The main material for the selection of evergreens are conifers. Coniferous plants are called perennial trees and shrubs, which are not flowers, but cones. A typical evergreen conifer is a pine ordinary, it has narrow hibernating needles consisting of woody scales. However, not all conifers look like this. Some, for example, larch needles for the winter.
Classification of the crown shape of evergreens
According to the scientific concept, there are several classifications of crown forms of evergreens. There are many evergreens that are so varied in height, appearance, color, shape of growth, requirements for growing conditions and flowering periods that any amateur gardener can choose plants for his garden and for the purposes that you set for yourself. In other words, if you want to make a continuous living fence of evergreen plants, then you need a certain form of crown of plants, if you want to close ugly places in your garden, for this you need to choose a different form.
Also, do not forget that evergreens are divided into dwarf and slow-growing plants, and it is important to understand the difference between them.
Slow growing plants they are really growing slowly, but in a few years they can become quite high.
Dwarf plants are plants whose maximum height is substantially less than the height of other members of this genus or species.
Use of plants
Ground cover plants play a very important role in the garden, they quickly grow and form green carpets on empty plots of land, decorating the garden, suppressing the growth of weeds. They are valued for their ability to quickly grow in breadth and cover the soil. On the other hand, among the evergreens there are tall plants that can be used for masking walls or pylons, and can be planted in the form of living walls.
Coniferous plants are used mainly for these purposes. These plants are quite cold-resistant and can winter in the garden under the open sky.
Wintering foliage is also preferred on plants that are planted on the lawn, in the open area of the garden. Such plants form the architectural appearance of the garden or emit some of its details.
Coniferous plants can be planted in flowerbeds and on curbs, but dwarfs have become especially widespread, balsam fir varieties Nana and Cypress Lawson grade Minima glauca.
These plants are able to partially or completely suppress the growth of weeds, they have good ground cover properties. The same properties have and stunted deciduous and coniferous plants, for example, juniper middle grade Old gold.
Juniper scaly grade Blue star able to quickly create a beautiful silver-blue carpet under the trees and tall shrubs.
Some plants grow quite quickly in a spacious area without plantings, but in dense plantings this may be a threat to the nearby shrubs. Evergreen dwarf plants and evergreen shrubs adorn the garden even in winter.
Evergreens with green pyramidal crown, yellow or blue foliage, and also with a round and flat crown retain their attractiveness throughout the year. Not all evergreens have the same stamina, some of the plants are quite delicate and require shelter for the winter, some of these plants sometimes need to be cut. For example, Loson Cypress grade Minima aurea, juniper ordinary grade Compressa, black pine grade Gnom, rhododendron grade Elizabeth.
Tyuyu western grade Hetz midget planted separately, and not in a flower bed or in a curb, when they want nothing to stop admiring them. Such plants determine the appearance of the garden, in particular, its height. Conifers are often used in single plantings, the branches of which are covered with leaves all year round and indicate that the garden continues to live even when most of the plants look lifeless.
Choose a plant that is decorative if not all year round, then for most of the year. The decorativeness of many separately growing plants is enclosed in a variety of colored foliage, fruits or bark, and not in flowers. It is important to choose a plant of the desired size and with the desired shape of the crown. A small bush "lost" on a large lawn. A large tree in the middle of a small lawn will not only look out of place, it will also drain and dry the soil and shade most of the lawn. Plants in drought need to be watered and cut if necessary.
To look at your site evergreens, you need to plant them in certain landscape compositions. We will talk about some of them.
Composition of evergreens
First of all, it is necessary to determine the type of future landscape composition. Landscape composition is the construction of a garden on a free combination of plants, or placing them in combinations that have a regular geometric or symmetrical composition. If the first type is associated with the natural landscape and is suitable for designing almost any area, then the appearance of plantings of the second type in the garden requires a certain semantic load.
Regular groups of coniferous or hardwood can emphasize the ceremonial character of the main entrance, arranging the so-called green gate, or decorate the composite center of the flower garden. Hvoynik are good and in combination with small architectural forms or facades of houses in classical style. Largest distinguish the following groups:
- Small groups consisting of 2-4 plants.
