Onions belong to demanded vegetable cultures. It is added to salads, soups, meat and fish dishes. Therefore, almost every cottage and garden can be seen beds with plantings this vegetable. But to get a good harvest, you need to know how to plant onions and care for them.
Culture can be grown in three ways:
- From seeds in one year. This method of growing vegetables is suitable for areas with a warm climate.
- From seed for two years. In a two-year crop, the plant is grown in areas with a short summer.
- Rassadny way. This method is suitable for sweet and semi-sharp varieties of vegetables.
But before you engage in planting onions in open ground, for it should prepare a plot. The beds are recommended to be done on organic-rich, dry, sunny, open areas with neutral soil. If the soil is sour, then it is preliminarily lime.
Onions can be planted after tomatoes, sideratov, peas, beans, cabbage crops, potatoes. After other types of onions, cucumbers, carrots and garlic, onions can be planted only after three years.
When spring planting Seed soil for planting is prepared in the fall:
- In the soil, rotted manure or humus is added, and the bed is dug up to a depth of fifteen to twenty centimeters. It is not recommended to add fresh manure, otherwise only greens will grow.
- Sour soil mixed with limestone, ground chalk, wood ash or dolomite flour.
- In the spring, before sowing seeds or planting seedlings, mineral fertilizers are added to the soil — potassium chloride, urea, and superphosphate.
Growing onions from seeds
Semi-sweet and sweet varieties in areas with a warm climate from seeds can be grown in one year. Planting material is pre-processed, for which the seeds are placed in cheesecloth, moistened and kept for swelling during the day.
Prepared for planting seed beds watered copper sulphate solution (for 10 liters of water - 1 tablespoon), after which the seeds are placed into it to a depth of one and a half centimeters. The distance between the rows should be about thirteen centimeters, and between the seeds - one and a half centimeters. Crops are poured with water from a watering can with a shower head and covered with a film.
Care of crops consists in timely moistening of soil and daily airing of landings. When seedlings appear, the shelter is removed. Shoots need to be thinned out, so that between the plants was a distance of two to three centimeters. Landings are watered, and the soil around them is mulched with humus. Such a mulch will feed the plants, retain moisture and prevent the weeds from growing. Once again, seedlings must be thinned three weeks after germination. The distance between them should be at least six to eight centimeters.
In early or mid-April, pre-treated onion seeds are sown thickly in seed-filled boxes. Planting material is placed at a depth of one centimeter, moistened with a spray bottle and cover with foil. After the shoots appear, the shelter is removed. Care for seedlings is only in timely wetting of the soil.
In open ground, seedlings are planted at the age of fifty to sixty days. Before planting on a bed, the roots on the onions are recommended to be shortened to one third of the length.
In the regions with a short summer in the first year, onions are grown on the beds, which are kept at home in the winter and the next year they plant in the spring for growing. Before planting, the onions must be sorted, heated for seven days in the sun and held for ten minutes in a solution of copper sulphate.
Planted sevok on the beds in May according to the following scheme:
- The distance between the rows should be thirty centimeters.
- The distance between the onions is from eight to ten centimeters.
- Planting sevok should be at a depth of five centimeters.
When growing seedlings in the fall, you can get a turnip, and in summer - greens. For this, the distance between the landings is five centimeters. During the summer, onions are torn out through one and used as greenery.
When growing onions in open ground, it should be provided with timely watering, fertilizing and treatments for pests and diseases.
Water onions should be once a week, using from five to ten liters of water per square meter of planting. However, if it rains regularly in summer, watering may not be necessary. Otherwise, in overmoistened soil, onions will start to rot. Learn about soil conditions can be on the greens. If it becomes pale, it means that there is an excess of moisture in the soil. The bluish-white feathers indicate that the soil is dry. In July, the bulbs begin to ripen, and watering is reduced.
When growing onions during the season, three supplements are made with organic fertilizers. You can use for this solution a mullein, urea, or bird droppings (one cup of organic matter for 10 liters of water). One square meter of beds is watered with three liters of solution. The first feeding is carried out after the green appears. After two weeks of planting fertilized a second time. The third time the plants are fed when the onions become the size of a walnut.
When onions reach about fifteen centimeters in size, plants are recommended to be treated with copper sulphate, which is good. protection against many fungal diseases. To do this, the feathers are sprayed with a solution prepared from ten liters of water and a teaspoon of the drug.
Cleaning and storage of onions
From about mid-August, when the bulbs grow to the desired volume, feathers fall and new leaves stop forming, you can start harvesting. This should be done in warm, dry weather. If you skip the time of harvesting onions, then he can start growing again. Such vegetables are not stored for a long time.
The collected bulbs evenly laid out on the garden. When the onions dry out, they are released from the ground and further dried in a dry place or in the sun. Dried vegetables should be carefully examined. Left without husks and spoiled bulbs for long-term storage are not suitable. Before putting vegetables in storage, they need to cut the leaves. There should be only a neck about six centimeters long. To increase the shelf life of the bulbs, their roots are cauterized.
It is recommended to store onion heads in a dry place with an air temperature slightly above 0 degrees. Since the bulbs must be supplied with air, they are put in stockings, baskets, nets or boxes. During storage, vegetables are picked regularly, removing bulbs that have begun to grow or rot.
You can store the harvest in the apartment. In this case, the plant does not need to cut dry leaves. A container of vegetables is placed away from the batteries. The optimum air temperature should be from +18 to +20 degrees.
Not recommended to store him along with other vegetables that need high humidity.
Pests and Diseases of Onions
When growing onions in the open ground for the plant the following pests are most dangerous:
- Onion moth. To prevent the occurrence of these pests, weeds should be removed in a timely manner, crop rotation, agricultural practices should be observed and plant residues destroyed.
- Onion fly. To prevent this pest from settling on the onions, a vegetable is recommended plant on the same bed with carrotswhose smell is afraid of onion fly.
- Tobacco thrips. Pests are destroyed by Karbofos or Aktellik.
- Caterpillars scoops. It is possible to get rid of the caterpillars by treating landings with a solution of Gomelin or Bitoxibacillin.
Unfavorable growing conditions and mistakes in care can lead to the onion being affected by various diseases:
- Fusarium is a disease that often appears on plants affected by an onion fly. When fusarium on the bottom of the onions, tissues die off, and rot appears, after which the tips of the greenery turn yellow. To avoid the appearance of this disease, sevok before planting is heated at a temperature of forty degrees for ten hours.
- Downy mildew - the disease can be recognized by gray bloom on the leaves. Affected vegetables do not form seeds and are poorly stored. To avoid powdery mildewSevok heated before planting. It is also necessary to ensure that plantings are not thick.
- Gray rot - the disease occurs in rainy and wet weather. Sick plants need to be removed. In order to prevent planting material is treated with a solution of copper sulphate.
- White rot - the appearance of the disease contributes to acidic soil and an excess of nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, before planting vegetables sour soil is lime, and fresh manure is not used to feed onions. Sick plants should be removed.
- Mosaic is a viral disease in which the plant lags behind in growth, the seeds are almost not formed, the inflorescences become small, and the leaves become yellow. Damaged specimens must be removed.
- Neck rot - a disease that can be detected only after harvest. It is manifested by mold on the outer scales of the bulbs. Neck rot develops under unfavorable conditions for growing plants. To avoid its occurrence, sevok before planting and collected bulbs are heated at a temperature of forty-five degrees. Most often affected by this disease late varieties.
Viral diseases of the plant are not treated, therefore it is necessary to use preventive measures. To this end, it is recommended to observe crop rotation, not to make thickened plantings, regularly remove weeds and follow all agricultural techniques. Before planting onions, sevok can be heated and treated with copper sulphate.
Fungal diseases can be cured special fungicidal preparations. However, it is not recommended to use them, because the bulbs are capable of accumulating poisons.
Onions are an unpretentious plant that even a novice gardener can grow in his area. The popularity of this vegetable is due to the content in it of useful substances for the human body. Eating onions improves digestion and causes the secretion of gastric juice. In addition, the vegetable has a bactericidal, sedative and diuretic effect.
Care of onions in the open field video
Rules for harvesting and storage of onion turnips
2 weeks before harvest, at the end of August - September, watering is suspended. The onions begin to dig when new green feathers stop growing and the existing feathers are mass-fitted to the ground, the head is completely formed and colored in brown.
