Everyone wants to grow red currants in his garden plot, and it is not difficult to do it. The berries of this shrub have a unique light taste and healing properties, which are attributed to the ability to help the body to be cleansed of toxins, as well as to treat stomach diseases.
But often care for the crop is complicated by diseases of the red currant, including red bulging spots on the leaves. Let's find out what kind of attack it is and how to fight it.
Why did red spots appear on currant leaves?
There are two reasons why the plant becomes ill and we see burgundy spots on the leaves of red currant - this is anthracnose and ordinary aphid. In the first case, the disease can develop in several stages and reddening - the very first of them, when you can still help the shrub to cope with the disease.
If you miss the time, the leaves gradually become brown, curl and dry. Thus, entire branches are affected and you can lose a shrub at all. In addition, the berries lose their taste and become sour, small, which is undoubtedly not the result that the gardener expects from the harvest.
A more prosaic cause of the disease is gallic aphids. If you notice that red spots have appeared on the leaves of the currant, turn the piece upside down and you will be able to find there whole colonies of these insects. Day after day, they quietly do their dirty work — they suck its juices from a sheet, leaving brown and red spots at the site of impact. As is the case with anthracnose without proper treatment, you can lose the shrub.
Treatment of red spots on currant leaves
As is known, garden ants bring aphids to the leaves. If there are several anthills on the site, then aphids will not succeed in avoiding plant infection. Moreover, the processing of shrubs will only lead to a temporary improvement in the situation and in a couple of weeks the aphid will again be in place. This means that first of all, it is necessary to throw all forces into the fight against ants, because aphid annoys not only the currants, but also the majority of the inhabitants of the garden. After the destruction of the anthills, you can proceed to the processing of leaves from the aphid itself. This is done with the help of chemicals or with using folk remedies. Spraying infusions of garlic, tobacco and laundry soap have proven to be excellent. Such processing will not damage the plant, and the fruit can be used only by rinsing them with water.
To defeat anthracnose, it will not do with soap alone. If it took place last season, in early spring you should shed branches and a kidney with boiling water, and dig up the ground around it and process it with copper sulphate.
With the appearance of the leaves with reddening, they are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, and with a strong lesion they are removed. In autumn, all diseased parts of the plant should be burned and the soil treated again.
Gallic aphid is a common currant pest. It spreads in hot, dry summers, especially if the winter was warm.
Aphid eggs hibernate on currant branches. As soon as the buds begin to bloom, larvae appear from the eggs and crawl to the bottom of the young leaves. The larvae suck the juice, because of what appear on the leaves red or red hilly swellings, visible from afar. From the inside out, bulges look, on the contrary, like hollows. The leaf is twisted, gets the ugly form.
In summer, when the growth of young shoots stops, the leaves become coarse. By this time, females of aphids "become on the wing" and fly to other plants, where they live until the autumn.
The second fodder plant gallic aphids - nettle, peppermint, lavender, sage and lemon balm. Replant fragrant plants away from currant bushes and in time spit out nettles.
At the end of the summer, the female flies over currant bushes to lay eggs on the bark. In the spring the cycle will be repeated.
Red spots on currant leaves causes a microscopic fungus. The disease is called anthracnose. Small reddish specks appear on the plates, because of which the sheet looks speckled, like human skin on chickenpox. Subsequently, the rust spots on the currants will increase in size, merge into one brown area, and the leaf will dry and fall off.
Spots appear on the lower leaves. With a strong defeat of the bush leaves, except for the youngest, crumble in the middle of summer. As a result, begin to grow new shoots, the bush weakens and can not overwinter. Disease affects and fruit. If the fungus affects the stem, the berries fall off or are covered with small spots with a bulge in the center.
The disease spreads with water droplets, rebounding from the affected leaves during rain or watering. In addition, the spores of the fungus carry insects.
Immunity from anthracnose does not exist, but resistant varieties have been developed: Belarusian sweet, Primorsky champion, Golubka, Katyusha and others.
If galls - red bloated spots on currants - appeared before the ripening of berries, then it is better to do with folk remedies. To control pests decoction of plants that grow at each cottage: pharmacy chamomile, celandine. You can use garlic, tobacco, tobacco and ash.
Having prepared the solution, do not forget to add a little household soap or tar soap, which will increase the adherence of the liquid. The prepared means is sprayed over the bushes, trying to get not only on the upper part of the plates, but also on the lower part, since most of the pests live there.
Preparation of a classic ash-soap solution against aphids:
- A piece of laundry soap divided into 5 parts. One part grate on a fine grater and pour three liters of water, leave for a day.