- Medium groups - from 5-7.
- Large groups, including 8-15 plants.
- If a group of more than 15 trees, it is called curtain.
In medium and large groups, the core of the composition and the external contour are distinguished. The largest and most beautiful trees are chosen as the nucleus, and high and low shrubs are often used to create the outer contour. This combination helps to quickly get a decorative effect: after all, shrubs reach the greatest decorative effect by the third or fifth year of life, while trees only reach 10–20 years after planting. By group structure are divided:
- compact groups (dense),
- loose groups (openwork).
As an example of a compact group, one can name such a refined technique as a bouquet planting, when several specimens of one breed are planted in one pit. Suppose you decide on the type and approximate size (respectively, and the number of copies) of the future tree-shrub group. Now it's about specific breeds. Usually plants are arranged according to the following principles.
Principles of plant layout
Typological principle involves the use of various species of trees and shrubs, suitable for co-growth. Light-loving species (larch, birch) can become the core of the composition, and shade-tolerant trees and shrubs (spruce, cotoneaster) can become the understory. By imitating nature, you will achieve the naturalness of your landings.
Systematic principle based on the use in the same group of representatives of different species of the same genus, which creates a certain artistic unity. You can make a group of spirees with different flowering periods. This picture will retain its decorative from spring to autumn. It is possible to plant in the group different forms of western or juniper thuja - tall columnar plants will create a bright contrast with open and dwarf forms. This principle of selection of plants is particularly suitable for beginners in garden design.
Physiognomic principle based on the combination of the appearance of various plants, taking into account the seasonal and age dynamics of their development. Perhaps this is the most difficult of the above methods of arrangement, requiring the compiler to know the timing of each plant bloom, the features of the autumn foliage color, fruiting. But it is he who allows to achieve the greatest decorative effect.
The minimum distance in groups between trees, especially when planting small seedlings, is one meter. The maximum is equal to the diameter of the crown, it is usually three to five meters. If the projected group consists of three trees, they are usually planted at the vertices of an equilateral triangle, of five at the corners of the irregular quadrilateral and one in the center. Creating a composition of trees and shrubs, try to profitably set off the merits of each plant. For example, if you plan to use variegated and red-leaved forms of trees and shrubs, it is better to place them in the foreground (along the outer contour) against the background of a uniform, dense greenery of the main plantings. A smooth transition from trees to the lawn will help create perennials planted here. Having formed the lower tier of a group of such plants as hosts, irises, peonies, you will add integrity and completeness to the whole composition.
The plant, which determines the architectural appearance of the garden, attracts attention by itself and serves as a focal point. An accent plant is designed to draw attention to a nearby building, another plant, or a group of plants. No matter what role they play, solitary trees and shrubs are extremely important for each garden.
Sergey Tyunis, landscape designer
Some evergreens (you can find the names in the article) can have both artisanal and tree forms. These include juniper, which can be planted in the country and in the garden. Shrubs grow to 3 meters in height, and trees rise 12 meters above the ground. The seed bark is most often reddish-brown, and the adult juniper has a brown coloration. The needles are located in pairs. Between the needles are large green cones that have a gray color. Outwardly, they resemble berries. From the plant comes a pleasant aroma.
Planting of seedlings in open ground is carried out in spring or autumn: in April or October, respectively. For planting should choose a well-lit areas with sandy soil. Juniper - unpretentious plant, care for which is not too complicated. It is necessary to regularly loosen the soil, as well as irrigate during dry periods. To the shrub or tree grew faster, you can apply fertilizer to the soil in the spring season. Such a procedure as pruning is not mandatory for juniper. It is necessary to give shape to this plant only if you want to form a hedge out of it. Pruning should be done by an experienced gardener, as in the event of an error, the shape of the plant cannot be corrected: the branches grow for quite a long time.
Juniper is not just a beautiful plant, but also a natural antiseptic. In addition, its berries can be eaten as a seasoning for meat or fish dishes. They make the taste of food more saturated.