Do not delay harvesting
Farther than mid-September, the harvest is not delayed, since the onion can resume growth. Such fruits become unsuitable for storage.
Onion harvest at the cottage
After harvest, onions are laid out in a dry ventilated area or suspended in bunches. Greens are not cut to the head pulled out the remaining juice from it. After a month it can be transferred to the storage location. You must first cut the dried tops and roots, but leave 3-4 cm of neck and a few roots. Details on cleaning and storage of onions can be found in our article.
Onions are considered unpretentious and undemanding in the care culture. However, only compliance with the rules of feeding, watering and general care will allow you to get a good harvest.
It is difficult to imagine our menu without onions, it is no coincidence that every gardener seeks to plant this vegetable on his site. Growing onions on a turnip has its own specifics, and if you know all the techniques of agricultural technology and properly care for the plants, the yields will always be high.
Growing and caring for onions: features
Many are interested in how to grow onions on the head? At the same time, everyone wants to get large beautiful turnip bulbs. This is possible if planted sevok, as well as onion samples. By the fall with the right care of them will grow large onions.
You can get onions on a turnip from seeds (directly into the ground or through seedlings), but in this case, to get a large onion in one year, you must pick the appropriate varieties of onions. And so is the traditional scheme, when in the first year they sow chernushka, get sevok, and then from it in the next season grow a turnip.
Growing onions per head can be done in different ways. Someone buys sevok, others prefer to grow their own - it all depends on the desire, opportunity and time. In addition, the sevka does not always succeed in acquiring exactly the sort of onion that you want to grow yourself. At the same time, the assortment of seeds represented in the store is very diverse, and you can choose the variety you like and sow chernushka. But then later for breeding, you can grow your favorite varieties of seeds.
How to grow a good onion sets of niks
To get your own high-quality set-up, you will have to start growing it from seeds. In the south, you can sow Chernushka immediately in open ground, in the northern regions it is best to grow onions through seedlings.
ON A NOTE! The best germination is the nagging age not older than two years.
The seeds intended for sowing are calibrated, then placed for disinfection in a solution of potassium permanganate (approximately 30 minutes). For a friendly and strong shoots for seed growth, you can soak in any stimulator. After which they are placed for a couple of days in a damp cloth for germination, then they are slightly dried and sown.
IMPORTANT! The listed procedures for the preparation of seed material are carried out for seeds that will be sown in open ground, and for sowing for seedlings.
The timing of sowing Chernushka depends on the climate of the area, as well as weather conditions of a particular year. But usually chernushka sown on the ridge around the middle and end of April, the main thing is that the soil was heated. On the seedlings choose planting dates, based on the fact that the seedlings when planting in open ground should be at the age of 60 days and have 3-4 true leaves.
Grooves are made on the prepared ridges, then prepared seeds are sown in them or seedlings are planted. When sowing nippers difficult to control the density of seedlings, so after the emergence of sprouts will need to be thinning. If done correctly, the seeds will quickly give sprouts.
Further care for a turnip standard:
- compulsory weeding,
- watering onions.
Watered onions not often, about once every 7-8 days, focusing on the weather. For feeding, you can use mullein, diluted in water (1:10) or complex fertilizers.
IMPORTANT! As soon as the formation of onion seedlings begins (in July), watering should be stopped. Also stop feeding the plants.
In the second half of summer (from late July to early September), the feather on the bow turns yellow, lies down, the onion neck becomes thin, and this is a signal - the bow can be removed. Carefully dig up the onions, shake off the ground and lay out to dry, first on the ridge, and then under a shed or in the attic.
After this stage of drying, the leaves are cut, leaving a small neck, and the onions are dried for about 14 days at a higher temperature - up to + 30 ° C. Then it is kept for about 10-12 hours at + 40 ° C, and then sorted and cleaned for winter storage.
The best sevok for future sowing - with a diameter of 1.5 to 2 cm. Smaller specimens can dry out over the winter, larger, with juicy internal scales, although used for sowing (the so-called samples), but do not differ in yield.
Store sets in boxes, baskets, boxes at a temperature of 10 to 24-25oC.
IMPORTANT! In boxes and boxes sprinkle the seams with a layer of not more than 6 cm, and in baskets and bags with onions store no more than 3 kg.
Usually, gardeners know how to grow onions on a turnip from a tree, but not everyone can keep it without losses for subsequent planting. But observance of simple recommendations will allow to avoid damage to the plantation and start planting on a turnip in the spring.
ON A NOTE! Small heads of sevka can be planted on a turnip before winter, avoiding this problem with its storage, and at the same time to get early production in the spring.
Cooking a place for onions
In the autumn the ridge, where it is planned to plant sevok, carefully dig. If the soil is poor, then humus or compost (0.5 buckets per square meter), wood ash should be added. Onions do not like a large amount of organic matter, so the rate of fertilizer should be observed. Also never under planting onions do not make fresh manure.
The ridge should be in a sunny place where groundwater is not suitable, there is no stagnant moisture. The best soils are sandy and loamy; on acidic soils they make dolomite flour or fluff lime.
Vegetable onion: description
About such a plant, like onions, people knew in the times of ancient Egypt. The first images of this vegetable culture were found on tombs dating back to 2800 BC. In those days, onion heads were actively used in traditional medicine for the treatment of pestilence and other common diseases. Now they are most often used for cooking delicious dishes.
Прежде чем заняться выращиванием луковиц, рекомендуется ознакомиться с основным описанием растения. Лук — многолетнее растение, из семян которого в первый год выращивания получают небольшие головки размером 1–3 см. На следующих год полученный урожай используют в качестве посевного материала для получения нормальных луковых плодов. Узнать, как выглядит репчатый лук можно с помощью фото, на которых изображено растение.
Bulb varieties and size
For large bulbs, it is recommended to familiarize with varieties of onions. The fact is that this vegetable has different varietal requirements for the length of daylight hours and conditions for cultivation.
Popular among vegetable growers are varieties of plants that are grown in the southern regions. Their peculiarity lies in the fact that the normal formation of the bulb will be at a light bottom lasting 15-16 hours. In this case, the plant will quickly increase the vegetative mass and begin to mature.
In the northern regions, planting such varieties is not recommended due to inappropriate climatic conditions. In the conditions of the northern climate in the summer daylight hours quickly reach its maximum and therefore the bulbs do not have time to fully form and keep up.
Northern varieties of onion elongated and elongated shape can not be planted in the southern regions. In the northern regions of the onion bushes constantly form a leaf mass. Even with time, the formation of the bulb does not begin, as the plant does not have enough light to move to the next phases of growth.
Selection and storage of seed
For a large number of high-quality harvest, it is necessary to pre-stock the onion turnips. You can buy them in specialized stores or grow yourself. The latter option is complicated by the fact that you have to familiarize yourself with the storage characteristics of the seed.
When preparing seeds yourself for planting, you will have to divide them into three groups:
- Group 1 - with a diameter of 0.4–0.6 cm.
- Group 2 - 0.7–1.4 cm in diameter.
- Group 3 - 1.5–2.4 cm in diameter.
In order to achieve maximum yield, seeds belonging to the second and third groups are selected. Selected varieties of bulb onion are stored in a room with a temperature of about 2–3 degrees Celsius. They can also be stored in apartments, if the temperature does not exceed 20 degrees. Violation of the temperature regime affects the yield. Therefore, if the seeds were kept in a too cold or warm room, they should not be planted.
The predecessors of the onion
When choosing a site for growing onion bushes, it is imperative to know which plants grew there earlier. Some vegetables are incompatible with onions and therefore after them the seedlings increase the green mass much worse.
Excellent predecessors are potatoes, tomatoes, beets and cucumbers. Also, bulbs are developing well in areas where carrots, radishes and plants related to legumes were grown.
To figure out how to grow a large onion from sevka, it is necessary to determine the optimal period of planting. The bulbs are planted in early April or late November for winter vegetable cultivation. However, the majority of vegetable growers prefer spring planting, as in winter there are unfavorable conditions for growing, due to which small onion heads are formed.
When choosing a planting period, the region of growing onion bushes is taken into account. Gardeners of the southern regions of the country plant a plant in late March or first half of April. Residents of the northern regions will have to wait for the end of night frosts, as temperatures below -3 ... 5 degrees completely stop the development and growth of bushes.
