In Europe, as well as in the regions of East Asia, such a resistant and productive tree species as a small-leaved linden is common. It is often used for alleys and various parks, as well as in deciduous and mixed forests. The tree itself grows up to 20–30 m in height, the crown is 19 m in diameter. It is quite durable, it can live up to 600 years, while possessing an unusual thick crown. It grows quite quickly and its growth for the year reaches 1, 5 m in height, as well as up to 40 cm in width.
In principle, by the age of eight she can grow to five meters, and by thirty she is a fully grown tree. Very resistant to wind and drought, as it has a good root system. For six years, it has been building up the core core root element, which goes quite well to a depth about the same as its upper part. In adulthood, it becomes strongly branched and obscures the whole earth beneath.
Description and characteristics
The main feature is its endurance to external influences. It does not require a lot of lighting, rather easily endures windy weather and frosts to minus forty degrees. It can be grown on a variety of soils, except where nearby groundwater is located.
Another advantage is its decoration. By design, it is perfect - the trunk is very smooth, the crown is very thick and dense, it easily withstands pruning, blooms excellently and gives off an unsurpassed scent. It is the most common of all types that are necessary for the formation of parks, alleys, as well as to teach shaded areas and for other purposes in landscape design.
And also one of the advantages is that she serves as an excellent honey plant. Bees are very well lured to its aroma and honey, obtained from its inflorescences, has very high qualities and healing properties.
And its healing qualities are considered the most useful characteristic. You can tell her color for making tea. Not only its color has healing properties, but also the root, the kidneys, and including coal from it. All its components may have antipyretic, diuretic, diaphoretic, effective drugs and are needed for colds and other inflammatory diseases.
Main varieties and their detailed description
At the moment, many varieties of this plant have already been bred and they all have an excellent crown, which forms it itself. All of them are not afraid of exposure to the wind, are wonderful honey plants and feel good in the city. Here are the main varieties of small-leaved linden:
- Greenspair reaches a height of 20 m and a width of 12 m. The crown is oval and quite branched. The leaves are small-leaved and can be up to 6 cm in length and possess heart-shaped outlines.
- Beaulieu is a small-leaf variety that has an ovoid crown in shape, while it is quite thick and very compact.
- Ranch - a small tree with a comfortable crown. Recommended for small estates and to create gardens for bees. The first time they give color in 5-8 years, and then constantly give a strong color.
- Vinter Orange is a tree that becomes very bright in autumn and has a rich orange tone. The shape of the crown resembles a pyramid, although it is rounded over time.
- Green Globe - a tree with a spherical crown. The height depends on how high the stem will be.
For hedges Such varieties of small-leaved linden are often used:
- Greenspis - a steady grade of a linden.
- Pallida is a variety from Europe.
- Orebro is a large-leaved variety.
Lindens for fences are all cut in one row, forming at the same time an ideal crown for them. Due to the fact that they are thick and dense, they easily create the effect of a green fence, through which it is impossible to get through.
Ways of breeding small-leaved linden
The linden can also multiply in various ways., as well as other plants, namely such:
- With the help of planting seeds. For this method, you need a lot of patience, since you need to spend 10 years on it. To do this, collect the seeds, put them in the sand or sawdust for half a year in a cool place with a temperature of about zero degrees, keeping the humidity constantly. In the spring they can be sown superficially. Her seeds are not very vigorous, they can not grow immediately, on the second, or even on the third spring. The shoots are watered and cleaned daily from weeds that have appeared, and also covered for the winter period.
- With the help of root shoots. From the root of an old adult linden young trees sprout. You can meet them already in the adult tree, which lacks enough lighting. It is necessary to dig up this growth in wet weather and plant it immediately where you need it.
- With the help of layering. As soon as spring comes, before the appearance of buds, a small depression is made in its lower part, fixing in it a young branch of linden in such a way that its end leaves the earth a maximum in a standing position. In the summer, especially in the heat, its layers should be watered regularly, and after two years, separated from the adult linden and planted in the right place. With this method, the sapling takes all the ancestral characteristics.
- With the help of cuttings it is badly displayed, although it is quite possible, but using this method is not recommended.
Planting small-leaved linden
For planting this plant perform several stages:
- Prepare a pit for planting up to one and a half meters in diameter and the same, or even more, to a depth.
- For alleys, the distance between planting trees must be maintained three or four meters, and for fences - two.
- Put pebbles, gravels or broken bricks about 15 cm on the bottom.
- About 10 cm of compost are poured on top, adding to it up to 55 g of superphosphate.
- Place in a pit in such a way that the neck of the root is on a level with the earth's surface.
- Pour the mixture of turf, humus and sand in the ratio of 1: 2: 2.
- Good to water.
Small-leaved linden care
For proper care, the following conditions must be met:
- Make regular watering at least a bucket weekly.
- Two or three times to loosen around the trunk depth of about 7 cm, removing the weed.
- Introduce complex and nitrogen supplements at least twice per season. It is suitable for this infusion of mullein (per ten liters of water - 1 kg of mullein) with the addition of ammonium nitrate (25 g) and urea (17 g).
- Zamulchirovat for the winter with peat, bark, fallen leaves, sawdust.