Honeysuckle is an evergreen plant. Throughout the summer, the shrub is decorated with inflorescences of bright crimson hue, and during the cold season it pleases the eye with dense foliage of rich green color. Curly bushes can grow up to 3 meters in length. The leaves are wide, oval and rather large, their length is 8 cm, and width - 5.
Inflorescences are odorless. They are located on the branches. Inflorescences resemble bells hanging down. Their length reaches 5 cm. The outer part of the flowers is dark pink or crimson, and the core has a light yellow color. Breeders cultivated varieties with red as well as bright yellow buds. After the end of the flowering period, small sized berries appear on the shoots.
Seedlings are planted in the open ground in the spring, immediately after the warm weather. Best of all, open areas are suitable for honeysuckle, which receive a lot of light and are protected from the wind. The soil should be loose, moderately moist. Seedlings are placed in the pits, at the bottom of which is sand, gravel and soil mixture. The plant is placed in the middle of the fossa. After the roots fall asleep, the soil is compacted. The neck of the honeysuckle root should be flush with the ground, otherwise the plant will die. Sapling in the first few weeks after planting should be protected from direct sunlight.
In winter, honeysuckle bushes should be covered to protect them from frost. This plant quickly adapts to environmental conditions and has good immunity, because it can be transplanted. Regularly necessary to thin out the shoots, usually this procedure is carried out once every three years. Twigs tie up so that they do not bend down to the ground and look neat. Old branches are cut with the help of garden shears. With proper care, honeysuckle shoots can be twisted around a fence or, for example, a gazebo.
Evergreen vines are very popular among landscape designers. With their help, you can create unique compositions that will decorate any area. These plants include ivy, whose height is about 30 m. The most common type of garden landscape design is Hedera helix, or common ivy. Another popular species is Hedera colchica, Colchian ivy, also called Caucasian. The plant has a large foliage. The length of one leaf reaches 25 cm. The foliage has a green, brown or yellow color. In the autumn season there are small umbrella-shaped inflorescences, and in the spring black berries are formed.
Ivy is used to form cascades, arbors and shelters. It neatly hangs from fences and balconies, wraps around pillars and walls. The plant prefers warm lighted areas. Fertile, weakly acidic soil is best for ivy. The top layer of soil is mixed with peat or sawdust. Pebbles and small pebbles are used as drainage.
Evergreens have their purpose: some species are used to create high hedges, while others are used in the formation of small borders. For these purposes, suitable boxwood, which lends itself well to pruning and is distinguished by unpretentiousness in relation to lighting. This evergreen plant has been widely used in the creation of various figures. With it, you can form any composition, for this is used a wire frame.
It is very important to carry out the watering of the plant in time. Drainage of soil with pebbles and small stones is carried out regularly. Saplings are planted in open ground in the summer, with a distance of 40 cm or more between the pits. This is necessary so that the roots of the plants are not tangled. Boxwood is a poisonous plant that can be dangerous to humans. Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
What evergreens can be planted in the garden or at the cottage? In fact, almost all of the above trees and shrubs can be located on your site. But there are more rare plants, which will also be an excellent decoration of the landscape.
- Arundinaria (bamboo) reaches a height of 3 meters. The stems of this plant are purple or yellow. On top of the stems are long leaves.
- Aukuba - ornamental shrubs intended for growing in the shade. He has colorful leaves of large sizes. May rise above the ground by 2 meters or more.
- Strawberry tree, or strawberry, grows slowly. In autumn, closer to winter, flowers and fruits resembling strawberries form on it. But they have no taste. The flowers may be white or pinkish.
- Callistemon is an evergreen ornamental shrub, distinguished by inflorescences consisting of a large number of small flowers of a dark pink or reddish hue. Grow it in sunny areas.
Peculiarities of care
Evergreens do not like dark areas, exposure to direct sunlight can cause burns. Therefore, they are often planted in the penumbra. It is necessary to protect evergreen trees and shrubs from sudden gusts of wind and drafts, as this can be dangerous for the plant. You need to regularly inspect the shoots and remove damaged and dried branches. In addition, you should prune the crown and shape the shape of the plants so that they look neat.