- Pour 300 g of ash into 2 liters of water, boil for 20 minutes, cool, filter.
- Mix soap and ash solution, fill with water to 10 liters.
This "drug" is suitable for processing any berries, including strawberries. In addition to protecting against aphids, it serves as a potash supplement.
Some predatory insects, including ladybirds, destroy the gall creeper. Cute bugs overwinter in the fallen leaves, so if you don’t remove fallen leaves from under the trees, then the ladybirds in the garden will become much larger. If there are no cows in the garden, you can collect bugs in the field, where they like to bask in the sun, climbing up on the upper part of the blades of grass, and transfer them to their site.
The gilded eyes are another species of predatory insects that eat aphids. Gilded eyes fly at dusk or at night. Adults feed on pollen and nectar, but the larvae hunt for aphids, ticks, flea beetles.
Gold-eyed females lay eggs next to the colonies of aphids, so that the larvae, having hatched, immediately begin to eat. Each golden-eyed larva destroys up to 150 aphids per day. In order to attract adults to the garden in their garden, plants of the compositae and celery families: chamomile, dill and yarrow are sown on the site.
Green soap is considered an effective remedy for aphids control. The preparation contains fatty potassium salts, which envelop the body of insects with a film and clog the respiratory tract. For spraying against aphids in 10 liters of clean water, add 200-400 g of soap and spray it over the bushes. Green soap can be used in combination with fungicides by mixing two preparations in one container, for example, 30 g of soap and 2 g of vitriol. Or soap and soda ash 1: 1.
The drug is safe for birds and humans. Plants sprayed with a solution of green soap become safe for bees after 72 hours.
In the fall, the bushes are sprayed with an infusion of onions or garlic. A strong smell will scare away female gallic aphids and they will not be able to lay eggs on the bushes.
We list the effective drugs for prophylactic and therapeutic spraying of currants from anthracnose.
- Topsin-M - Systemic fungicide, available in powder form. It relieves currant bushes from anthracnose and powdery mildew. Processing is carried out before flowering and after harvesting the berries.
- Atsidan - wetting powder that provides reliable protection against anthracnose and fungal diseases.
It is more difficult to deal with aphids when ovaries hang on the bushes. Spraying with pesticides is prohibited, since fruits will absorb toxic substances and become hazardous to health. If the gall aphid is not enough, then manual removal of the reddened leaves and subsequent spraying of the bushes with Fitoverm, a biological preparation safe for humans, will help.
From anthracnose helps Glyocladin - a biological drug, the active ingredient of which is the fungus trichoderma, which suppresses pathogens of fungal diseases. The drug is available in pill and liquid form. Harvest can be collected a day after the drug is applied to the soil or sprayed with bushes.
For the prevention of the appearance of gallic aphids at the beginning of the season, even before bud break, bushes are sprayed with Nitrafen. The drug will destroy the overwinter eggs.
If in the previous season burgundy spots were observed on the currants, then before the bud breaks, the bushes and the ground under them are sprayed with copper sulphate. In the fall, the fallen currant leaves are raked and burned, as fungal spores overwhelm them. 2 weeks after picking the berries do the repeated spraying. If after that the leaves of the currant are covered with red spots, then the treatment of vitriol is carried out annually, until the signs of the disease disappear.
Reduce the likelihood of fungal diseases by regulating trim. Old branches are carved, as do the young, but thickening the crown of the twigs. On the bush leave only looking outwards shoots. Thinned crown contributes to the fact that after rain or watering by sprinkling sprouts and foliage dry quickly, and spores of pathogenic fungi do not sprout on them.
Be sure to tear off leaves with red bulging spots on currants and destroy them. Shrubs affected by the disease need to be supplemented with mineral fertilizers in the fall, given that black currants prefer higher doses of phosphorus, and red ones - potassium.
Now you know what reasons currant leaves can turn red, and you can save the crop from misfortune.
What is redcurrant aphid
According to the biological definition, galls on plants are ugly swellings on leaves and shoots, painted in different colors depending on the type of pathogen or pest. They are in the form of ink nuts (cecidia). On the leaves of red currant are formed lilac-red spots and ugly formations (see photo), and the reason for this is a microscopic insect - red-eye aphid. It is difficult to see it on the back of the leaves, but it can cause great harm, even to the death of the plant.
The size of an adult female of red currant aphids reaches 2-3 mm, they are wingless or winged, depending on the regeneration. During the season, both flying and creeping females can lay several clutches of eggs (black, oblong, microscopic in size), from which green caterpillars emerge. They quickly turn into adult insects and are ready for their own reproduction. One female aphid can produce about 10 generations of its own kind during the summer. These indicators can be used to judge the number of pests that attack red currant bushes, causing red spots and blisters on the leaves, different in size.