- For the first of its wintering is better to make shelter for her.
- When the tree is already adult, starting from the second year it is possible to cut the crown with a sanitary and formative purpose.
- In the spring it is desirable to carry out for the prevention of treatment of possible diseases, as well as pests.
Small-leaved pests and diseases
Such pests and diseases are possible:
- The small-leaved linden tree may be susceptible to the harmful effects of insects such as aphids (the presence of sticky leaves), scytworm, lilac hawk moth, scoop, tubkovert, leafkovert, nun silkworm, peppered moth, gnawing, etc.
- Susceptible to diseases such as galls (mite, because of which the leaves are covered with red thorns), white rot, black fungus, leaf spot, etc.
All kinds of insecticides, actellics, and acaricides are used to combat these listed pests and diseases, and you can use soapy water to combat aphids.
Description and varieties of linden
Small-leaved tree-survivor with a spherical crown, dark bark. It grows up to 38 meters. The age of the plant reaches 1200 years. In young cultures, the bark has a red tinge, the old - covered with black-green bark. Lipa photophilous, growing alone or by planting. Propagated by seeds. To soil it is undemanding. It grows best in sunny open areas drained rich in humus.
On the territory of Russia there are 8 species of plants, wind-resistant, with beautiful forms of crowns. They are wonderful honey plants, they are not afraid of urban conditions.
Among the available varieties of small-leaved linden, 5 varieties are most common:
- Greenspire. Slender tree with a spreading crown oval. The maximum height of the trunk - 20 meters, the length of the leaves reaches 6 cm.
- Rancho. Small plant. Suitable for making honey plantations.
- Bohlje. Culture with a dense egg-shaped crown.
- Winter Orange. In the fall, its bark turns orange. The shape of the crown is pyramidal.
- Globe. Tree with a spherical crown. The height of the trunk depends on the trunk.
Plant flowers possess not only analgesic properties. They are used as diuretic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory drugs. From plants make decoctions, infusions. Wood is used for the manufacture of drugs that help with dysentery, diarrhea and other diseases of the stomach. She equip baths, saunas. It perfectly retains heat, produces a wonderful aroma.
Linden-colored perfume is added to perfumery products. Linden notes are heard in the scents of Jo Malone French Lime Blossom, Elizabeth Arden 5th Avenue, L Artisan Parfumeur La Chasse aux Papillons, Annick Goutal Eau du Ciel.
Features of planting a tree
A tree seedling is grown independently or bought in a garden shop. For the second option will need to prepare the landing hole. The diameter of the hole should be at least 50 cm, depth - 50 cm and more. When forming an alley, trees are located at a distance of 4 meters from each other. At the bottom of the pit poured 15 cm of pebbles, rubble or ordinary broken bricks. Put 10 cm of compost on top, add 55 g of superphosphate.
The young tree is placed in such a way that its root neck is flush with the ground. The resulting cavities are filled with a mixture of humus, turf and sand in a 2: 1: 2 ratio. Abundantly watered.
The tree propagates badly by cutting. You can use 2 more methods:
- Layering. In the near-stem circle a small hollow is dug, in which one lower young branch is fixed and covered with soil. In dry weather the tap is watered. After 2 years, it is separated from the parent plant, planted in a permanent place.
- Radical shoots. They often grow near the adult plant. They are dug up in wet weather and transplanted. Do not worry that the root system is slightly damaged.
For the first method, ripe seeds are collected from a small-leaved linden tree independently. Place them for 6 months in a cold place in wet sand or sawdust. In the spring, before sowing, the seeds are scarified: they slightly cut a hard seed coat. Sow all superficially. Germination observed after 3 years. Young shoots need to be watered regularly and sheltered for the winter.
Heart-shaped linden common in deciduous forests of the European part of Russia. It grows in the Urals, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus. Used in park design.
This is a valuable medicinal breed, thanks to the beneficial properties of the flowers is a good honey plant. Lipa is a long-lived tree. Age ranges from 150 to 1200 years.
- height is 25–30 m,
- spreading crown,
- trunk straight, 2–4 m in diameter,
- leaves are heart-shaped with a serrated edge, gray-gray below,
- flowers with lemon-colored bracts, fragrant,
- the fruit is a box.
Young trees have a bark with a red tinge. Old trees are covered with dense black-green bark, which cracks near the trunk. Duration of flowering depends on the climate of the region. On average, the beginning of flowering falls on the end of June - the beginning of July and lasts 2 weeks. In rainy or hot summer flowers fade faster.
A linden tree is a light-loving tree, it blooms poorly in shading. It grows singly or by planting with a distance of 5–10 m. In the Urals it is found in the undergrowth in the wild. To the soil the tree is not demanding, it grows on poor, but drained and moist soils.
Propagated by seeds that ripen in August. Each box contains several small seeds. Before planting, the seeds are stratified. Under natural conditions, the freezing of seeds occurs under a layer of fallen leaves in the soil, so the seeds hatch next spring.
Small-leaved variety of frost. Even young trees withstand temperatures down to -40 ° C.