Onion requirements for soil
Before planting, you should study the basic requirements of the plant to the soil in which it will grow.
Many varieties of onions do not cope well with fresh organic matter and soil with a high level of acidity. Therefore, it is recommended to prepare the site for planting a vegetable in 2-3 months. To this end, lime is added to the ground to reduce acidity and rotted humus. Instead of lime, ash is sometimes used in the amount of 200–300 grams per square meter of vegetable garden.
After adding lime or ash, the acid level of the soil is measured. Indicators should be in the range of 6–7 pH.
For the cultivation of onion need fertilizers that are added to the soil before planting a vegetable. It is not necessary to feed the plant, as it negatively affects the development of bushes. Therefore, a small amount of fertilizing is added to the soil, which will help to increase the vegetative mass.
Before you add fertilizer to the soil, a preliminary digging of the site for half of the spade is carried out. Then to the ground is added cumulus humus. Per square meter of vegetable garden consumes no more than 3-4 kg of fertilizer. Also siderats are added to the ground, which will make it more loose and airy.
When spring planting is often used single-row method. At the same time, the distance between each bulb is not less than 10–15 cm. However, sometimes the distance changes in the process of growing. If you plant the plant “shoulder to shoulder”, the density between each plant does not exceed 2-3 cm. 10 days after planting, the seedlings are thinned and their distance increases to 5 cm. A month later, the thinning is repeated, with the distance increasing to 15 cm every bush.
Planting onions before winter
Planting varieties of onion for the winter held in the second half of September or early October.
During planting, the ground surface is compacted and leveled with a rake, after which lunes are made 5–8 cm deep into the site. When the wells are created, their bottom is sprinkled with organic and mineral fertilizers. If the ground is dry, it is moistened with warm water.
After planting, the entire area with planted bulbs is mulched with pine needles or over-dried leaves. At night, rows of onions are covered with a film that will protect the seedlings from frost.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. The soil
- 3.3. After which you can plant
- 3.4. How to plant
- 3.5. Landing in the winter
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Watering
- 4.3. Top dressing
- 4.4. Treatment
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 6. Cleaning and storage
- 7. Types and varieties
Planting and care for onions (in brief)
- Landing: sowing seeds in open ground - in the first decade of May, planting sevka in the ground - in spring, at the same time as sowing seeds, planting oviparities in the ground - before winter (from 5 to 20 October).
- Bloom: the flower arrow can only appear if seeds are needed.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: dry, rich in organic matter, with a pH of 6.5-8.0. Sour soils for onion lime.
- Watering: on average once a week at a consumption of 5-10 l of water for each m².
- Top dressing: in the preparation of the site make organic, before sowing or planting - complete mineral fertilizer. Later they feed only if the leaves slowly grow. 2-3 fertilizing with organic fertilizer is allowed. Last - when the bulbs reach the size of a walnut.
- Breeding: seeds, sevke (small onions) and osyuzhkoy (small sevok).
- Pests: onion moths, flies and hiddencoats, sprouting flies, bear cubs, shovels (garden, cabbage and winter crops), tobacco thrips.
- Diseases: white and gray rot, jaundice, peronosporosis, fusarium, smut, rust, tracheomycosis, cervical rot of onions, viral mosaic.
Vegetable onion - description
The plants of the genus have a large globular oblate bulb covered with purple, white or reddish membranes. Leaves are basal, belt-like or linear, fistulous, stem bloated, thick, up to 1 m in height. Flowers inconspicuous, small, located on long stalks and collected in umbellate inflorescences, reaching 40 cm in diameter in some species and clothed in a sheath that persists until the flowers begin to open. Ovary is single-stem or three-stem. Seeds are round or angular. Onions bear fruit in August or September. In a garden crop, onions are most often grown. How to plant onions, how to water onions, how to fertilize onions, when to dig up onions, how to store onions and what varieties of onions for open field to prefer, we will tell you in this article.
When to plant onions in the ground.
Onions are planted in spring, in the first decade of May, in a well-warmed land: if the temperature of the soil is less than 12 ºC, the onions begin to shoot out. The principle of growing onions in the open field is this: in the first year you sow seeds in spring, and by the fall you grow small onions, called sevok, and by planting sevok next spring, you will get full-fledged bulbs by autumn. But the fact is that it is difficult to save sevok until spring, since this requires a special temperature and humidity conditions, so sevok sown in the ground in the year of maturation before winter.
Soil for onions.
Onion is a photophilous plant, and prefers open, dry and sunny areas rich in organic matter with a pH value in the range of pH 6.4-7.9. If you have a sour soil in your garden, you will have to chill it under the onion. The place is prepared in advance: in the fall, the soil for onions is dug to a depth of 15-20 cm with peat compost or rotted manure (fresh manure to the onion is harmful, because it provokes the growth of greenery, which is why the bulbs do not ripen). Dolomite flour or wood ash, or ground chalk, or limestone is added to the acidic soil. In the spring, before sowing, you will only have to add 60 g of superphosphate, 10 g of urea and 20 g of potassium chloride to the soil for each m² and put fertilizer into the soil with a rake.
Then you can plant onions.
The best predecessors for onions are potatoes, cabbage, beans, peas, siderata and tomatoes, but after such crops as garlic, carrots, cucumber and onion itself, you can sow onion at a site only three years later, and even better after five years.
How to plant onions in open ground.
Onion turnips can be grown in three ways:
- - in a two-year culture, pre-growing sevok,
- - in an annual seed crop,
- - in the annual crop with pre-growing seedlings.
Consider all three ways.
Growing onions from seeds in one season is possible only in areas with a long summer, and sweet and semi-sweet onions are cultivated in this way. Presowing seed preparation involves stratification or laying in wet gauze for a day for swelling. Then the onion seeds are sown in the soil filled with mineral fertilizers and spilled with copper sulphate solution at the rate of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water to a depth of about 1.5 cm according to the scheme 13x1.5 cm, watered the area abundantly with water through a divider and cover the sowing film. As soon as seedlings appear, the film is removed, the seedlings are thinned, leaving a distance of 2-3 cm between seedlings, after which the area is mulched with humus. The next thinning spend about three weeks, and as a result, the distance between the seedlings should be 6-8 cm.
Semi-grown and sweet varieties of onions are grown in a seedling way. Prepared (stratified or swollen) seeds are sown in boxes 50-60 days before planting in open ground is very thick at a depth of 1 cm, leaving a distance of about 4-5 cm between rows. Onion seedlings are unpretentious, but before transplanting seedlings into open ground leaves and it is better to shorten the roots by a third.
If you live in a climate with a short and not hot summer, you will hardly be able to grow a full-fledged onion turnip in one season, so you will have to grow onions in a two-year crop: in the first year you grow a seed from the seed, and turnip In this way it is best to cultivate sharp varieties of onions. The principle of sowing seeds on the sevka is the same as for growing turnip. Next spring, in early May, sevok is planted to a depth of 4-5 cm in the soil with an interval of 8-10 cm and with a distance between rows of 30 cm, preparing the plot as it has already been described. But pre-sort, calibrate and warm the planting material in the sun for a week, otherwise it will start shooting, and just before planting, hold the seed for 10 minutes in a solution of a teaspoon of copper vitriol in 10 liters of water. By the way, if you are going to feast on young green onions, planting onions in the ground is thicker - in 5-7 cm, and then you will break through the rows until a distance of 8-10 cm remains between the plants.
How to grow onions.
Growing onions in the open field requires timely regular watering, after which it is imperative to loosen the soil and remove weed grass from the site so that it does not suffocate the young shoots of the plant. In addition, onions need feeding, and in cases of infection with diseases or pests, it will need treatment with fungicides or insecticides.
It would be simpler to say that the onions need to be watered once a week, consuming from 5 to 10 liters per 1 m², but one summer is not like the other: in one year it can be dry, and water should be watered almost every day, in another year rain can pour through the day, and the onions will begin to rot from waterlogging. Therefore, just watch that the onions do not dry out and do not suffer from excess water: with a lack of moisture, the feathers become bluish-white, and with an excess of green gets a pale tint. In July, watering is reduced, since the period of bulb ripening begins, unless the summer is too dry.
