenery, pre-scalded with boiling water and dried on a towel. A convenient way to store is also pouring chopped basil with olive oil. To do this, the greens are placed in tins for freezing ice, filled with oil and frozen. Such blanks will add a spicy flavor to the dish when frying.

Basil at home

For those who live in an apartment and does not have a summer cottage, but really wants to grow spices at home, there is a great solution - growing basil in a pot. This process is rather uneasy and very pleasant. This section describes how to plant basil right at home and enjoy home, not purchased greens.

The soil for planting should be light, loose and well drained. An important feature of the preparation of the soil is its calcination in the oven for at least an hour. This procedure will prevent the occurrence and development of pests and diseases. You can use both the purchased soil and the soil mixture collected by yourself. In both cases, additional fertilizer mineral supplements are required. A container for growing basil should have a depth of about 30 centimeters. The box must be oblong in order for the plant to have enough space. Transplantation into a permanent pot is made after the appearance of 2-3 leaves on the sprout.

A two-centimeter drainage layer is poured at the bottom of the tank, after which a layer of fertilized soil is placed. The earth is well moistened, after which pre-prepared seeds are planted to a depth of about a centimeter. Landings covered with film or glass and placed in a warm place. Seed preparation for planting consists in soaking them for a day in a stimulating solution. After that for 2-3 hours the seeds are placed in a manganese solution for disinfection, dried with a paper towel and sent to the ground.

Sprouting and care conditions

The air temperature in the room from +20 ° C to +25 ° C is optimal for the comfortable development of sprouts. During the cultivation of seedlings, the film is periodically removed for ventilation and spraying with water. Active watering of seedlings is not required, the first shoots appear within ten days after planting. When they reach a height of 5-7 centimeters, a layer of soil is added to the container to strengthen the landings.

Further care for basil is to maintain a constant air temperature, watering and fertilizing. The temperature should not fall below +16 ° C, with lower rates, the plant is additionally wrapped with a film. Drafts are also unacceptable. In the spring and autumn, the Basilica has enough natural light; in the cold season, an additional light source is required. Watering is carried out daily, in the mornings, with warm and separated water. In the summer evening watering and additional spraying are added during the day. The soil around the sprouts is slightly loosened to provide oxygen to the root system. Feed the plant fertilizer "Agrolife" every month, placing a teaspoon of the drug on the surface of the soil. It is advisable to cut flower stalks immediately after the appearance - this will provide the basil with the best flavor and increase the amount of harvest.

The first cut of the leaves can be done within a month and a half after planting. Top leaves are cut so that at least three more remain on the stem. When the three tiers of leaves appear, the top of the stem is pinched. This procedure will limit the growth of shoots in height, but will increase the density and pomp of the bush.

Propagation of basil by cutting

Another fairly simple method of growing basil is grafting. This method is suitable for those who do not want to wait for ripening seeds. To do this, cut off the top of a plant or young shoots, the length of which must be at least 7 centimeters. The stalk is immersed in warm water until it acquires roots and is ready for planting in the ground. After planting the cutting in the pot with the ground should continue the usual care. Basil grown in this way is no different in taste and appearance from seed.

What a plant basil

This plant is originally from Asia, has several varieties, varieties differ in color, shape of leaves. Cookery European countries for cooking widely uses green basil.

Green basil

We, on the contrary, more common his purple brother, who has a more vivid, pronounced aroma.

Purple basil

The leaves of the Baku variety have a violet color, their smell is somewhat reminiscent of a mixture of aromas of mint, cloves (condiments). Basil with a bluish color (Yerevan) smells of tea, allspice, green (Spoon) - the smell is a bit like laurel with a dash of cloves.

In addition to culinary purposes, this aromatic culture has quite a wide use, since its leaves, stems contain many vitamins, essential components, camphor, carotene, potassium. Violet basil has bactercidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties. Its use has a positive effect on the nervous, urogenital system. An interesting fact is that mosquitoes, midges, flies do not like the smell of basil, so it would be advisable to sow it near pavilions, benches or other places of rest at your summer cottage.