For a long time flowers of a plant were used in the medical purposes. Official medicine has confirmed their diaphoretic property. Infusions, decoctions and teas are used to treat colds, flu, sore throats, and pneumonia.
Medicinal properties of flowers:
Charcoal is made from wood, which is used for diarrhea, dysentery and other diseases of the stomach and intestines. Baths with infusion of flowers are useful for nervous overexcitement, stress, insomnia.
Linden wood as a building material is suitable for interior decoration of baths and saunas. Well retains warm, fragrant and beautiful in texture. Decorative wood products in Russia endowed the properties of amulets.
Linden trees are large deciduous trees up to 40 meters high. It is pleasant to watch how a linden tree looks: a dense, beautiful, thick, easily molded crown, pleases the eye. The leaves of the linden tree are simple, alternate, shaped like a heart, with grooves along the edge, pointed. In addition to the beautiful crown, linden has fragrant flowers, lemon-colored, gathered in corymbose inflorescences.
Linden blossoms for two weeks in July. The tree blooms in natural conditions in the 20th year of life, and in plantations - only after 30 years. At the time of flowering linden, the air is filled with a light, delicate, honey aroma, which is felt far beyond the lime gardens and parks.
Linden fruits - single-seeded nuts. Seeds are tiny, the size of a pea. Fruits-nuts are collected on several on separate stalks. Each such stalk is supplied with a special wing, thin and quite wide. This wing helps the seeds to fly apart over long distances. It is easy to remember what a linden looks like; it can always be distinguished from other trees. In the summer along the heart-shaped leaves, in early spring along the scarlet young sprigs with buds, silky bark. The root system of trees is strong, deep.
Plants can reach a solid age, but to the question: “how many years does a linden live?” There is no definite answer, there are linden trees, which are up to 800 and even 1000 years old. In the forests where linden grows, other plants also feel great, since the falling foliage of the linden trees is a nutrient fertilizer. In addition, linden known melliferous, lime honey is considered one of the best.
American linden, or black linden is a heat-loving tree, up to 40 meters high. The crown is wide, oval, ink-black bark. The leaves are oval-shaped, wide, up to 20 cm long, heart-shaped at the base, with notches along the edges. The flowers are large, collected in drooping inflorescences of 6-15 pieces, up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Representatives of this species grow rather slowly.
Amur graceful linden tree, up to 30 meters high. The krone is dense, compact, an oval form. The bark of young plants is glossy, brown-purple, in adults - dark smoky, in longitudinal cracks. The leaves are shaped like a heart, with notches around the edges, up to 7 cm long. Fragrant flowers of a milky or lemon shade, gathered in inflorescences of 5-15 pieces.
Linden yellowing is an ornamental tree up to 15 meters high, with a wide pyramidal crown. The bark is rough, smoky color. The leaves are large, rounded-heart-shaped, olive-colored, with dark veins and purple-gold “sputtering” from above, in the autumn the leaves become straw-colored. Representatives of this species bloom profusely, with fragrant golden flowers. Linden grows quite quickly, prefers dry, drained soil. The tree loves sunlight, but is able to endure light partial shade.
In order to maintain the crown of the yellow linden in a picturesque state, it is recommended to trim at least once every five years.
Felt (silver) or Fluffy
Felt linden or fluffy linden is a stately tree up to 30 m tall. Crohn of the correct form, wide-pyramidal or oval. The silver linden has the main distinguishing feature: the leaves of the tree are rounded, up to 12 cm long, with sharp unevenly serrate edges, dark olive on top, covered with a light gun at the beginning of development, white from the bottom, covered with villus. In bright sunlight, the edges of the sheet are slightly bent, showing a silvery, lower side, creating an original contrast of dark green and silvery sheen. Closer to autumn, the leaves become yellow in color and remain on the tree until winter.
European linden is a tree up to 40 meters high, the crown of which is a wide oval shape. The leaves are rounded, with a heart-shaped base. Representatives of this species grow quite quickly.
Caucasian linden is a tree up to 40 meters high, with a round or wide, ovoid crown. Young shoots of linden Caucasian purple-red. The leaves are large (up to 14 cm long), wide, oval. The upper side of the leaves is dark green, the back side is dark gray, with tufts of whitish hairs near the veins. Drooping inflorescences with light yellow flowers. Abundant flowering.
Large Leaf or Flat Leaf
Large-leaved linden or flat-leaf linden is a tree up to 35 meters high and up to 20 meters wide. The crown of large-leaved linden is initially conical or wide, ovoid, later rounded. The main branches are vertical, lateral shoots are horizontal.Broad-leaved linden has large leaves that bloom 14 days later than the small-leaved linden, but it pleases with flowering two weeks earlier. Flowers milky, collected in inflorescences of 2-5 pieces.
Manchurian Linden is a tree up to 20 meters high. The crown of the correct form, rounded. Representatives of this species look like specimens of Amur linden, but are distinguished by larger leaves and flowers. The bloom is beautiful, abundant.
Small-leaved or heart-shaped linden (tilia cordata) is a tree up to 30 meters high and up to 15 meters wide. The small-leaved linden has synonymous names: a little toe-cloth, a urinal, a lubnyak. The crown of the tree is initially conical, later ovoid. The main branches grow diagonally or vertically, side shoots bend and hang in the lower part of the crown.