As we have already written, in the fall, when preparing the site, organic fertilizers are introduced into the soil, and in the spring, before planting, a complex of mineral dressings. Subsequently, if the leaves grow slowly, the onion is fertilized with a solution of organic matter (a glass of bird droppings or urea, or a mullein per 10 liters of water) at the rate of 3 liters per 1 m². After two weeks, top dressing can be repeated, and when the bulbs reach the size of a walnut, a third dressing is carried out according to the same recipe.
Very often, beginners ask how to process onions in order to protect them from diseases. In horticultural practice, prophylactic treatment of onion leaves from fungal diseases when it reaches 15 cm in height with a solution of blue vitriol — a teaspoon of the drug per 10 liters of water — is the norm. To prevent the liquid from flowing too quickly from the leaves, you can add a tablespoon of grated laundry soap to the solution.
The most common type of onion - onions. Its history goes back over 6,000 years - it is mentioned in ancient Egyptian papyrus. It is a perennial plant up to 1 meter in height with globularly flattened fleshy onion up to 15 cm in diameter with outer scales of yellow, white or purple color, tubular bluish-green leaves, greenish-white flowers on long pedicels, gathered in a dense globular umbrella-shaped inflorescence. The arrow of the onion is hollow, swollen, up to one and a half meters high, the fruits are spherical.
The varieties of onion on taste are divided into:
- - sharp and bitter, containing from 9 to 12% sugar,
- - semi-sweet varieties with a sugar content of 8-9%,
- - sweet varieties in which sugar is from 4 to 8%.
Sweet varieties, oddly enough, contain less sugar than bitter ones, but they also have less essential oils, so they seem sweeter than bitter ones. Bitter, semi bitter and spicy varieties are used to prepare first and second courses, and salads and desserts are made from sweet varieties.
We offer you an acquaintance with the best varieties of onions:
- – Alice Craig - perfectly stored tasty onions for any dishes with white top scales:
- – Fan Globe - large onions of soft taste with yellowish scales, suitable for any dishes and long storage,
- – Sturon - medium sized juicy onion with yellow scales, designed for hot dishes and long-term storage,
- – Stuttgarter - sweet, large bright yellow long-lasting bulbs used for cooking first and second courses,
- – Long Red Florence - red, sweet-tasting and soft onions, similar to shallots. Used to make sauces and fresh. Unfortunately, this onion is badly stored,
- – Red Baron - bulbs large in size, red, spicy to the taste, suitable for long-term storage.
Of the onion salad varieties, the most famous are the red onions Furio and Redmate, Gardsmen with long white stems, the high-yielding variety for greenhouses White Lisbon, and the perennial, onion-batun, highly branched Prince of Wales variety, which leaves can be used as chives.
or pearl bow from the Mediterranean, known since the times of the ancient states - Greece, Rome and Egypt. This is a biennial plant with lanceolate, wax-coated leaves that fold along the midrib - they are garlic-like, but much larger in size. Leek is extremely demanding to care and moisture of the soil.
grown in Central Asia and the Middle East, it is distinguished by precocity, the color of the bulbs of this species is the same as that of onions - yellow, white and purple. In addition, shallots are notable for their multi-nesting and high keeping quality. French chefs appreciate shallots for the fact that its onion flavor is not very pronounced, and it is perfect for making exquisite sauces. Top grades:
- – Picasso - a variety with pink pulp with excellent taste,
- – Yellow moon - an early variety of shallot, resistant to bolting and well-stored,
- – Golden Gourmet - perfectly stored grade of fine taste with large onions.
(chives, onions-skoroda) is grown throughout Europe: while it is young, it is used fresh for salads, and from the stems are prepared stuffing for pies. Schnitt onion leaves spicy, similar to the feathers of onion-batun, but smaller in size. Onion chill is frost-resistant and resistant to diseases and pests.
выращивают в Китае для приготовления блюд азиатской кухни, особенно для тех, которые сочетаются с соевым и рыбным соусом. У него плоские листья с острым чесночным ароматом. This species blooms on the second silt of the third year by beautiful honey-bearing inflorescences of 5-7 cm in size with a pleasant aroma, because of which the species got its name.
also grows in China and is used to prepare side dishes, salads and seasonings. Delicious pickled onions of this type, used with fatty meats. Tiered onions are considered to be the species most rich in vitamins and phytoncides.
exists in three guises - Chinese, Japanese and Korean. It is used in Asian dishes that are cooked in a wok pan, in seafood or fish salads, in marinades. Korean and Japanese batun have a more delicate flavor.
It grows naturally in Southeast Asia and is an ingredient of Korean cuisine, and is used fresh for soups, salads and kimchi.
or drooping bow - perennial, common in Siberia and the European part of Russia. He got his name for a sticky juice that looks like mucus. This type of frost resistant, resistant to diseases, has a high taste. The leaves are linear, flat, juicy, they have a slightly sharp taste. Bulbs this form does not form. Use onion slizun as a dietary product fresh and canned.
In addition to the species described in the article, Regel, Suvorov, stalked, giant or gigantic, blue, bearish, oblique, aflatunsky, Christoph or Star of Persia bowed or wild, yellow, karatavsky, round-headed or Drumsticks, MacLean, Mole or Golden, are also known. Sicilian or Honey Garlic and others.
Preparation of onion seedlings for planting
In the spring of sevka get out of the bags and boxes, once again carry out sorting. Large (more than 2.5 cm) plantations are planted separately, it will be possible to take greens from these plants. For turnips designed sevok medium size.
Planting material is first heated for about 7 hours at a temperature of up to 40 ° C. Then the onions are soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate (for 20-30 minutes) or any growth stimulator (for about two hours).
When to plant a bow on the head of the sept? Timing depends on location, climate, and weather conditions. But the soil should be heated to about 12-14ºC.
Features of growing
Onions come in various varieties. Of course, depending on the type, it also depends on the time when it is better to plant it in open ground. For example, it is recommended to plant leek approximately in the middle of May, when the soil is already well warmed and all frosts have ended. But it is better to do this with seeds or seedlings. To get a tasty feather (greens), you should choose the best grade batun and plant in greenhouses.
Pay special attention to the fact that the onions are not recommended to be planted annually in the same place in open ground. Return it to the site where it was already grown can only be four years later, or even all five. And only if the roots of garlic, carrots, cucumber and onions were not planted there. The best option, after which you can sow chernushka, is: cabbage, potatoes, legumes, tomatoes, peas or siderats. The soil must be well loosened beforehand so that it is fertile. And for this, it is recommended to fertilize it in the autumn period. Then after planting onions, in the process of growing it will be necessary only to feed it several times.
The process of planting itself is not too time consuming. Caring for him will need a minimum, besides the bow is very resistant to the cold season and drought. And yet, you probably have a question in your thoughts - when to land? How to make the crop is not upset. What varieties to choose for the area near Moscow?
In fact, there should be no difficulties even among beginners in this business, since the bow is completely picky. What varieties to choose - it's up to you personally - who loves what more. Well, the principle of planting in open ground is the same for all varieties. One has only to figure out how and when to plant it. The bulbs must be properly prepared before planting them in open ground. The “top” (neck) should be carefully cut, but not too much!
Returning to the planting period, it can be noted that experienced gardeners, gardeners sow chernushka, sevke - at the end of April - beginning of May, when the soil is already warm enough and the days of cold days and nights with frosts have passed. If the temperature of the soil is less than 12 degrees at the time when you begin to plant onions, a feather (arrows) will begin to appear, whichever varieties you prefer. During the growing season, the onions need to be loosened, at least 5–6 times, 4–5 cm deep. During the entire period of active growth, it is very important to water the plants and stop watering a month before harvesting.
Also pre-take care of the site where you plan to plant onions. The soil should be dry, well lit and sunny, as well as pre-fertilized, as discussed above. In addition, it is necessary to check its acidity; if it is elevated, lime must be added to the soil. Features of the cultivation of onions in the open field is the principle of planting. The fact is that in the first year in spring it is necessary to sow seeds, from which small bulbs will grow by autumn (they are called sevok). Next year, also in the spring, you need to plant sevok, after which by the autumn you will get a full-fledged crop of the initially selected onion seed varieties, but there is still a caveat that sevok is difficult to preserve until spring planting when it is warm. It is for this reason that many people sow it in the same year, when it matured, into the soil for the winter period.
Video "Useful tips on planting onions from seed"
In this video you can hear tips on planting seeds from onions and video instructions.