The leaves of red currant, especially young shoots, are exposed to great danger from the attack of a huge number of voracious pests that feed on the sap of the plant, piercing their delicate and soft leaf tissues with special proboscis.
Aphid, settled on the leaves of red currant, attracts ants who love to eat the paddy, released by aphids. Pad is a sweetish and sticky liquid rich in proteins and carbohydrates. The ants, protecting the colonies of aphids on the currants, scare away the ladybirds, preventing them from destroying them.
Flying from one bush to another, the aphid transports pathogens of fungal, bacterial and viral infections to healthy currant bushes, infecting them and putting them in mortal danger. Redcurrant (like white) is more vulnerable than blackcurrant. It is less resistant to diseases and more often suffers and dies if it does not receive timely treatment.
Diseases of the red currant
In spring and early summer, berryberry bushes are not only attacked by pests, with the onset of flying and insect movement, young shoots and soft, soft leaves of white, black and red currants can also manifest symptoms of various diseases that are transmitted by arthropods and winged “aggressors”.
Symptoms of the disease: small red spots appear on the leaves, which grow, merge into a large brown and shapeless spot, leaf petioles become thinner, darker, leaves dry out and fall prematurely.
Causes: high humidity plus high air temperature (during frequent rains), insect vectors, windy weather, carrying spores from a diseased plant to healthy bushes.
Treatment and prevention: in the fall - to process currant bushes with Bordeaux mixture (1% solution), it is necessary to dispose of all the infected parts of the plant, and fallen leaves to burn. In the spring, spray the plant with copper sulphate (1 percent solution), dig up the soil near the bush, process it with the same solution. Before flowering - you can use chemicals: epin, topsin-M, zircon. During fruiting, only biological products are used for processing: phytospores, gamair and others.
Disease: goblet rust
Symptoms of the disease: currant leaves with this fungal disease are covered with red-brown spots, soft growths in the form of small pads that can crack and release millions of microscopic spores appear on the back side of the lamina, infecting all the plants around.
Causes: the presence of weed (sedge) in the garden plot, on which fungi often find the main habitat. In June or July, the plantations of the fungus on the weeds reach their maximum sizes; the pads containing spores burst, increasing the area of infection under the influence of the wind in the region from 25 to 300 meters.
Disease treatment and prevention: in the fall, remove all the fungus-affected branches, collect fallen leaves and burn them, do not use them in compost heaps. To process currant bushes in autumn, in early spring, before flowering with special fungicides (see above), for the whole season there should be at least three sprays.
Disease: spherotek (powdery mildew)
Symptoms of the disease: a gray-white bloom like flour appears on the fruits and leaves of the red currant, then the leaves twist and dry, the still unripe berries fall, the young growth of the plant stops.
Causes: infected weeds, ingestion of a fungus, the spread of spores by gusts of wind, excessive humidity of the air during frequent rains, when a favorable environment for the reproduction of fungal infections is created.
Prevention and treatment of the disease: process the plant at least 3-4 times per season with fungicides, at early stages we recommend manually cutting off the affected leaves and berries, from folk remedies the soda solution is popular for such treatments (dissolve 50 g of baking soda or soda ash with 10 liters of water) .
Disease: red currant septoriosis
Symptoms of the disease: there are two types of septoria - rusty, when bright orange nodules appear on the leaves of red currant, and white, in this case the spots are round, gray-white with brown edging.
Causes: thickened planting bushes, the presence of weeds, infection through insects or in the wind.
Prevention and treatment: in this case, frequent treatment of plants with fungicides and bacterial preparations also rescues, a huge selection of which is offered in specialized stores. Proceed strictly according to the instructions attached to the packaging of each product, do not exceed the nominal concentration of the substance, preparing from them the necessary solution for treating red currant bushes.
Disease: Reversion (Terry)
Disease symptoms: lack of fruits for 3-5 years, leaf plate mutation (three-lobed leaves instead of the usual five), excessive growth of young shoots that thicken the bushes.
Causes: infection from diseased plants.
Treatment: drugs for the treatment and prevention of this disease does not yet exist. The only way to get rid of it and measure to protect other planting - complete uprooting and burning diseased shrubs. Unfortunately, this disease has been little studied, preparations and ways of dealing with it have not yet been invented, but in order to reassure gardeners, we note that it is extremely rare. In suburban settlements and in the backyards, where the density of planting red currants is small, it almost never occurs. The reversion flares up in the territories of agrofirms, where the technology of growing currants is violated and the increased frequency of planting bushes is allowed.