Heart-shaped linden has green, with serrate edge, glossy, dark gray leaves on the back side. In the fall, linden cordifolia pleases the eye with beautiful light lemon leaves. Young branches of the species are covered with satin bark, the old - deeply cracked bark of a smoky gray color. The flowers are fragrant, with bracts, light straw color, gathered in the half-umbrellas. The fruit is a nutlet with one seed. It blooms in July, the fruits ripen in October. One of the common varieties of this species, bred specifically for urban landscaping, is the variegate of small-leaved Greenspair.
An advantageous feature of the Greenspaper variety is that the representatives of the variety in height grow two times less than the small-leaved lime tree. They have a more compact and dense crown, better tolerate low humidity of air and soil.
The linden is an elegant tree up to 40 meters high, a natural hybrid of small-leaved linden and large-leaved linden. The crown of the tree is broad, shaped like a pyramid. Flowering time begins in July.
Siberian linden is a tree up to 25 meters high. The bark of the old trunks is dark, cracked. Young shoots are dark purple or amber brown, glabrous, with small rounded lentils. The tree blooms in the second half of July, the flowering time is two weeks. Honey from a linden light, almost white, with gentle aroma of flowers of a linden, fine quality. Refers to the best varieties. Differs from other late flowering and high winter hardiness.
Japanese linden is a tree up to 20 meters high. It grows on the territory of East Asia, in deciduous subtropical forests. Young bark smooth, brown, old in the grooves, dark. The crown is high, compact, oval-shaped. The leaves are small, 5-7 cm, oval, outside olive, gray inside with hairs in the corners of the veins. Flowering occurs in July or August for 14 days. The flowers are tiny, collected in large numbers in drooping inflorescences. Fruits ripening by September are round, smooth, fluffy nuts. Representatives of this species grow rather slowly. The species is frost-resistant, it is an exclusively honey plant. Japanese linden tea has proven itself as a flavored green tea.
Lipa lives longer if you follow some rules for caring for it. Trees can suffer from drought, so a hot and regular watering is very important in a hot, dry summer.
After planting the seedlings of the plant, and during the first two years of their development and growth, it is necessary to apply nitrogen fertilizers to the soil.
Culture can withstand the shadow, so it can be planted in secluded areas of the garden.
Trees grow beautifully on fertile, well-drained soils, do not tolerate soils with accumulated harmful salts, develop better on lands with lime content (from neutral to alkaline). The root system of the plant is sensitive to compaction.
Trees withstand cold weather, quickly adapt to changing climatic conditions. Pruned trees one year after planting, in the spring, shortening by 1/3, to form lateral shoots, and in the autumn the overgrown linden is trimmed. Full development culture reaches only 20-40 years.
Diseases and pests
The plant is quite resistant to diseases and pests. To provoke diseases can adverse growth conditions. Diseases most often affecting the tree: perforated and black spot (control methods: burning of fallen fruits and leaves as sources of infection, treatment of shoots with 1% Bordeaux liquid), white rot (copper-containing preparations are used for the fight).
Pests that can harm a tree: bugs, scythos, silkworms, gall mites, bark beetles, pipe-beetle and others. To combat these pests, young plants are sprayed with insecticides. Besides insects, birds and rodents can harm culture.
Before planting, a decision should be made on the final growing location, height and shape of the tree crown. Too dense planting inhibits their development, leads to the creation of an unfavorable microclimate with stagnant air, reduces the penetration of sunlight, makes trees susceptible to the effects of diseases and pests. If you put the plant before planting for a couple of hours in the water, it will better tolerate the lack of water during planting and further growth.
Before planting the seedling soil must be prepared in advance, fertilizing and loosening it. It is necessary to check if the soil is not too wet, if it is frozen. The linden is quite tolerant of light damage to the root system, but, nevertheless, landing carefully.
First of all, plant a hole not less than 50 cm deep for seedlings. When digging a landing hole, take into account the volume of the root system so that it is freely placed in the hole, and the lateral root branches do not break and are not pinched. It is recommended to remove the upper fertile layer of soil, set it aside, separately from the main mass of the earth, so that at the end of the instillation of the planting pit, lay it in its original place. The bottom of the landing pit should be well loosened with a shovel or pitchfork, then a layer of drainage, it can be pebbles, rubble or broken bricks.
Add the compost, which is mixed with drilling mud, with superphosphate. In no case can not make fresh manure. Compost plays a significant role in the exchange of nutrients in the garden, is one of the best and cheapest sources of humus.
Waste that is not susceptible to rotting is not suitable for compost: artificial materials of various types, rubber, metal objects or glass.
Suitable for compost: chopped grass stalks, cut branches of trees, bushes, bark. Kitchen waste is used: peel and trimming vegetables, fruits, coffee grounds, shredded egg shells. Over time, the soil is depleted and if you do not make additional organic or inorganic fertilizers, the soil fertility greatly reduced.