This method is applicable for cultivation in the open field in the period of spring or autumn. If you want to grow a green feather, plant in summer. In order to get a harvest of ready-to-eat onions after the first planting, choose the best varieties for yourself and buy seeds immediately, which can be found almost anywhere in the Moscow region! Proper fit:
- when you buy material for planting, make sure that it is of high quality, there is no damage or rot, the tubers must be firm and well dried,
- Sevka usually the same size - this is a guarantee that the seedlings will be almost simultaneous,
- Pre-material must be heated (in the sun or near the stove, batteries),
- pre (at night) before planting sevok it is important to dunk in fertilizer,
- just before planting, soak the onion in a solution of copper sulfate, so that it does not get sick with any fungi,
- if you like and want to grow a green feather, it is worth cutting off slightly the tops of the sev,
- beds must be pre-thought out and prepared,
- plant onions in the ground to a depth of no more than 4–5 cm, and immediately after planting, pour it well. Caring for him is quite simple.
Nevertheless, in the summer for onions need to take care especially. The main thing in the process of growing is to monitor the beds and prevent the death of the plant, the tasty feather and the future tasty harvest.
To obtain a green feather, as mentioned above, it is best to plant onions in the summer. Since the onion is a biennial plant, it multiplies with the help of seeds. The seeds themselves can be obtained independently. But for this you need to decide on the best variety that you like, and collect its seeds. For the cultivation of onions from seedlings, as a rule, the best “sharp” varieties are selected (Krasnodar 35, Kaba, etc.). The main advantage of growing by seedlings is the ability to harvest in almost any region of the Moscow region, as well as in the more northern part of the country.
The seedling is prepared in warm rooms, in wooden boxes. Its age should reach 60 days. When planting younger seedlings, the harvest will be much lower. And when planting more “adult” seedlings, it will be very bad to “take root” and also the harvest will be much worse. For seedlings require some care. She needs a lot of light and preferably direct sunlight.
Seeds must first be prepared by treating them with special disinfectants, etc. Next, they must be planted in a box with earth. The optimum temperature for growing seedlings - up to 20 degrees during the day and up to 12 degrees - at night. Every 2-3 days water the seedlings from the seeds, weed them if a weed appears. A week before planting seedlings in the ground, open the window or window in the room so that it adapts to the open air. When the seedlings are ready, before planting, it will have leaves (up to four pieces), and the thickness of the future feather is about 4 mm.
It is best to land in the ground in the evening, in cloudy weather, in an oblique way to the same depth as it grew in the box. Distance between rows when planting observe
15 cm, and between the plants themselves
5 cm. When planting is complete, water the seedlings and boil over the bed 2 cm thick with peat chips. It remains to regularly loosen the soil, remove weeds, feed, water, etc.
Produced in three stages:
- seeds are prepared,
- land in the ground
- further care.
The main thing - to germinate planting material. After all, if this is done in advance, the pen will begin to germinate faster and better. Before sowing onion seeds in the soil, soak them on a damp rag for three to five days. Moreover, since the planting, cultivation and care will be carried out in open ground, the plant will be more unpretentious to weather conditions, behaving most steadily not only in heavy rains, but also in relation to pests, which as a result will be given to the host by an excellent harvest of excellent onions.
The furrows should be quite small, after sifting the seeds are filled with a very small layer of earth. And on top of it all must be sprinkled with compost (you can also humus). When the first shoots appeared, thin the onions, weak plants can be removed. Repeated "breakthrough" is done approximately in a week. A broken onion will already have a sufficiently developed feather, it can even be used already. Caring for an onion plant is the same as mentioned above.
Protection against diseases and pests
To obtain a healthy harvest, it is necessary to protect plants from pests and diseases that often lead to the death of onions. To determine the presence of the disease on the bushes, carefully examine their condition. In diseased plants, leafing and discoloration is observed. When such symptoms occur, all onion bushes must be sprayed with bioinsecticides. These mixtures can be safely applied, as they are safe for plants and people.
To collect onions for storage, we must make sure that it is fully ripe. To determine the maturity of the bulbs carefully inspect their sheets. If the bushes turned yellow and began to wilt, then it is time to harvest. This is done on sunny and dry days so that the ground is not too wet. When digging up long-lasting varieties of onions, all onions are cleared of the ground and dried. Then the entire harvest is placed in the cellar for winter storage.
All members of the onion species have a large, globular, flattened onion bulb, which is coated with a shell of white, purple or pale red color. Basal fistular leaf plates have a linear or belt-like shape. The height of thick, swollen stems reaches 100 cm. Umbrellas consist of small nondescript flowers with long pedicels. In some types of inflorescences in diameter reach 0.4 m, they are clothed in a cover that lasts until the flowers begin to open. Ovary can be trignezdya or odnognezdnaya. The seed shape is angular or round. Fruiting is observed in August or September. The most popular among gardeners is onion.
What time to plant
Onions are planted in spring in the first decade of May, and the ground should be very well heated. If it is planted in the ground, the temperature of which is less than 12 degrees, then the plants will shoot out. You should know the main principle of cultivation of this crop: in the first year in springtime, seeds are sown, and by the onset of the autumn period, small bulbs should grow from them, called seedlings, which are planted next spring in the spring, and full onions are removed in the fall. However, it is very difficult to keep sevka before the onset of springtime, since for this it should provide a special temperature regime, as well as optimum air humidity. In this regard, some gardeners sow sevka in the soil before the winter in the year of maturation.
Onions are light-loving plants. Dry, open and well-lit areas are suitable for landing. The soil must be saturated with organic matter, and its pH is 6.4-7.9. If the soil is acidic, then this can be corrected by liming.
Land for planting need to prepare in advance. In the autumn, it is necessary to dig it to a depth of 15 to 20 centimeters, while in the soil you need to make peat compost or rotted manure. Fresh manure into the soil can not be made, because because of it begins to actively grow greens, which adversely affects the maturation of onions. To correct the acidic soil, it is necessary to add wood ash, limestone, dolomite flour or ground chalk. In spring, before planting, 10 grams of urea, 60 grams of superphosphate and 20 grams of potassium chloride per 1 square meter of land should be added to the soil. Fertilizers are embedded in the ground with a rake. Then you can start planting this culture.
Best of all, onions will grow in areas where cabbage, peas, tomatoes, potatoes, beans or siderats were grown before. And in the area where carrots, garlic, onions or cucumbers grew before, this culture can be sown only in 3-5 years.
There are 3 methods of growing onions:
- Grow as a biennial plant. With this method, you should first grow a set.
- Grow as an annual from seeds.
- Grow as an annual from seeds, but through seedlings.
These methods will be described in detail below. For 1 year, it is possible to grow this crop from seeds only in regions with a long summer period, and only semi-sweet and sweet varieties are grown by this method. Sowing material before sowing needs to be prepared, for this it needs to be stratified or placed in moist gauze to swell for 24 hours. After this, seeds are sown in prepared soil, which must be shed with copper sulphate (1 bucket of water 1 tbsp. L.). substances). You need to dig the seeds into the ground by 15 mm, while sowing them according to the scheme 13x1.5 centimeters. The bed should be very well watered using the divider, and then covered with a film on top of it. Shelter must be removed after the appearance of the first seedlings. The seedlings need thinning, while between the plants should be kept a distance of 20-30 mm, then the surface of the beds covered with a layer of mulch (humus). It will be necessary to re-thin the crops after 20 days, and the distance between the plants should be increased to 60-80 mm.
Through the seedlings grow sweet and semi-sharp varieties of onions. After the seed material has been subjected to pre-sowing preparation, it should be sown in boxes, and this should be done 50–60 days before the transplantation of the plants into open soil. Seeds are sown thickly, they are buried 10 mm deep in the ground, while the row spacing must be equal to 40-50 mm. Such seedlings are distinguished by unpretentiousness, however, before planting the plant into open soil, experts advise that they shorten 1/3 of their roots and leaf plates.