Benefits for landscape design
- Aesthetics. Since representatives of deciduous plants in the fall shed their leaves and give the site a dull look, you should plant evergreen trees and shrubs in the garden, because they have no such problem, and they look green and attractive all year round.
- Simplicity. They do not require particularly complex care, they are resistant to low temperatures (even very cold winds will not be able to harm them), they like shady areas, they need timely feeding and watering.
- Range. For any task in landscape design, among all the representatives of this group one can always find a suitable plant both in color and in form - be it tree, grass, ivy or shrub.
Имея фантазию и денежные средства, с помощью таких декоративных помощников можно придать участку праздничности и великолепия в любое время года.
Одним из самых простых способов использования является посадка растений таким образом, чтобы они оттеняли собой различные уголки сада. When combining plants of different heights and shades, even in winter, the site will look well-groomed, bright and diverse.
When choosing ornamental species that are green all year round, many stop at needles. And this is not surprising, because it looks great all year, it is easy to cut and therefore can be used to create various shapes. But besides coniferous plants, there are many species that are well tolerated even the most severe frosts. These are heather and wintering rhododendron, magonia, privet, periwinkle, ivy, laurel tree and others.
The evergreen hedge in the garden
If you make a fence from plants that shed their foliage in the autumn, then in winter it will lose all meaning, because it will turn into twisted brown branches intertwined with each other, through which the garden will be clearly visible. If you use plants that are green all year for hedges, then even in winter it will look gorgeous and close the area from prying eyes.
Depending on the required height of the hedge, it is possible to use undersized species in the decoration, such as mahonia, yew repanence, quince, yew eleganticissim.
If you need to create a high fence, then use plants whose height can reach about three meters or more, for this plant barberry, felt cherries, gibner and other species are planted.
The most famous types of evergreens for hedges are:
These plants are resistant to low temperatures, picky to the composition of the soilThey adapt well to different weather conditions, grow quickly and are easy to trim.
If a hedge is used for decoration of the garden, the trees and shrubs are planted in a row. If the fence serves as a fence, then plants should be planted in two rows. Sometimes from several species of evergreen plants create a single composition.
If plants are used to create sculptures that shed their foliage, in winter such figures look unattractive and boring. But the sculptures, which are made of evergreens, even under a layer of snow will be able to maintain their beautiful shape and elegant look.
For zoning the territory of the garden is the best fit low scrub plants. With the help of them, you can easily separate stands and lawns from the paths, and the lawn from the house. In addition to the aesthetic benefits, there are others. Such borders do not allow the weeds to grow, lawn grass, and also protect plantings from the wind.
In order for such green curbs to delight the whole year, it is necessary to choose such plant species as boxwood, Dubrovnik, honeysuckle, and Japanese spindle tree. Some of the species can be trimmed to give them the necessary height.
Decor for arbors, fence, trellises
For these purposes, evergreen climbing plants are the best fit, with which you can give a gazebo or fence a well-groomed appearance, even in harsh winter.
Depending on the purpose, you should choose the type of plant that is suitable for achieving the desired goals. For plants that have rapid growth and will be able to quickly braid support, include wisteria, ivy, girlish grapes and others.
Registration of a loggia and balcony
Some types of evergreen plants can attract not only gardeners, but also those who want to make their own loggia or balcony beautiful in winter. Such plantings should be purchased in the fall in a container or pot, and then planted in another more suitable container. Choose unpretentious plant species, for example, pyracantha, euonymus, Gaultery lying, thuja, juniper.
Each species is capable of pleasing its color, shape of leaves and flowering. At the euonymus leaves have a purple-pink color, bright red berries grow on the goulter lying all winter, and the juniper has bright green foliage.
The most popular evergreens
Conifers are the most common species in landscape design. Most often for cultivation in the garden using European or prickly spruce.