In the process of planting, sometimes you encounter a situation where the roots are firmly fastened to the lump of earth surrounding them. In such a situation, it is necessary to remove dead or damaged parts of the roots, smoothly cutting them off, shorten only those segments and branches of the main root system that are too long and do not fit in the prepared pit. Before planting a lump on the roots of seedlings must be well watered. After that, a sapling is lowered into a pit, covered with soil mixture: soddy earth, humus, sand. The root neck of the seedling is placed at the level of the soil, it can be slightly lower. After planting around the seedling form an irrigation circle with an embankment height of 5 cm. A bowl-shaped hole around the seedling is filled with rotting manure or covered with a mulch layer. This will protect the soil from excessive drying and provide the seedlings with nutrients. After planting, the plants are watered abundantly. After the earth has settled, it is recommended to strengthen the tree with a wooden support stake.
Reproduction of lime by seeds is a long process: it takes about 12 years from the time of sowing to obtaining a young tree. Before planting, tree seeds are stratified (kept cold). For this, the seeds are poured into a box with wet sand or sawdust, put in a cold dark place for half a year. Periodically, the contents of the box are moisturized. The second method of stratification: seeds to a depth of 3 cm are placed in a mixture of peat and sand (1: 1). If the seeds are dried before planting, they will most likely not sprout. It is recommended to move them to the ground, not clearing the substrate in which they were located, in order not to damage them and preserve the formed microflora. In spring, seeds are sown in open ground, fertile and loose, the strongest of them will germinate.
For seedlings, which are guaranteed to take root in the open field, linden seedlings are grown indoors. Seeds are planted in rows, the distance between which should be about 15 - 20 cm. They are submerged in the soil by about 1 cm and covered with a layer of earth, slightly tamping it up, moistening it. Then the seed trays are covered with a plastic cover or film. With diffused lighting and air temperature of 18 - 22 C, germination should be expected no earlier than after 14 days.
Plantings are watered regularly, aiming at maintaining the soil in a slightly damp state. The germination of linden seeds, unfortunately, is quite low. Plants appear slowly and not simultaneously. A cover of film or glass during seed germination is periodically removed to remove condensation formed on it. When a large number of sprouts appear, they begin to remove shelter for a couple of hours a day, gradually increasing the time that the sprouts stay without covering material. During the entire germination period, it is important to maintain a constant air temperature of approximately 20 to 23 C, to allow a sufficient amount of diffused sunlight to penetrate to the plants.
Care of seedlings is timely watering and careful loosening of the soil. At first, it is necessary to prevent direct sunlight from getting onto the seedlings - the increased air temperature and the rapid evaporation of moisture will inevitably lead to the death of the seedlings. After 2 - 3 weeks after germination, they must be thinned by removing weak specimens. So that the plants do not interfere with the further growth of each other, they are seated in separate containers, that is, they dive.
Linden seedlings do not tolerate the transplant, so this procedure should be carried out under certain conditions. Transplantation is carried out in a soil of similar composition and together with a lump of moist earth to minimize the possibility of damage to the roots. It is best to use peat pots in which it will be possible to plant seedlings in the open ground in the future.
The end of spring or the beginning of summer is a favorable period for planting seedlings in the area when warm weather is finally established.
The linden tree is a rather unassuming tree and can grow on almost any soil, but for young saplings it is recommended to choose a more fertile piece of land. Lighting on it should be bright enough, but without direct sunlight at midday hours, which is especially important for the southern regions.
When growing seedlings, it is necessary to remember that linden loves moisture, and it is advisable not to allow long-term drying out of the soil. It is also necessary to regularly loosen the ground and remove weeds. Saplings aged 1 - 2 years are transplanted to a permanent place, preferably in the autumn.
Description and care of small-leaved linden
Linden tree is shade tolerant, frost-resistant, prefers deep, moist, fertile, sufficiently drained soil, capable of growing in any pH range. May grow in gas - smoky city conditions. Very sensitive to saline soil. And also badly transfers a constant drought.
Lipu often infects aphids, leaves, as a result, they become sticky because of the sweet grease - honeydew, which aphids release.
Gentle leaves of linden sometimes eat insects gnawing leaves.
When a lot of red thorns appear on the leaves, then this is a gall disease, which the gall mite provokes.
The appearance of the tree can also spoil the black coating, both on the bark and on the leaves, it is similar to coal dust or to soot, which is easily erased with the help of hands.
The fungus that causes this plaque is also referred to as black.
Very often he settles on trees affected by aphids. But in general, small-leaved linden is quite resistant to our climatic conditions.
It easily enough transfers a decorative hairstyle, it is well formed in a trunk. Therefore, it is used to create clipped hedges, trellis and other topiarny forms. Lime trees are used to form shady alleys, and solitary trees will also look good.
New varieties of small-leaved lime tree have been developed, which differ significantly in the rate of germination, the density and shape of the crown, and abundant and fragrant flowering.
Transplanting and planting small-leaved linden
Seedlings of small-leaved linden well tolerate stress transplant to a new place.
Linden is propagated by specially bred seeds that need long stratification.
Before planting seeds for stratification, it is desirable to pre-stratify them, since these seeds have a dense shell. Basically linden well propagated by layering, cuttings propagated badly.