If the summer period in your region is not very warm and short, then in 1 year you will most likely not be able to get full onion seeds from seeds. In this case, you will have to grow onions as a two-year plant. To do this, during the first year, it will be necessary to grow seedlings from seeds, and in the second year, onions will already be grown from it. This method is great for growing sharp varieties. Sowing seeds in open soil should be the same as when growing onions from seeds for 1 season (see above). With the onset of the next spring period, in the first days of May, they plant a seeding, plunging it into the ground by 40–50 mm, while the distance between bulbs should be 80 to 100 mm, and the row spacing should be about 30 centimeters. Do not forget to prepare the plot before planting (see above). Before you start planting, it is necessary to sort it out and calibrate it. Then it is placed in the sun for 7 days so that it can warm up well, otherwise the bow will be shot. Before planting, sevka is placed in a solution of copper sulphate (for 1 bucket of water, 1 tsp. Of substance), where it should stay for 10 minutes. If during the growth of onions you intend to pull out young plants for cooking, then when planting the distance between the onions should be reduced to 50–70 mm, and then it is gradually adjusted to 80–100 mm.
How to water
Ideally, onions should be watered 1 time in 7 days, with 5–10 liters of water being taken per 1 square meter of land. However, it is best to focus on the weather, which is very changeable. Так, если стоит засуха, то лук необходимо поливать намного чаще (практически каждый день), а если льют дожди, то с поливами надо повременить, в противном случае луковички могут сгнить из-за застоя воды в грунте.It should be remembered that if the onion needs urgent watering, then its feathers acquire a white-gray shade, and when there is stagnation of water in the ground, then the green part of the bushes becomes faded. It is necessary to start gradually reducing watering in July, as the onion begins to ripen at this time. However, if there is a severe drought, the plants are watered in the same way as before.
We have already mentioned in detail that in the fall, when digging a plot into the ground, organic matter should be introduced, while in spring, before planting, a complex of mineral fertilizers is introduced into it. In addition, if the growth of the foliage is relatively slow, the plants should be fed with a solution of organic fertilizer (1 tsp of urea, bird droppings or mullein is taken for 1 bucket of water), 3 liters of nutrient mixture are used for 1 square meter of bed. After half a month, if necessary, re-feed with the same mixture. And after the size of the onions will be similar to a walnut, the onions will have to be fed once more with the same fertilizer.
Often, gardeners do not know how and how to carry out preventive treatment of onions from diseases. After the height of its feathers is equal to 15 centimeters, the plant is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (for 1 bucket of water 1 tsp. Of funds), this will protect the culture from fungal diseases. If desired, pour into solution 1 tbsp. l crushed on the grate of soap, in this case, it will be fixed on the foliage.
Before you start growing onions, you need to find out how he can get sick, and which of the pests is the most dangerous for him. This culture can affect such diseases as: cervical, gray and white rot, jaundice, fusarium, downy mildew (peronosporoz), smut, rust, mosaic and tracheomycosis.
White rot - its development is observed when grown on acidic soil. Therefore, if the soil in the area is acidic, it must be liming. It also often affects those plants that grow in the soil with a high nitrogen content. Sick plants need to be dug up and destroyed, and as a preventive measure, it is necessary to dust the bulbs with chalk before planting the crop.
Gray rot is a fungal disease, its active distribution and development is observed in wet and rainy weather. Diseased seedlings must be removed from the ground and burned. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to adhere to the rules of agrotechnology of this crop, and in spring the plants are treated with copper sulfate solution.
Onion jaundice is a viral disease. In the affected plant, flowers are deformed, and chlorotic specks appear on its foliage. This disease is incurable, in this regard, the affected bushes need to be dug out and burned, while all the weeds should be removed in time from the row spacing and beds immediately after their appearance. And still need to adhere to the rules of crop rotation.
Peronosporaz (downy mildew) - an infected plant on the stems and foliage forms oblong spots of light-colored, on their surface there is a gray patina. Over time, the spots become black. Infected onions stored for storage germinate very early, and in the bushes grown from them the formation of seeds is not observed. After the crop is harvested, to destroy the pathogen before the onions are removed for storage, the onions are heated for about 10 hours at a temperature of about 40 degrees. Also, for the purpose of prevention, do not allow thickening of the landings.
Fusarium - in diseased plants, the tips of the feathers turn yellow, since onion in the area of the plum is rotting and dying of the tissues. This disease is most active when there is hot weather for a long time. Also, this disease may develop due to the fact that the onion fly settled on the plants. In order to prevent, before planting, the seed must be warmed up.
The smut - in an infected plant, translucent convex stripes of a dark gray color are formed; as the disease progresses, they crack, and the fungus spores come out. Also the tips of the leaf plates dry up in the plants. For preventive purposes, it should be heated at about 45 degrees for 18 hours before putting the crop into storage. You also need time to clear the area from weeds and do not plant on the same garden different varieties of onions.
Rust - on the foliage of the affected onion appear red-brown swell, in which there are fungal spores. For the purpose of prophylaxis, first of all, harvest the harvested crop for storage for 10 hours at a temperature of about 40 degrees. Also, it should not be allowed to thicken the planting, but it is also necessary to dig out and destroy the affected specimens in time.
Tracheomycosis - this disease is a consequence of Fusarium. First, the lower part of the bulb rots, and then the rot gradually covers it completely, as a result of which the roots of the plant die and the foliage turns yellow. All diseased plants need to dig and destroy. In order to prevent adhere to the rules of crop rotation and farming.
Neck rot - the affected plants on the outer scales appear dense patches of mildew of gray color, with the development of the disease they become black specks. The first symptoms of the disease appear after harvest, and after about 8 weeks, other signs appear. The lowest resistance to neck rot in late onion varieties. As a rule, infection of plants occurs when they are cultivated in adverse conditions. Therefore, in order to prevent the need to adhere to the rules of agrotechnics of culture, and also it is necessary to warm up the sevok before planting, and also the onions before putting it in storage, while the temperature should be about 45 degrees.
Mosaic - in case of diseased bushes, the foliage becomes similar to corrugated and flat flaps, on the surface of which there are strips of yellow color, also there is a decrease in inflorescences and a decrease in the number of seeds, as well as a lag in onion growth. This viral disease is incurable, therefore, it is necessary to take all necessary preventive measures so that the plant does not become infected.
All fungal diseases are easily treated with fungicides. However, it should be noted that in the bulbs can accumulate as useful substances, and poisons from chemicals.
The greatest danger for onions is represented by the onion covert, moth and fly, sprout fly, bear, cabbage, garden and winter moths and tobacco trips.
To destroy the caterpillars, onions should be sprayed with a solution of Gomelin (0.5%) or Bitoxibacillin (1%). For the destruction of tobacco thrips, spraying with Aktellik or Karbofos (0.15%) is used. To get rid of the covert can be done with the help of systemic insecticides. To destroy the larvae of onion flies in the fall should be a deep digging area. It is known that the onion fly does not tolerate the carrot aroma; therefore, it is recommended to alternate the rows of onions with the rows of carrots during planting. To get rid of the onion moth, during the season, we must regularly carry out weeding, and after harvesting from the site you need to remove all plant residues, and follow the rules of crop rotation and agrotechnology of culture.
To get rid of the common bear, you need to use bait. To do this, on the site to make several holes 0.5 m deep, they should put horse manure. Top hole do not forget to cover with wooden shields. When Medvedki climbed into the manure to warm, it should be burned with them.
Leeks, or pearl onions from the Mediterranean
About this onion, people became aware a long time ago in the times of ancient Rome, Greece and Egypt. This biennial has lanceolate leaves, on the surface of which is a wax coating. These plates are formed along the central vein, which is similar to garlic ones, but they are large. This plant is very demanding on soil moisture and care.
This early form is cultivated in the Middle East and Central Asia. Onions can be painted white, yellow or purple. This bow is well kept and has a multi-nest. It is very popular with French chefs because it has a relatively weak onion flavor, and it makes the most exquisite sauces. Popular varieties:
- Picasso. The flesh of the onions is pink and has a high taste.
- Yellow moon. This early ripe variety is resistant to bolting and is very well stored.
- Golden Gourmet. Large onions have a high taste. The variety is kept very well.
Chives, or onions, or chives
This onion is cultivated throughout European territory. The young plant is used fresh to make salads, and mature shoots are used to make filling for the cake. Spicy leaflets are externally similar to the foliage of onion batun, but they have a smaller size. This species is resistant to frost, pests and diseases.
Drooping bow or slizun bow
This perennial plant in nature is found on the territory of the European part of Russia and Siberia. It has a viscous juice similar to mucus, with which its name is connected. This onion is very tasty and is resistant to frost and disease. Flat juicy leaf plates of linear shape have a mild flavor. Onions in this species are not formed. This product is considered dietary, and it is eaten fresh, and also canned food is prepared from it.