- European spruce can grow to a height of up to thirty meters, and the width of its cone-shaped crown can reach up to five meters. The first ten years the tree grows slowly, but then every year can grow to seventy centimeters.
- Prickly fir can reach a height of 25 meters. It has a beautiful low down crown. Sharp needles can have green, gray or blue color. This species of evergreen tree grows well in sunny places where the soil is loose and moderately wet.
Saplings of evergreen trees are best planted in the summer in the drained soil. In the first weeks after planting, young trees should be shaded from the sun so that they will not burn, and in the fall - cover before the first frost. The roots of spruce do not grow deep, but grow in width. Therefore, when planting between trees should leave a distance of three meters or more. As well as conifers should not be planted next to the fruit. It is easy to cut a crown of firs, so beautiful sculptures can be easily created from them.
It is one of the most attractive evergreen shrubs. Throughout the summer, the plant blooms with charming pink flowers, and in winter it pleases with a beautiful green leafy cover.
Honeysuckle is a climbing plant., which reaches a height of three meters. The leaves are oval and wide, up to eight centimeters long and five wide. The flowers are small, bell-shaped and emit no aroma. The color of flowers from dark pink to crimson. There are types of honeysuckle, in which the flowers are yellow.
Upon completion of flowering, bright red berries form on the branches.. Plant honeysuckle should be in the spring, when the frost stops. She prefers open, sunny, protected from the wind areas. Suitable for planting loose moderately moist soil. When planting, the plant can not be too deep into the soil, as it will not grow and may further disappear.
To honeysuckle bush looked decorative and attractive, shoots should be tied up, and the old branches cut to the root. If you install the necessary support and properly tie up the shrub, then for a fairly short period of time, you can twist a gazebo or fence.
A beautiful evergreen tree that can reach a height of one to twenty-five meters. The crown can be cylindrical or round. Cypress cones have an attractive shape that resembles a flower bud. To date, there are more than a hundred species of cypress.
The tree is undemanding to the soil, tolerates drought well, but badly going cold. It prefers well-lit areas, can tolerate only a slight shading, if the tree grows in full shadow, then the crown will crumble in the future. At the end of the summer, the tree should be pruned in order to further form neat bushes. The most suitable breeding method is grafting.
Types and varieties of evergreens
Wanting to buy unusual evergreen crops for their gardening plots, it is not necessary to have many years of experience in gardening or to study many species and varieties of plants. It is only necessary to pay attention to the name or to one of the words in the name, it necessarily covers the "color" of this type. For example:
- Glauca - plant varieties with blue hues,
- Aurea - plants with light shades and a yellow crown,
- Gold are plants with a yellow color,
- Maculata, Variegata - variegated varieties of plants, consisting of various patterns and spots in green, white and silver tones.
For gardening the garden is recommended to use the most popular and most common evergreen crops with leaves. For example, eustosklet or loch will create a festive mood in the garden with their unusual color shades of white, yellow, cream, light or dark green border. From evergreen deciduous groundcovers one can prefer such varieties as “Gracilis”, “Silver Quinn. Ivy can be used to decorate trellises, hedges, tree trunks or various other objects in the garden.
Perfectly fit into garden ensembles and compositions of stunted and dwarf species and varieties of trees and shrubs. You can plant blue spruce, mountain or forest pine, pea or yellow cypress, blue or common juniper varieties on the smallest garden area. Thuja Oriental or folded, privet, hybrid sucker, barberry can claim to be a single or central plant in the garden. And such cultures as funky, fescue (blue or gray), periwinkle will make the garden multi-colored and create a contrast against the green background of other plantations.
The basis of the composition
If you plant these plants as the basis of the garden area, then at any time of the year you will be able to admire their unique look. In spring and summer, evergreens will complement mass flowering and fragrance. In autumn, during the period of active fruiting and bright colors of autumn leaves and fruits, the palette of shades will expand many times and unite into a rainbow choir of colors. And in the winter months they will become the only green island of nature against the backdrop of sparkling snow.