Если вы любите свой сад и оберегаете каждое растение от вредителей и болезней, то ваши труды на их благо окупятся «сторицей». Each bush and tree will thank you with a bountiful harvest, will delight you with its healthy appearance, and their fruits will help you to prepare tasty juices, jams, preserves, which your family will enjoy all year round.
Anthracnosis fungal disease
This disease affects the leaves of currants. First there are red spots on the leaves, then the leaves dry and crumble ahead of time. Sick leaves that have fallen are the source of infection in May and June. Conidiospores appear later. - distributors of the disease in July and August. If the currant is annually affected by anthracnose, it can lead to the drying of the branches or the entire shrub.
- Cultivate the land and currant bushes with 1% solution of copper sulphate before the leaves appear.
- Before the colors appear, spray with Topsin-M.
- In the period of the appearance of the ovaries, it is necessary to feed with wood ash.
- Plant nutrition with complex fertilizers for stable immunity, which include nitrogen and boric acid.
- After harvesting - spray with Bordeaux mixture (100g of copper sulfate and 150g of lime)
- The fallen leaves must be burned so that the spores of the fungus do not hibernate in it until next spring.
- In the autumn, after digging up the soil, spray the bushes with nitrofen.
- Before planting, select currant varieties that are most resistant to anthracnose, for example, Pervenets, Victoria, and Holland Red.
- Access to the place of landing should not be blocked by access of the sun's rays, the possibility of flooding with spring melt waters is undesirable.
- Timely pruning: anti-aging and sanitary.
- Feeding should contain a sufficient amount of phosphorus and potassium.
- To carry out sheet top dressing with a solution of manganese sulphate in two stages: 1 - before flowering, 2 - after picking berries.
- Treat the bushes after harvesting with a solution of potassium salt.
Red Gall Aphid
There are 4,000 species of aphids on earth, the red-gall aphid is found in all corners of the planet where red currants are grown, these are Central Asia, Siberia, the Caucasus and Europe.
Gallic aphid sucks juices and depletes plant shoots. To heal its wounds, the plant forms red growths.
The adult aphid is yellow, its eyes are red, and its larva is yellow-white. Length about 2 mm. Aphid prefers red and white currants, but occasionally it can be found on black. In winter, oblong black aphid eggs remain on the branches, from which larvae appear in spring. When the first leaves appear, they settle on the underside of the leaf and begin to suck the juice. These larvae become founding females., fly around the district and they appear 6−7 generations of aphids. Aphids feed on the juicy leaves of the currant until mid-July, until the foliage coarsened, then moved to oregano, sage, and lavender.
How to fight
To destroy aphids, it is better to use herbal infusions first, if this does not work, you need to use chemicals.
- Herbal infusion, which is harmless to humans, but will help to defeat aphids. Infusion can be made from garlic, tobacco, onion peel, dandelion roots and leaves, or potato tops. But the most effective spraying infusion of celandine. To do this, take 3-4 kg of raw celandine or 1 kg of dried, pour a bucket of water and stand for 1 day. Ready infusion must be filtered.
- Infusion of tobacco dust. To prepare 10 liters of infusion, 300 g of raw materials pour boiling water and let it brew for 3 days. After that, strain the solution and add 100 g of soap solution to it. Soap can be used tar or economic.
- Infusion of mustard powder. Dry mustard - 25 g pour 1 liter of boiling water and leave for 2 days. Then add water and bring the solution to a volume of 10 liters. In the mixture, add tar or laundry soap - 100 g.
- Infusion of marigold flowers. Half a bucket of flowers chop, pour 10 liters of boiling water, leave for two days. Insist strain, add chopped soap.
- Peel and destroy damaged leaves with red spots (galls).
- During the blooming of the leaves, cut off the tops of the shoots inhabited by aphids. This should be done 2 times with an interval of 10 days.
- Treat with preparations that are safe for humans: Actophyte, Avertin or Bitoxibacillin. These biological products are made from components of fungi, spore bacteria and viruses.
- Before the appearance of buds and after harvest, currants must be sprayed with insecticides. To do this, the following drugs are suitable: Aktelik, Proteus, Vofatoks, Konfidor maxi and Calypso. The toxic components of these drugs will remain in the tissues of the plant for some time, so this method is desirable to use if there is no other way to get rid of aphids.
Autumn preventive work
- It is necessary to collect and burn all the foliage from under the bushes, dig up the soil.
- Trim branches with cracks and lichen.
- Apply garden var to cuts to avoid laying eggs with aphids.