In addition to these species, Regel, Suvorov, stalked, giant or gigantic, blue, bearish, oblique, aflatunsky, Christopha or Star of Persia bowed or wild, yellow, karatavsky, round-headed or Drumsticks, Macleana, Moli or golden, Sicilian or Honey Garlic, etc.
Planting spring onions on the head
How to plant onion sets? On the prepared ridge, rows are made (the distance between them is not less than 30-40 cm), where the onion is neatly planted. The distance between them should be at least 6 cm, the depth depends on the size of the set. When planting above the surface, the “tail” of the bulb should be slightly visible.
Usually the first sprouts appear already after 8-10 days, but here everything depends on the quality of planting material, weather conditions.
How to feed onions on a turnip?
The first feeding of onions on a turnip is carried out when the Seed has 3-4 true leaves. Use complex fertilizers (according to the instructions), as well as diluted mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20). You can use a special fertilizer for onions (sold in stores), conducting foliar dressing.
The second time you need to feed wood ash or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Nitrogen is excluded, since during this period the plant grows the bulb and potassium and phosphorus will be more useful. Feed dressing mode should be tough, and you can not overfeed the plants.
IMPORTANT! When grown on a turnip, a feather is not cut off!
For greens use samples, which are better planted on a hotel bed.
The fact that onions, like all vegetables, must be weeded, they know everything. But, unfortunately, not always gardeners have enough time for this. Meanwhile, weeds can become not only the cause of poor onion growth and a decrease in its yield. They create high humidity, which is detrimental to vegetables and is very attractive for various pests and diseases. Also, the turnip, which grows in beds with weeds, as a rule, will have a large and thick neck, and such bulbs are poorly stored in winter.
Weeds need to be removed manually, it is advisable to do it after rains or watering when the soil is wet.
Why the bow went to the arrow
Onions, in addition to the leaves, may produce a flower stalk, or, as they say, go to the arrows. In the peduncle basket the seeds ripen — nib.
But if onions are grown on a turnip, the arrows are completely unnecessary. They take nutrients and do not allow to form a full-fledged and strong onion. What if the arrows go? If there is such, then flower stalks should be cut off.
And in order not to allow marksmanship, you must follow a number of rules:
- during storage of onions in winter, it is necessary to avoid sudden changes in temperature,
- use only high-quality seed material
- warm sevok before planting it on the ridge (especially for purchased bulbs),
- do not plant a large onion on the turnip - samples, since it is he who most often goes to the arrow,
- plant sevok, respecting the terms and always in the heated soil,
- properly water the onions, avoiding excessive moisture. With a bad summer, watering should be finished a month before harvesting onions.
If there is a peduncle, it is cut or broken off at the base. After breaking the arrow, the torn peduncle is thrown away. But we must continue to monitor these plants, as there may be repeated flower stalks. These arrows also break out or cut, and then, during storage, it is these bulbs that are used for food in the first place.
How to accelerate the ripening of onions
It so happens that gardeners want to accelerate the ripening of onions. This is due to poor weather conditions, prolonged rains, lowering temperatures.
What can be done and what accelerating measures to take?
- Cut back turnip roots about 5-6 cm from the bottom.
- In about 10-12 days for accelerated aging, you can slightly bare the bulbs, raking the ground from them. Also for the month you need to finish watering the onions.
Many are interested in, is it possible to completely cut off the leaves of a growing onion to speed up ripening? No, this cannot be done, even if the pen is already turning yellow, as cutting will only lead to a deterioration in the quality of the bulbs and their rotting.
Onions are very useful for the human body
Besides that onions contains enzymes, essential oils, glucose, sucrose, fructose, minerals, ascorbic, citric and malic acid, polysaccharides, proteins, fatshe still has antibacterial properties, sedative and diuretic action. This vegetable is widely used in the canning industry and cooking in raw, boiled, fried, pickled and salted types.
Only, here, it is not always possible to grow a good crop of this useful vegetable. It is necessary to comply with certain conditions for growing onions. That onion can go to the arrow, then it can be destroyed by pests, then the small one can grow, it is badly stored and, to prevent this from happening, you need to know some secrets of cultivation. Onion crops are well planted in loamy soils rich in organic fertilizers. To neutralize the acidity in an acidic soil environment, lime is added to it. Can be added to the soil and wood ash. On depleted soils, mature humus and compost for digging in the fall or spring are used for growing onions in open ground.
The main condition for growing onion crops - this is a constant weeding and loosening. This is one of the main secrets of growing onions. Planting and care in the open field make good in open sunny areas. He is not afraid of the cold and begin to plant it in open ground in early spring, when the soil warms up to +12 ° C and the air temperature is above +5 ° C, otherwise the bow can go in arrows.
For planting, you can choose different varieties of onions, depending on its characteristics and growing conditions.
The best of the onion sorts
- Timiryazevsky. It has dense onions with white juicy pulp and golden husk, with rounded flattened head shape. He has high yields, excellent keeping quality,
- Bessonovsky. Differs in high productivity - more than 3 kg from square meter. It has a piquant taste due to the large amount of essential substances
- Aleko. High-yielding variety with an average maturity. It has purple bulbs. 2–3 onions weighing up to 100 grams each grow from each nest of this variety. Such onions are well stored, gives a rich harvest, is characterized by a sharp taste. This variety of onion culture can be attributed to the family variety of onions,
- Golden. It is also a variety with an average maturity. It is noted by high productivity, keeping quality, excellent taste characteristics, with large rounded heads of golden color,
- Mstersky. This variety matures in 2.5 months. Its bulbs weigh up to 100 grams. It can be well stored under normal conditions.
- Rainbow. This is a mid-season variety with a period of maturation from 90 to 115 days. It has white flesh, and the turnips are covered with red scales. This onion is used to make salads. It has a semi-sharp taste and purple cut rings,
- Carmen. This onion is resistant to diseases, has a good storage. It is used to prepare various salads, due to its unusual taste. It has a white flesh with a reddish tinge, a round turnip covered with purple husks,
- Orion. This is the most popular variety of gardeners. It ripens early, gives a good harvest of bulbs, is well stored,
- Moldavian. This is a versatile variety, very productive, well preserved,
- Arzamas. Горьковатый на вкус сорт овоща с хорошим хранением, не составляющим проблем при уходе,
- Строгановский. Этот лук относится к ранним сортам, может хорошо храниться, с острым горьким вкусом,
- Семейный вид лука. Этот вид луковой культуры имеет некоторые отличительные черты. Его луковицы продолговатой формы. Они имеют вид гнёзда, в котором может находиться несколько луковичек.This vegetable is well preserved. His mistress love and is widely used in cooking. The advantages of such onions are that it significantly increases the yield from the same area.
The most successful is the technology of growing onion turnips in the open ground from small onions from the first crop of seeds (chernushki). If you plant onions on a feather from purchased seeds, you do not need to prepare them for planting, since they are already on sale for sale previously processed. Before planting, seeds should be soaked in warm water to stimulate their growth.
How to choose the right bow?
- Onions should be smooth, not shriveled, not germinated, free from damage and rot.
- Onion size is better to take a small, with a tight, smooth, shiny husks.
What to do to bow did not go to the arrow?
Onion sets must be kept warmso that there are no arrows when growing. And what to do if the onion is bought for planting and it is not known where it was stored. Such a vegetable is necessary to arrange a period of adaptation, i.e. hold it for two weeks near a warm battery, electric heater or stove. This is a preventive measure against powdery mildew, which can affect the onions in the form of yellowing feathers.
Before planting, the seedlings must be doused with boiling water for two seconds and planted in moist soil when it warms up to at least 7–8 ° C, and the grooves are treated with ash. Onions need to be planted so that the tip remains almost on the surface, a depth of 2 cm. Between sevkah keep a distance of about 8 cm and about 30–40 cm with a row spacing.
A large family bow is planted at a distance of about 15 cm in a row and about 20 cm with a row spacing so that in each nest of bulbs there is a place for growth. This vegetable is not afraid of frost and therefore it can be planted in mid-April. Care for such a beam is timely weeding, loosening and watering.
Several advantages over spring planting in onions have planting and care in the open field before winter.
- Sevok does not need to be stored until spring, as it can dry out, if you do not comply with certain conditions for storage.
- When the onion fly appears in the spring, which damages the spring plantings, it will not hurt the winter, because it is strong enough.