The small-leaved linden blossoms in July is yellowish-white, the flowers are incredibly fragrant, gathered in 6-12 pieces in inflorescences with a green bract. Great honey for bees.
The linden also bears brown fruit, velvety-pubescent, rounded or oval nuts with poorly marked veins and a thin wall.
The root system in the first 6 years consists of one taproot, with age a powerful root system grows with a large number of superficial thin processes that develop very intensively in the soil.
Purchase of small-leaved linden
Small-leaved linden can be grown from seeds or a small process, however, this is a very long process. Modern rapid life movement does not endure such idle time. However, it can be easily avoided by contacting the special Moscow nursery of large tree trees, where you can easily and quickly pick up a large tree for yourself.
The lowest price in the Moscow region for one meter of a small-leaved linden is 2000 rubles, detailed tree prices can be found on the nursery website in the price list section.
Long since linden was considered a tree, which was valued and revered in humans. She is mentioned in legends, tales and fairy tales. She was valued not only as a decorative, but also a healing tree. Its leaves with flowers are excellent medicines that help in the treatment of many diseases. In cosmetology linden is also actively used for the preparation of creams, masks and other things.
Lipa is dedicated to a huge variety of poems and songs. Thanks to a rather dense crown with leaves, it creates an excellent shelter from the scorching sun, which is so necessary on a hot day. Blossoming lindens emit a wondrous scent that creates an atmosphere of harmony and tranquility around. In the production of furniture is widely used linden wood, which also goes to the manufacture of various toys and objects. And what a light steam reigns in the lime bath! Thanks to all these advantages, linden is grown not only to create an allele, but also to decorate houses from gardens.
Breeding lime with seed
Many probably know that the main way of reproduction of this amazing long-liver is seed. It is from the seeds that form in the place of linden flowers that beautiful and slender trees are obtained.
Under natural conditions, linden seeds that have fallen back in the autumn time of the year fall on the ground, where they lie for quite a long time. With the onset of winter, seeds are exposed to cold conditions conducive to the creation of conditions of rest. It is important that the seeds always lay for a while in the cold, as they need to gain strength before germination.
As soon as the first spring rays warm the soil to a sufficient depth, the seeds begin to germinate.
Seed germination is quite active, especially if optimal conditions are created around. This happens in nature. It is possible to grow linden from seeds in artificial conditions, thanks to labor activity of the person. The linden seeds prepared in advance must be put in quite cold conditions, in order to create the conditions for a real rest. The cold will not allow seeds to germinate ahead of time. The effect on seeds of low temperatures is referred to in horticulture as stratification. It is with the help of stratification that quite strong linden seedlings are obtained.
Seed preparation and planting
In order for the linden seeds to quickly germinate, it is necessary to hold them for three months in cold conditions, preferably slightly moist. To this end, the collected linden seeds are placed in a container, where there is a certain amount of sawdust or moistened river sand. In order to ensure the free access of air to the linden seeds, a little peat is added to the tank. A closed container of seeds is placed in a cold place.
As soon as spring comes into its own and the soil warms up a little, gardeners plant seeds to produce seedlings:
The emergence of seedlings is not always friendly and the same. As soon as the appearance of condensed moisture under the covering material is noticed, it must be removed. This is done so that pathogens do not begin to multiply in the warm and humid environment that has formed.
As soon as the sprouts are sufficiently strengthened and gain strength, they should no longer be covered.
During the germination of linden seeds, the ambient temperature should not be lower than twenty degrees. Shoots should receive a sufficient amount of sunlight to speed up the process of photosynthesis.
Linden cultivation: planting and care
Lipa is one of the most common trees used for urban greening. Planted in parks and squares, is used to create alleys and hedges. Appreciated for its unpretentious, neat appearance, discreet decoration, thick, silky crown, a pleasant scent of flowers and durability. Today, some species of this tree are used in landscape design. A single linden with a properly shaped, graceful crown growing in a garden plot or house territory looks impressive. Easily tolerates a haircut and long retains the desired shape.
The plant is very unpretentious, can grow in shady places and in open, sunlit areas. Prefers a drained, moderately moist soil. Improves the properties of the soil with its own fallen leaves. Excess or lack of moisture inhibit the plant and adversely affect its development. In Russia, the small-leaved linden is widespread, the areola of which falls on the European part of the country.
You can grow linden from seed or with seedlings. Under natural conditions, seeds, falling into the ground, are stored in the soil for a year until the next spring. Thus, they are stratified. In artificial stratification, the seeds are cooled in a wet environment. To do this, they are placed in a container with wet sand and stored in a cool room at a temperature not higher than 0 ° C. Stratification duration is up to 5 months. Germinated seeds are planted in the spring in the prepared soil. Seeds can be sown in the fall without prior stratification, but their germination will be much lower.
Planting linden tree in autumn
Planting linden tree is done in another way. For this, seedlings that begin to grow near perennial trees are transplanted. Saplings are dug in the forest or forest belt. They easily tolerate transplants made in cool, wet weather. It is best to plant lindens in the fall. For planting, they dig up deep enough landing holes, 0.5 m wide. Humus falls asleep to the bottom. The seedling is placed in a pit and poured abundantly with water. After planting, it is necessary to form a pristol hole, so that the water during irrigation does not spread, but accumulates in the locations of the root system.