To minimize processing red currant chemicals to get rid of aphids, next to it is to plant such plants that aphid can not tolerate because of the strong smell: onions, garlic, marigolds, chamomile or calendula.
Near the currant bush there should be no weeds to which the aphid can go, especially plants from the family of yasnotkuyu or deaf nettle.
If you plant meadow flowers next to currant bushes, it will attract insects that feed on aphids: bees, ladybirds and gold-eyed.
Adding an article to a new collection
You do not know why red and brown spots appeared on the leaves of your currant? We will tell you what is the cause of this disease and how to eliminate it.
If red spots on currant leaves appeared in spring or summer, then chances are that your berry bushes attacked diseases and pests. Let's see what exactly the misfortune leads to redness of the leaves.
Reason 1: Gallic aphid on currants
If red bulging (bloated) spots appeared on currant leaves, and the young shoots were twisted, then, most likely, the plant attacked the aphid, which sucks the juice out of it. As a result, currant leaves are covered with red-brown spots and swellings. Leaf plate is deformed, young leaves grow coarse, plants stop growing.
The colonies (larvae) of this insect are easily detected on the underside of the leaves (especially the young), as well as on the shoots where the pest overwinters. Winged female aphids fly to other plants in the garden and live there until the end of summer. After that, they again return to the currant bushes, lay eggs on it (in the bark, where leaf buds are outlined), and in the spring they again destroy the shrub.
Reason 2: Currant Anthracnose
Red spots on the leaves of red, black and white currants may appear due to anthracnose. This fungal disease inhibits the growth of shoots on the bush, reduces the yield and taste of berries.
In the first stage of this disease, red spots on the leaves or bloom with shiny tubercles appear on the currant. Then these spots merge and turn brown, and the leaves on the shrub turn yellow and dry. Red currant leaves soon fall, while black leaves can hang on branches in such a damaged form until late autumn. Over time, the disease spreads to the fruit.
Fungal spores overwinter in fallen leaves, and spread quickly in rainy weather. In hot and dry summers, currants rarely get sick.
Fighting currant anthracnose
In the spring before bud break it is necessary to plentifully process the bushes and the soil beneath them with a 1% solution of bordeaux liquid. Repeated spraying should be carried out 2 weeks after the harvest. In the autumn, all plant residues (fallen leaves, damaged and old branches) and mulch should be destroyed, burn them and dig up the soil under the bushes. After these procedures, spray the bushes and the soil with 3% Bordeaux liquid.
Also, for the treatment of anthracnose, you can use fungicides such as Oxyhom, Abiga-Pik, Fundazol, Profit Gold, Previkur, Ordan. Apply them in accordance with the instructions.
Now you know how to treat the bushes, if red spots appear on the currant leaves. We hope these tips will help save your plants and not lose a crop.
Diseases of the leaves of red currant
Disease of red currant leaves can manifest itself in a wide variety of cases. Even proper care, which consists in the regularity of preventive measures, cannot always guarantee the health of a beloved berry.
Climatic conditions, terrain and soil in which the plant grows, can have the most detrimental effect on it. And it often happens like this: at first glance, it seems that there are no factors provoking the disease, however, if we consider them together, it turns out that the reason lies in several of them at once.
Most diseases of currant have a fungal or viral character. Defeats of bacterial type are rather rare, although they also occur. Many of them can be cured, however, there are a number of diseases after which the plant will not only have to be removed from the garden, but also to destroy all traces of its stay.
For the treatment of diseases of red currant to be effective and successful, it is necessary to start it in time. To do this, you should conduct a regular diagnosis of the state of green pets in the garden. Daily inspections will help to quickly determine the source of infection and take adequate measures in time.
Consider the description of diseases of red currant with specific examples with photographs.
Symptoms of this disease are not immediately noticed, since everything happens on the lower part of the leaves of red currant. During a routine inspection, it is not possible to detect the problem.
The main manifestation of the disease is the appearance on the underside of the leaves of small (0.5-1.5 mm in diameter) growths of orange or red-yellow color, with small depressions. This is the culprit of the problem - rust fungus, one of the most common Pucciniomycetes, an extensive class of fungi that parasitize on various types of living organisms.
As the disease spreads, the lower surface of the leaf becomes covered with the parasite completely, from where they pass to the neighboring leaves.
An interesting fact is that red currant is only a temporary host of the fungus. To continue its development, the fungus must be sprayed spores. This occurs at the moment when the dying leaf falls from the bush. Further development of the rust fungus is already on another host.
Glass rust - a very unpleasant disease. It can lead to a loss of 50% to 70% of the crop. Most often it is subject to plants growing in natural water bodies and in conditions of high humidity.