- In July, you can already harvest an early crop of onion crops.
- You can still have time to plant something on the freed garden.
The best predecessors for onions are beans, peas, tomatoes, potatoes, white cabbage, zucchini, pumpkin, spices, green manure. Garlic cannot be the forerunner of onion culture. The joint planting of onions with carrots protects each other from onion and carrot flies. The tart flavor of marigolds and calendula also scares off pests. Every 3-4 years it is better to change the onion bed to another place.
In order for the vegetable to grow and develop normally, it does not require much moisture, although the soil must be moistened in the first month. If the summer is dry, then you need daily watering, and on a rainy summer the onion can rot from waterlogging. With an excess of moisture, the color is green in a pale shade, and with a lack of moisture the leaves can be bluish-white. In July, watered less often, it is time to ripen. The soil is often loosened, freeing the top of the onion heads from the ground.
Great danger for onion culture are powdery mildew and root rot, and from pests onion plants are attacked thrips, onion fly, nematode.
To grow a good harvest of onions, you need to solve the problems of caring for this vegetable in a timely manner.
- Bow goes to arrows - A common problem when growing onions from a purchase set. To avoid this problem, seeding is done before planting for 15–20 days at a temperature between +25 ° C and +30 ° C.
- Premature yellowing of leaves - It happens when there is a lack of moisture, thickening of the landings, or a sign of an onion fly attack.
- Insufficient ripening of the bulb - due to the high concentration of nitrogen in the soil. To solve this problem, potash fertilizers are applied to the soil in mid-July.
- Early dying bulbs - this happens because of the thickening of the landings and the insufficient thinning and watering.
If you follow exactly all agrotechnical norms, then such problems can be avoided. At the end of July or early August, onion crops are harvested. To do this, choose a dry day. The signal to harvest becomes massive yellowing and lodging of the leaves.. Do not delay with the harvest - the onion can start moving again. Gather onions before the appearance of morning dew and evening cooling, otherwise it will be poorly stored.
Onions are dried in the sun or in a dry ventilated area. After drying with scissors, cut the leaves, leaving a neck about 4-6 cm long. Store onions in a dry place, sometimes sifting, removing rotted onions. To increase the shelf life, the roots of the bulbs are cauterized.
Store onions and in the apartment away from the heating devices, tied in braids and hung. You can use for storage in the apartment various boxes, baskets or boxes. The main thing is that the storage container is well breathable. Do not store onions in plastic bags.
It is best to keep the usual yellow onions, as it is unpretentious. Onions grown from seed is better to store than grown from seeds. Bitter vegetable varieties are better stored than sweet or semi-sweet.
Family onions are very well kept and, as several bulbs grow in the nest, in the spring some of the onions are again used for planting. In many qualities, it is much better than simple onions. You just need to just want to grow it.
Onions belong to the common type of onion culture. And without it, it is impossible to even imagine some of our favorite dishes, and its benefit during various epidemics is difficult and overestimated. This is the most common vegetable, without which no hostess in her kitchen.
Preseeding preparation of material and disembarkation in soil
In order to get a good harvest of onion onions, sevok needs to be pretreated, which is carried out as follows:
- Onion seedlings are sorted, sorted by size and discarding dry, diseased specimens.
- To prevent early rifling and the development of fungal diseases, 15 days before the procedure, the material intended for planting is heated for 10 hours at temperatures from + 40 ° C to + 45 ° C. Good heating of the bulbs can be achieved by placing them on the central heating battery.
- The day before planting, the prepared bulbs are soaked in warm water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. You can also pour in hot water just before being placed in the ground.
- Good results are shown by sevka when soaking in a solution of complex fertilizers and after treatment with growth stimulants.
- At the last stage of the preparatory work, the bottom and apical “tail” of each onion are carefully trimmed to speed up germination.
Planting sevok in the prepared beds made in the following order:
- Planting grooves of shallow depth are formed on the surface of the soil, leaving 40 cm wide rows between rows.
- If the soil is too dry, sprinkle the sap with a settled water before planting the furrow.
- Sevok is planted with an interval of 6-8 cm. The depth of the groundwork depends on the caliber of the seed - the tops of the onions should “look out” a little from the ground.
Onions-seedlings sprout quickly and together - after 9-12 days, the first green feathers appear.
In order to grow and develop normally, the onions do not need a large amount of water, but in the first month after germination the soil must be constantly moistened. Watering rate - 1-2 times in 15 days, in dry weather - 2 times a week with the obligatory loosening of the surface soil layer. During the first 25-30 days of growth, the soil is shed by 10-12 cm, as the bulbs grow, increasing the depth of the strait to 20-25 cm. In the last month, when waiting for the harvest, soil moistening is stopped, the so-called “dry irrigation” begins: often loosen the soil, freeing the top of the heads from the ground. Contrary to popular belief, planting onions spud can not be!
For the first time, onions are fertilized 15–20 days after planting at the leaf growth stage, the need for additional feeding is especially great if the feather develops too thin and colorless. During this period, use a solution of urea or nitrophosphate, which plentifully shed the beds. At the end of the procedure, the onions must be irrigated from a watering can or a hose with a fine-capped nozzle in order to wash off the remnants of fertilizer from the pen.
For the second feeding, which is carried out 3 weeks after the first, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used. To prepare a nutrient solution, 20-30 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium salt are taken.
As required, the third dressing is allowed. In this case, use the same nutrient solution as in the second procedure.
For all its simplicity, onions make high demands on the condition of the soil, so the surface of the beds must be regularly loosened by hand, acting extremely carefully, so as not to damage the sensitive, fibrous root system of the bulbs, located at a depth of 10-30 cm. . Growing, weeds prevent evaporation of moisture, which leads to the development of infections and rotting of the roots. The bulbs grown on a littered bed form an overly thick neck, which results in a shorter harvest time.
Of the diseases, fungal infections such as powdery mildew and root rot are most dangerous for onions. Landing pests are often attacked by an onion fly, thrips, nematode. Rescue measures are taken at the first visible signs of damage (discoloration, wilting and twisting of the pen, the formation of spots and bright spots) using a mixture of biofungicides and bioinsecticides safe for human and animal health. The solution is prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Aggressive agrochemicals are not recommended for the protection of onions.
It is not too difficult to grow onions from the bed, but it is not always possible to avoid difficulties. As a rule, one or another problem can be solved in advance by adjusting the mode of care.
- Early dying off of the bulbs - usually this problem is observed due to the thickening of the plantings without subsequent thinning, untimely impregnation and insufficient watering. As a result of a violation of agrotechnology, too small, not fully formed bulbs stop growing.
- Premature yellowing of the leaves is observed with a high density of plantings and a lack of moisture, so the ripening of the bulbs occurs prematurely (even for heads whose diameter does not exceed 5-8 mm). In addition, yellowed leaves can be a sign of onion fly attack.
- Incomplete ripening of the bulb is a frequent occurrence due to the high concentration of nitrogen in the soil. To accelerate ripening in the middle of July, potash fertilizers are applied to the soil at the rate of 30-40 g / m ?.
- Shooting a bow is a common problem when using a purchased set. To avoid it, the material for 15-20 days before planting contain at a temperature of + 25 ° C to + 30 ° C.
The above problems will not arise in the exact observance of agrotechnical norms.
Onions are harvested in the second half of August, choosing a fine dry day. Untreated bulbs dug in the rain, saturated with moisture, will not be stored for a long time. For the same reason, 25-30 days before the harvest, they completely cancel watering of the onion beds. Signs of consumer ripeness and readiness of the vegetable for harvesting are the cessation of growth and the massive lodging of feathers. It is impossible to hesitate at this stage - the onion can start to grow again.
The bulbs gently break in and out of the ground, after which, if the weather is clear and warm, they are laid out to dry on the vacated bed - exposure to sunlight is an effective prevention of dangerous infections. In bad weather, onions are dried in a room for 10 days at a temperature of + 25 ° C to + 35 ° C. In order to avoid the development of neck rot and peronosporosis, it is recommended to raise the temperature to + 45 ° C in the last 10-12 hours of drying.
In dried onions, leaves are cut, leaving a “tail” about 3-4 cm long. For storage, healthy, ripened specimens are selected without putrefactive spots and mechanical damage, which are placed in baskets, boxes, nets and kept in a dry, cool, well-ventilated place