Planting seedlings - krupnomerov, reaching 1.5-5 m in height, is made in the autumn. During the season requires three times a feed infusion of mullein spring in June and July. Particularly important feeding in the early years of the plant. The hairstyle is made already at one-year trees.
How to transplant a linden tree
Quite often, with an improper transplant, young lindens do not survive and die. In order to save the plant and prevent damage, you should follow some rules. When digging a seedling out of the ground, it is important not to damage the root system; damaged roots are carefully cut. Only strong and healthy individuals that have grown in open, well-lit areas are suitable for transplantation.
Dug out trees should be prikopat immediately. Leave them in the wind with bare roots impossible. Landing pits are prepared in advance. The roots in the pit should be located freely. For the garter seedlings need stakes, it will save young plants from gusts of strong wind and help them to become well established in the ground. The barrel is tied to a peg with a soft material. Plants are placed in a hole so that the root neck remains on the surface. Sprinkling the earth to the roots, you need to immediately seal it from the edges to the center. After that, the tree should be poured abundantly with water, even if the transplant is made in wet weather. To keep the near-well hole wet for as long as possible, it is covered with a layer of dry earth. The soil on tree trunks should be regularly loosened.
In the spring, trees are transplanted before bud break. Planting linden in autumn is made after the end of the growing season. If you follow all the rules, the plant will take root well in the new place.
Linden reproduction: planting seedlings in autumn
The linden is propagated by seeds and vegetatively from the processes of the underground shoot, which is pushed out outside the tree itself.
When propagating by seeds in spring, mandatory pre-sowing stratification is required. Without stratification, seeds usually do not sprout. In addition, this tree is sensitive to spring frosts, so shoots that appeared before frosts may die. Small seedlings do not tolerate transplantation; it is recommended that only adult annuals be transplanted. Planting linden seedlings in the autumn is more difficult than spring planting. The height of seedlings by the autumn can reach up to 50 cm, depending on growing conditions and the type of linden. In the spring a year later, the largest seedlings are selected and transplanted to a permanent place. Rows of young trees are located at a distance of 30 cm from each other. The first year after planting requires systematic watering. Usually seedlings gain strength over 2 years.
Small-leaved linden tree: planting and care
Small-leaved linden is common in the European part of Russia, Western Siberia. Differs in the increased resistance to frosts, shade tolerance and resistance to a drought. Propagated by this plant seeds, cuttings, grafting and layering.
Despite its shade tolerance, the tree grows better and develops in well-lit areas. When planting in hedgerows, the distance between seedlings should be at least 2 m, in alleys and groups - at least 4 m. Sod, compost and sand are suitable as a soil mixture. Top dressing is made in early spring with a solution of mullein, ammonium nitrate and urea. In the autumn used nitroammofoska.
Loosening is done to a depth of 10 cm simultaneously with the removal of weeds. Pristvolny circle mulch with peat or wood chips. In early spring, drying branches are cut off.
This type of linden is suitable for urban greening, because it tolerates air pollution. Used for planting in parks. The main advantage of the tree is a thick, beautiful crown, easily molded.
On the territory of Russia, in addition to small-leaved linden, European, Caucasian, large-leaved, Siberian and other lindens grow. In the world there are only about 50 species. Flowering and fruiting trees of different species occur at different times. In the early years, juveniles grow slowly. Intensive growth is observed at the age of 7-10 years. During this time, the seedlings reach a height of 2-3 m. To accelerate the growth and period of flowering of the Manchu and large-leaved linden trees, their cuttings are grafted on the small-leaved linden. Grafted plants begin to bloom at the age of 5-6 years.
The linden is a durable tree, so the lime stands are used for up to 200 years without renewal.
All species of linden is recommended to be grown in the field near the site, as this plant is an excellent honey plant. Thanks to her, the productivity of bee colonies and the quality of honey increases several times.
How to plant and grow linden and maple
We thought about planting linden at our dacha right after we acquired it: the linden in our family is special - a linden-colored decoction is the best cough medicine and an excellent fortified remedy, but you cannot pick up lime in the city - you must grow linden by ourselves.
Linden - photo, in the period of flowering is an excellent honey plant, the aroma of a flowering tree extends to many meters in the area.
The linden is very useful for improving the soil - its leaves contain a lot of potassium, therefore, compost with their content is an excellent fertilizer for all plants.
The linden is a very diverse plant and there are a lot of its varieties, but all the lindens are united by one thing - they are real big trees and they are all cold-resistant.
The linden tree is unique in its qualities.
The linden tree in our squares and parks is found no less often than maples, birch and poplars. It is appreciated for its unpretentiousness, exceptional longevity, dense silky crown. The whole plant, from flowers to wood, is of great benefit. Inflorescences, bark, buds and bracts are a valuable medicinal raw material, not a single Russian steam room can do without a lime broom; eco-friendly dishes, basal and sackcloth are made of durable bast.
By right among the trees, this green beauty is considered a real treasure. In addition, it is easy to grow on their own. In a word, linden itself asks under our windows. It remains to learn the subtleties of planting and caring for this amazing plant.