The most common disease of all gooseberries is powdery mildew, often referred to as a spherical library. Fortunately, it is the red currant that has the highest resistance to this disease. And, nevertheless, cases of the disease are recorded, although infrequently.
The main risk group is young plants, up to 3 years old. Symptoms of the disease appear in covering the affected areas with a white patina of a fairly hard consistency, turning brown and hardening even more with time.
With the further development of the disease, leaves become deformed and berries disappear. In addition, neglected cases of powdery mildew lead to a decrease in plant immunity, it may die.
The main symptom of this red currant disease are red leaves. The causative agent is ascomycete fungus.
Usually red spots are only the beginning of the disease. They have the form of small (up to 3 mm) tubercles and are mainly located on the lower row of leaves.
Over time, their shade changes to orange. At the same time, partial lesions merge into large spots, occupying most of the leaf surface and bordered with a purple border.
With the further development of the disease anthracnose covered not only the leaves, but other parts of the plant. Almost all the plants that are above the soil can be affected by a fungus. Fruits affected by the fungal infection are also affected by ascomycete and rot.
The disease is easily transmitted from diseased plants to healthy ones through plant debris, fruits and seeds, as well as through the soil.
The prevalence of the disease has a fairly wide range. For example, a temperate climate zone is practically at risk. Favorable conditions for the development of anthracnose are high humidity (up to 90%), moderate temperature (+ 20-22 ° C) and frequent precipitation, so it is much less common in southern and arid regions.
Another name for the disease is reversion. Its pathogen is still unknown. It is assumed that such changes in the tissues of red currant causes the virus, although there is evidence that the disease can also be a fungal disease.
Despite the fact that the most common red currant this disease is black, about every tenth case of reversion occurs in red.
The sources of the spread of the disease can be several:
- contaminated planting material
- flower buds,
- in rare cases aphid.
Symptoms of the disease is very extraordinary. The plant significantly changes the appearance, in particular, the leaves become three-lobed, the veins and teeth on the edges of the leaves become more textured. The size of the leaves also changes - sometimes they decrease 1.5-2 times.
The flowers are significantly deformed - instead of them the growths of purple hue are formed. The number of leaves increases, deformed shoots appear. The bush may look uneven, skosoobochenny, asymmetrical. In general, in some cases it is impossible even to say whether it is red currant or not.
It is noticed that in dry periods the terryiness practically does not manifest itself. But in conditions of high humidity, it is observed quite often.
Another name for this disease is gray spot. Symptoms of the disease is the appearance of a large number of red-brown spots on currant leaves. As the disease progresses, the affected area increases in size and takes the form of a circle. The boundary of the spot has an interesting feature: the specks on it have a distinct white color in the central part.
Over time, there is a complete fall of the foliage from the plant, even those leaves, on which the lesion was not observed visually. It is believed that there are no varieties of redcurrant, which are immune to Septoria, although, as in the case of other diseases, it is not the red currant that is most commonly affected, but the black currant.
Diseases of red currant bark
In addition to leaf diseases, red currants are rarely exposed to bark diseases. Consider the disease of red currant bark with photographs.
In this disease, a part of the branch above the lesion occurs. Together with the branch, naturally, the leaves also fade. In this case, the core of the shoot remains unchanged and does not even change its color. The cause of this disease is a fungus that lives in the bark. It may not manifest itself for several years, but with the advent of normal conditions, it is activated.
One fomopsioz focus is enough to damage the entire plant. With the defeat of this disease, the shoot is lost completely.
A disease that also has a fungal nature. Visually there is a darkening of whole areas of shoots, while, similarly to fomopsiozu, only the bark is affected. However, unlike him, the complete drying of the shoot does not occur, that is, the process of the disease is reversible.
The leaves on the affected stem become sluggish and shriveling, the flowers fall off, and the fruits, if they manage to start, dry up. The life cycle of the fungus that causes tuberculosis is two years, that is, if you do not take timely measures, the situation will be repeated next year.
Methods of treatment and prevention of diseases
Consider how the treatment of diseases of red currant and their prevention, the most important points for clarity, the photo will be illustrated.
The treatment of already neglected forms of diseases, especially fungal ones, is ineffective and, most likely, it will already be meaningless. Therefore, in most cases, the treatment procedures will be reduced to the removal from the plant and the destruction of damaged areas, disinfecting treatment of cut sites and the adoption of various preventive measures.
Thus, the treatment of anthracnose is reduced to the treatment of the leaves several times a month with Bordeaux solutions in a concentration of 1%. An alternative to this method is the use of Nitrafen, the effectiveness of which is several times higher than the Bordeaux mixture.