Dry or fresh basil leaves are used to prepare a wide variety of dishes, sauces, soups. It should be added very carefully, as it is able to completely change (kill) the taste of the main ingredients.

Basil - planting and care in the open field

Somewhere 7-10 days before the transfer of plants to the open ground, it is necessary to start hardening - reduce the amount of water during watering, make airing, gradually reduce the temperature (not below + 7..10 ° C). By the end of May / beginning of June, when the earth warms up to about + 15 ° C, seedlings can be removed from the pots, transplanted into the ground.

Next, we plant basil on the beds, planting and care in the open field for this crop is almost no different from any other seedlings. Кустики располагаются на расстоянии 25-30 см друг от друга, углубление в почве должно быть приблизительно 7-10 см. Расстояние между грядками должно составлять примерно 30 см. Лунку следует хорошо полить перед посадкой растения. Сам кустик должен быть посажен таким образом, чтобы его главная почка, листья располагались над почвой.As in the case of other seedlings, for planting bushes it is better to choose a cloudy day so that the sun's rays minimally contact with young basil.

In order for the bushes to develop well, they please you with lush leaves; you can pinch the tops of plants at the stage of the appearance of the fifth or sixth full leaf. This maneuver contributes to the expansion of basil in breadth, its density. Subsequently, in order for the plant to also give lush leaves, the inflorescences must be promptly removed - pinch off or cut. The earth, of course, requires regular watering, loosening, weeds should be destroyed.

Planting basil seeds immediately in the ground

You can also plant this fragrant spice right in the ground, bypassing the process of pre-cultivation in boxes, pots. If you live in the south of the country, then this process should be done by mid or late April. If you are in the middle lane, then sow basil is better by the middle / end of May, when you are sure that a cold snap is no longer foreseen.

Similarly, the seeds are first soaked in hot water. Shallow beds are formed in the garden, while the specificity of sowing seeds repeats the above described method of sowing seedlings. The depth of the seed - no more than 1 cm, followed by watering, puffing the earth, removing weeds. When the plants reach 20 cm, pinching the tops is made. The more you remove the leaves from the bush, the more they will grow again.

Basil is a plant whose best time for harvesting in the fall, winter is the period before flowering. By this time, it reaches the maximum concentration of beneficial components, vitamins, essential oils. As soon as you see the not yet blooming buds - immediately tear off the sheet to the workpiece. When the seeds ripen, you can collect them, use them as intended with the onset of spring.

Basil comfortably feels on the bed before the onset of the first serious cold snaps. Before the frost approaches, you can dig up a bush, plant it in a room pot, so in winter you will always have fragrant spice and at the same time a beautiful plant at home. You should know that it is not recommended to plant basil on the same place for several years - this increases the risk of the disease of the plant with fusarium.

Now you know when to plant basil on seedlings, plant it, how to care for seedlings and grown bushes. It grows well with the usual care, but if you decide to feed it with organic fertilizers, it will not be worse. As described above, you can grow the main varieties of basil or hybrid, such as "Balconstar", "Anisovy", "Dreamer", "Lemon flavor".

We hope that the fragrant spicy ornamental annual basil, growing from seeds, the subsequent care of which was described in this article, will now settle in your summer cottage.

Useful properties of fragrant greens

In addition to the incredibly fragrant flavor, basil has a whole mass of nutrients. The high content of minerals, tannins, essential oils, lepidine, saponin, glycosides and volatile substances (camphor, eugenol, linalool) makes basil an indispensable seasoning in every home. The leaves of this greenery are rich in vitamins A, PP, C, K, E and B2. Low calorie basil allows you to use it in the diet.

Infusion and decoction of herbs has antispasmodic, disinfecting, healing and anti-inflammatory properties. Basil is also used in diseases of the genitourinary system, especially in women. Broth is often prescribed to lactating women to increase the amount of breast milk. In addition, regularly using basil, you solve many problems with digestion: increased gas formation, constipation and indigestion.

It is also useful for men. The ancient Indians also knew the valuable composition of basil, which positively affects the potency. Daily use of this greens improves the functioning of internal organs, including the reproductive system, which increases the fertility function and enhances the attraction.

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