In the old press was made of metal, which was expensive and difficult to process. The craftsmen began to forge them, cutting blanks from a soft and pliable linden tree. Since then, the fake label has been firmly attached to all the fakes.
In Russia, linden is found throughout the territory, with the exception of the most northern regions. Some of its varieties have mastered the Far East and South Siberia. Lipa looks wonderful both in single landings, and in hedges, alleys, green tunnels.
Lipa is a woody plant of the Malvaceae family. Young leaves have stipules that quickly fall off. Open leaves are heart-shaped or oval, with serrated edges. The flowers are collected in inflorescences, umbrellas, which depart from the bract leaves, unlike any other. After flowering, a nut fruit with seeds ripens.
In the open, a linden tree is formed as a sprawling single-stem or multi-stem tree. In shading more like a tall shrub. Life expectancy reaches 600 years.
The genus of the Lipa tree describes about 45 species. In Eastern Europe, several varieties are common — the heart-shaped linden (small-leaved or winter). It is distinguished by a bluish reverse of leaves, on which there are bunches of light brown hairs.
The second species is a large-leaved linden (flat-leaf or summer). She earlier wakes up in the spring, has larger leaves without a bluish bloom.
In the Caucasus, in the Crimea and in the central European part of Russia, linden felt or silver is also found. Its strongly pubescent leaves feel like felt to the touch. This species reaches 35 m in height and has a wide pyramidal crown.
The Caucasian linden differs in even greater height, spherical sprawling crown and shoots of reddish-brown color.
The Manchurian Linden is a low tree with good winter hardiness. Often happens multilateral. Widely distributed in the south of the Far East.
Lipa is easy to propagate root shoots, stem layers, seeds and seedlings.
How to grow linden from seed
Seed propagation is the longest way to grow. From the moment the seedlings turn into a sapling, at least 10 years will pass.
For good germination, linden seeds must be stratified. They are placed in a container with a wet substrate and put in a cool dark place for 5-6 months, occasionally moistening.
In spring, stratified seeds are sown in open ground. Shoots shelter from wind and heavy rain, thin out. At the beginning of summer, seedlings are fed with fertilizers containing nitrogen, in the second half of summer they switch to phosphorus-potassium mixtures.
In winter, young sprouts need shelter. The following year, the plants are planted in a permanent place, which is desirable to fence.
Reproduction by layering
To obtain the stem ration in the spring before the foliage appears, lower branches should be bent down to the ground, laid in shallow grooves and prikopat. In approximately the same way, slips of currants and gooseberries are obtained. After 1-2 years the branches will take root, and a new plant will appear above the ground. It is cut off from the maternal root with a sharp shovel and transplanted to a permanent place.
Reproduction linden root layering is even easier. Adult plants give abundant growth, which is carefully separated from the parent tree and transplanted to a new place.
Lipu is recommended to grow in areas near apiaries, as it is an excellent honey plant. Thanks to her, the productivity of bees and the quality of honey increase significantly.
How to plant a linden seedling
Linden is undemanding to soils, but prefers light sandy sand with a high content of humus. Does not tolerate the high location of groundwater.
When planting linden seedlings to create a hedge, you should be aware that they will be fully developed only by 25–40 years.
Young linden trees can easily tolerate minor damage to the roots, but still, be careful when planting, leaving the earth clod intact. When buying a seedling in a nursery, it is advisable to choose instances with a closed root system.
The landing pit for a standard linden seedling should be at least half a meter in diameter and in depth. A layer of drainage is poured at the bottom - pebbles, rubble, expanded clay or broken bricks. A layer of mature compost mixed with superphosphate at a rate of 50–60 g per seedling is laid on top of the drainage. Then a sapling is placed in a pit and covered with soil with the following composition:
To strengthen the seedlings will need stakes. At the edges of the landing pit, 2-3 pegs are driven in and tied to the barrel with soft loops.
Root neck is located at ground level. If the soil in the pit will slightly settle and the neck will be slightly lower, for linden it is not scary.
After planting, care for the linden tree consists in abundant watering. Feed up trees twice a year. In the spring on a bucket of water add:
- 1 kg of manure,
- 20 g of urea,
- 25 g of ammonium nitrate.
Everything is mixed and poured into a tree circle after watering with clean water. In the autumn, 20 g of NPK are added to a bucket of water.
Care and crown formation
Only young plants need regular hydration. Adult specimens suffer drought without problems. They are watered only in the driest period at the rate of 20 liters of water per 1 square meter. m pristvolny circle.
Loosening the soil under a linden tree is carried out several times a season, at the same time removing weeds. Before winter, seedlings are mulched with leaf litter, sawdust, wood chips or peat 10–12 cm thick.
Cut linden twice a year. Spring sanitary pruning is carried out before bud break. The tree is carefully inspected and cut dry, broken and sore branches. In the autumn formative pruning, the crowns growing inwards and thickening branches are removed.
At the very first pruning, branches are shortened by no more than 1/3 of the length.
With such careful care, the linden tree will quickly turn into a luxurious spreading beauty. Rest in her shadow will be undisturbed, and the scent of flowers in July noon will refresh and bring the best memories.