Similar measures are being taken to treat other fungal diseases. Both powdery mildew, and glass rust, and, in general, all fungi stop their development and distribution quite well when they are treated with Bordeaux mixture.
In some cases, the solution of ferrous sulfate in a concentration of 3-5% is used.
The use of a solution of colloidal sulfur at a concentration of 1% against powdery mildew has also proved itself well. Обычно в таких дозах его применяют в профилактических целях, а при воздействии непосредственно на пораженные участки концентрацию увеличивают до 2 %.
Серая пятнистость и болезни коры красной смородины помимо рассмотренных традиционных средств могут обрабатываться и специальными средствами, например, Фундазолом или Топазом, а также их аналогами.
To combat reversion, garlic infusion is used (100 g of crushed garlic is poured with warm water), which is sprayed with plants a week after its flowering. Treatments are repeated several times at intervals of 2 weeks.
However, the disease does not win the drug, and immunity. For this, the plant needs to create certain conditions so that it can cope with any problem on its own. Consider what preventive measures are needed to help currants overcome possible diseases or to avoid infection altogether:
- Already at the stage of planting and selection of seedlings, it is necessary to carefully choose planting material in order to prevent the appearance of uninvited guests from the kingdom of mushrooms on the site.
- Before planting, seedlings should be sanitized. Usually, one immersion for a period of not more than 5 minutes is sufficient in a solution of copper sulphate with a concentration of 1%, followed by washing it with water.
- Planting should be carried out in those places where there were no other gooseberries before, in order to avoid spores of fungi from plants that lived there before.
- Fallen leaves should be removed from the site and destroyed.
- The soil within a radius of at least 50 cm from the bushes must be constantly loosened and dug. Ideally, it is advisable to use mulching with a cycle of changing the mulch material at least once a month.
- At the very beginning and just before the end of the season (the time when insect vectors of fungal diseases are particularly active), plants should be sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or iron sulphate.
- During the summer season, similar spraying should be done up to 4 times with a frequency of 2-3 weeks or in relation to the agrotechnical cycle of culture:
- the first spraying - before budding,
- the second - immediately after the end of flowering,
- the third - 1-2 weeks after the second,
- fourth - immediately after harvest.
By producing such events, you can be guaranteed to save yourself from 90% of the occurrence of various diseases of the red currant on the site.
Red Currant Pests
In addition to diseases for the red currant are dangerous and some types of pests that can not only eat the juices and fruits of the plant, but also to be carriers of many of the previously listed diseases.
Consider the most common pests of red currants and the fight against them.
Gallic (redcurrant) aphid
The most unpleasant pest of all. Its peculiarity is that it causes damage to the leaves on the tops of the shoots and can damage the growth cone, after which the entire escape can die. The result of this pest is the appearance of red bumps on young leaves at the top of the shoots.
Often, a growing colony of pests passes to other leaves, their spreading rate is so high that the entire shrub can literally be affected within 1-2 days. That is why it is necessary daily to carefully inspect the plant for the appearance of various pests.
Also an unpleasant pest. First of all, it is unpleasant because it requires the use of insecticides that are potentially dangerous to humans. Zlatka is a small pest that is a small bug with dimensions of a few mm. He has an interesting shiny metallic color of yellow-green color.
A feature of the pest is its relative invisibility - the larva of the zlatka makes moves in the heart of the red currant, so you can already notice its appearance after the fact, when, in fact, nothing can be done.
Adult beetles lay eggs on young shoots and feed on leaves.
First reason: gall aphid
There are several reasons why currant leaves are covered with specks of red or brown. The leaves of currant redden unnaturally with the defeat of gallic aphids and fungal diseases, which is called anthracosis. And before you begin to treat the plant, you must establish the correct diagnosis.
Gallic aphid is a small insect that lives in numerous colonies on young branches of black and red currants. Aphid colonies are always located on the underside of the leaves and become noticeable when the leaf plates are deformed.
Aphids feeds on sap from the leaves. From their bites on young leaves and shoots appear small red and red bumps. Then cherry-red or orange swellings are formed on the upper side of the leaf. Red bulging leaves are a characteristic sign of the presence of gall aphids.
The currant bush is covered with swollen, tuberous leaves by the middle of summer. To tighten the wounds from bites, currants produce special substances that turn into galls or growths. The danger of this pest is increased by the fact that they transmit a viral infection that is not treatable: terry and mosaic.