Single planting and growing in tubs
Winter-hardy varieties with unusual coloring look great in the collection of tubing plantings. For a bright solo accent on a garden plot, a flower garden or a clearing, evergreens are perfectly suited for which the crown is presented in an unusual form (for example, columns, or arrows). Weeping or stamba form of cultural development is ideal for single plantings.
Planting evergreens and rules of care
Cultures with multi-colored foliage and needles are recommended to be grown only in the penumbral areas. The solar and shady place of cultivation will affect the decorativeness of plants and their external characteristics. Burns are possible from direct sunlight, and due to a lack of light, the yellow and golden color will turn green.
Coniferous evergreens should be planted in areas that are not exposed to sudden gusts of wind and drafts.
The most favorable landing time is early spring or autumn.
The main care is:
- In the timely removal of damaged and dried shoots,
- In regular pruning and the formation of the crown and the general shape of the plant.
Garden Evergreens Love Growing Gardeners, because they have a beautiful appearance and are not particularly whimsical. They have several advantages, which undoubtedly distinguishes them from the bulk of the rest:
- Aesthetic appearance. The deciduous species of shrubs in the winter time tend to fly over the leaves, therefore remain inconspicuous and shabby. The evergreen plant is so good that this does not happen to him.
- These species need only sun protection, fertilization and irrigation. No further conditions are required to be observed, since they are not afraid of either cold winds or drafts.
- There are many different types of perpetual coniferous shrubs and trees, ivy and various herbs. For the execution of any design project, you can find a suitable option that will remain green all year round.
If you have imagination and a sufficient amount of finance, then you can implement any garden project. Evergreens, the list of which is unusually large, will be able to help to decorate the garden even during the period of winter cold.
Evergreens, examples of which are very diverse, are used in different compositions. For example, they can be planted in such a way that they create shade for different parts of the garden. When combining shrubs, different in size and shade of foliage, in winter, you can get a variety of shades on the site. You can also use them for other purposes:
- A decorative look can be given a hedge. If it is created from a deciduous form, then it will not look beautiful in winter, however, the winter-green shrub used for these purposes will create the necessary impenetrability for those who walk alongside the site and create a chic look.
- The creation of living sculptures. Why can not be used for this plant, which shed leaves? In principle, it is possible, but only the perennial can afford to admire the creation in the period of cold weather.
- Zoning territory. With the help of low-growing shrubs, you can separate the landing sites from the path or the lawn from the site near the house. It will look aesthetically pleasing, and at the same time fulfill the role of protection from the wind.
- With the help of evergreen climbing perennials, you can decorate fences, gazebos or grates.
There are many of these species.. They are divided into conifers, which, for example, include fir or spruce, and deciduous, the most famous of them is boxwood.
They differ in shape, so they can be trees, shrubs, vines, grasses or moss. Any of them is ideal for growing in the garden, the main thing is to know that it is better to use for a particular plot.
Also, before planting, you need to know which trees are evergreen and how to take care of them. There are shrubs that form red berries, which makes them look even more beautiful.
Care for evergreen perennials
If you go to Belarus, you can see that there, like us, there are a lot of coniferous trees. Caring for them is not difficult, so gardeners love to grow them in their backyards.
Watering is necessary once a week, pouring about 20 liters of fluid under each bush. Moisture is especially necessary in the autumn period, because plants can dry out during the period of cold weather not from frost, but from the fact that they lack moisture.
Conifer species are very fond of being sprayed.. This is especially true for the summer period. When the weather is dry, sprinkling should be done in the morning or evening. If they were planted recently, this process should be carried out daily.
It is also necessary to mulch the soil regularly to prevent it from drying out. It will also help fight weeds and maintain the right temperature in the root system.
Proper selection of places
Many evergreens do not like direct sun exposure.. The soil should be well hydrated and have normal drainage. If you plant a perennial in such a place, it will please with its decorative qualities. Many conifers better tolerate wintering if they are placed in small groups.
With the help of perennial evergreens, the garden comes to life even during the winter cold period. Different colors of leaves can add refinement and decoration to the site. In the care of the plants are not whimsical, so they do not burden their presence.