On leaves of red and white currants, gallic aphids appear quite often during hot and dry weather. These types of currants are a permanent place of its nutrition and reproduction. On the black currant, this pest appears quite rarely.
Aphids grow from overwintered eggs with the onset of the first warm spring days. During the flowering berry comes a period of mass reproduction of the pest. In June, aphid aggregation reaches its maximum. At this time on the bushes are already a lot of bubbly, red leaves, which become hard and coarse.
At the end of the summer, the aphid is partly moved to the plants of the yasnotkovy plants that grow near it: mint, thyme, oregano, sage, lavender, chistets These herbs are intermediate hosts of pests.
Pest control measures are diverse:
- cutting off the leaves when they are red,
- spraying bare leaves with Preparation 30, which kills all the hibernating larvae and eggs,
- watering bare branches with boiling water until the buds swell,
- spraying of branches with natural and chemical insecticides.
Many gardeners prefer to treat plants with hand-made insecticides:
- Infusion flowers marigolds. Half a bucket of leaves is poured with a bucket of hot water and infused for two days. 50 grams of liquid soap are added to the filtered solution.
- A solution of 25 g of dry mustard in a bucket of water, which settles for two days. Before use, it poured a solution of 50 g of natural soap.
- An infusion of 300 grams of tobacco dust, which is poured with a bucket of boiling water, is settled for several days. In the filtered infusion poured 100 g of dissolved tar or household soap.
A solution of soap not only allows the working composition to better attach to the leaves of the plant, but also creates an alkaline environment in which the aphid cannot exist.
With a large reproduction of pests with them fighting chemical fungicides at the stage of budding and after harvest. Very good results were shown by such drugs as Actellic, Proteus, Callipso, Konfidor Maxi, Aktar.
At present, remarkable biological fungicides have appeared that are completely harmless to humans, birds, and animals: Avertin, Acrofit, Bitoxibacillin.
The second reason: fracture
Leaf spot or fracture is a fungal disease in which red, brown and greenish-yellow spots appear on currant leaves in early summer and lead to premature drying and abscission. In addition to leaves, the fungus affects cuttings, stalks and young green shoots on red currants.
Already in May small brown spots appear on the leaves. The appearance of specks on the leaves and bark of the bush serves as a signal to start the fight against the disease.
Indeed, after one or two months, the brown spot captures the leaf completely. Black dots turn into brown spots that merge into a continuous cover. By this time, most of the leaves fall off, and the young branches stop growing.
The disease affects both red currant and its black variety. In red currant, the disease causes the leaves to fall off quickly, and in black currant, the affected leaves can hang until autumn.
The rapid development of the disease contributes to hot and humid weather. During a drought, the currant bush is not exposed to this disease.
On fallen leaves, the fungus hibernates safely, and in the spring, spores continue to infect currants. In the spring there are many sick and frozen branches on the diseased bushes. Without treatment, the yield of currants will drop to zero.
Measures to combat fungal infection are aimed at the destruction of the fungus and disinfection of infected parts of the plant:
- processing plants for the entire season fungicides,
- tearing off leaves with bumpy growths, where dark spots are clearly visible,
- cleaning of fallen leaves and sanitary pruning of shrubs,
- regular feeding.
Freedom from redness of foliage
Measures to combat gallic aphids should cover not only ways to kill pests, but also ways to strengthen the viability of the bush:
- in the fall you need to collect and get rid of fallen leaves
- weed removal, which may be intermediate hosts of infection,
- the use of glue traps for collecting insects,
- sprinkling of currants and the earth around it in early spring and late autumn with 3% Nitrofen to destroy overwinter aphids,
- processing in the budding stage and after picking berries with any fungicide with 2-3 repetitions of spraying in 2-4 weeks.
Important! The chosen remedy must be applied on the back side of the foliage, since the pests live there.
Measures to combat fractures include several necessary actions:
- processing of 1% Bordeaux mixture in the fall after the foliage,
- burning of fallen leaves in which fungal spores overwinter,
- spraying the bush and the ground with 1% solution of copper sulfate in the spring before leafing,
- spraying Topsin-M mixed with Zircon or Epin leaves before flowering,
- Currant treatment with Fitosporin or Gamair during the ripening of berries,
- increase plant immunity through the use of complex supplements, consisting of nitrogen fertilizer and boric acid,
- top dressing with ash during the growth of ovaries,
- foliar nutrition with a solution of superphosphate with Immunocytophyte.
At present, the question is: how to treat currants from a fungal infection is not worth it. The production of insecticides and fungicides of chemical and biological origin has been established by many enterprises.
Important! When working with fungicides and insecticides, you must be wearing protective clothing, gloves and a mask.