Related articlesIn order to obtain the highest possible yield when planting this plant immediately in open ground, it is necessary to sow the bed thickly with seeds, and thin out after the first shoots appear.
Preparing Cabbage Seeds for Sowing
The bed for planting this vegetable must be prepared in advance. You can choose the land in which any plants except cruciferous plants grew.
- Despite the fact that cabbage springs quickly and, in principle, does not require time-consuming care, growing it for seedlings can be considered a whole science! Of particular importance in growing determine the timing of sowing cabbage seeds for seedlings. Often depends on them harvest and the timely formation of the fruit. The timing of sowing seeds may vary depending on the climate in a particular zone, however, in principle, they are somewhat similar everywhere!
- For the prevention of cabbage seedling disease with a black leg, pour it with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate (at the rate of 3 grams per 10 liters of water). It was also possible to add a little ash to the soil mixture, it also helps to escape from the black leg.
- You can grow seedlings in plastic containers like glasses from under yogurt, mayonnaise, but it is better to use peat cups. Fill the selected containers with soil and sow in each a few pieces of seeds to a depth of one centimeter. All pour, put in heat, you can pull up before germination plastic bag. After a few days sprouts will appear - then the polyethylene should be removed. Move the growing seedlings to a brighter place so that the stalks do not grow elongated. Go
For Russia (middle band), the following periods are characteristic: 45-60 days for early varieties, 35-45 days for mid-season varieties, and 30-35 days for late-ripening varieties.
If the seeds were purchased at the store, then the package should indicate whether they had undergone preplant preparation and whether they should be preheated or pickled.
If the seedlings stretched out during the forcing and looked weak, but the temperature was maintained correctly, the reason for this may be too thick sowing of seeds, or an insufficient amount of daylight.
When to sow cabbage on seedlings, depending on the species?
Planting material of Brussels sprouts is sown from 15 to 30 April.
- Sowing cabbage seeds for seedlings, as well as planting seedlings into the soil, is carried out in a period that depends on the climatic conditions of the region and on the specific type of cabbage. The age of seedlings, completely ready for planting in the ground, is different for each species. At this stage it is important to do the right thing:
Cabbage is one of the few crops, different varieties of which are characterized by different ripening periods.
- In this case, sowing is best done in June or May, if this month is warm. At the same time, early ripening varieties should be chosen, otherwise the cauliflower will not have time to grow before the onset of autumn frosts.
- In the fall, add compost or cow dung to the intended location, and immediately before planting - complex mineral fertilizers, for example, azofosku or nizofosku.
- When buying seeds of early cabbage, first of all you need to consider what the producer says about this variety, because, to be careful, each bag says how many days the culture should grow before they form forks and are fully ready for use, , planting time is quite possible to calculate independently. It is important to take into account the fact that before planting in the ground they should grow for at least 50 days, and later varieties and 60.
After the appearance of two or three true leaves of cabbage seedlings need to be seated in separate cups. After transplantation, the root system begins to grow stronger, and with good roots the plants develop better and faster.
- Water the seedlings in a timely manner. When the first true leaves appear, plant the plants in separate pots. If, nevertheless, it was not possible to protect the seedlings from diseases, the plants on which signs of damage are noticed (thinned or dark stalk, black spots on it) should be immediately thrown out, and the rest should be poured with a solution of dark pink manganese. Place the surviving seedlings in a colder place. The temperature should not be below zero, but the colder the better. Watering for a while must stop. Go
- White cabbage seeds of mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties are advised to be sown in a greenhouse, not at home. Such a seedling will subsequently give healthy and strong heads. Seeds are planted at once rarely so that later they do not need to swoop down the seedlings.
- It is important to remember that cabbage seeds can remain viable for 4 years. Of course, they can sprout in the fifth year, but the seedlings will be weak, prone to disease and not able to give a big harvest.
- If you decide to plant cabbage on the seedlings in a pick-up method, for this purpose not the previously prepared soil, but special peat tablets are used. Some gardeners use for this purpose special cassette containers, in each separate container of which 2 seeds are sown. The conditions and temperature conditions in this case are observed, as in the picking method of forcing.
- In order to get an early crop of kohlrabi, seeds for seedlings must be sown in the period from 10 to 20 March. Planting material of this type of cabbage can be sown in several stages, the last of which is the end of June. If all conditions are selected correctly, then the seeds can be sown in open ground.
When to plant cabbage on seedlings, and how to grow seedlings?
Seedlings of early white and red cabbage, as well as hybrid varieties, planted in open ground at the age of 45 to 60 days. Seedlings of late varieties planted at the age of 35 days.
That is why gardeners, to get a good harvest of this crop, it is necessary to know when to plant cabbage on seedlings and strictly follow the rules and terms of sowing seeds and planting in open ground.
Planting cauliflower seeds in a greenhouse, by and large, can be at any time, provided that the necessary air temperature is maintained at 15-18 degrees Celsius and the level of illumination. Meanwhile, the best time for this is the second half of March - April.
To plant seeds on seedlings, prepare the soil by mixing in equal proportions peat, ordinary garden soil and humus, and also add to this mixture a bit of rotten manure.
So, it is quite possible to plant the early seedlings on the seedlings (in boxes) somewhere from the end of February, or in early March. If all the conditions of planting are met, then the first harvest can be taken in the first days of July. Late varieties, on the contrary, are not recommended to sow before the end of March. When the seeds are planted early, they grow more quickly and begin to form forks earlier, and this will certainly lead to their cracking, and even in winter, if the forks are supposed to be stored as a whole, they will certainly have a negative effect!
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Timely measures taken most often help to stop the further spread of the disease, and after a while the plants can be returned to heat. In the garden, seedlings are planted at about 2 months.
The time when to sow cabbage on seedlings is determined based on the planting temperature of the crop in open ground. Cabbage seeds begin to germinate already at +5 degrees, so the early cabbage varieties can be planted on seedlings at the beginning of March, later at the beginning of April, or sown immediately on a garden bed for shelter.
Some companies offer seeds that are colored in different colors (i.e., inlaid). This means that they are fully prepared for planting seedlings. Such seeds must be planted dry, and if pre-sowing is done, their germination may be lost.
During the cultivation of cabbage, cauliflower, and other types of cabbage, it is important to control the degree of moistening of the substrate. After all, if the soil is not sufficiently moistened, the seedlings will significantly slow down their growth. And with excessive watering can root the roots, which can lead to the death of seedlings.
For early Savoy cabbage, seed sowing for seedlings is performed in the second decade of March. For mid-season varieties of this cabbage, the sowing period is mid-April. Late-ripening varieties of savoy cabbage are sown in early April.
Broccoli seedlings are planted at the age of 35 to 45 days.
To date, there are more than 10 types of cabbage. Each type of this culture is represented by a variety of varieties, the number of which only grows every day. Regardless of the type and variety, seed preparation is carried out by one analogy:
Presowing seed preparation
To get an early harvest, sowing seeds for seedlings is necessary in three stages:
Many gardeners have already learned to plant the seeds of early cabbage of any varieties on the seedlings, not at home, but directly on the street, that is, in open ground. First, the seeds and the first seedlings hide from frosts that have not yet ended, and then they are seated at a permanent place of growth.
It is necessary to plant cabbage seedlings in open ground 30 days after emergence. But on the saplings there should not be more than 3-4 leaflets, then the cabbage yield is better and the cabbages are large and beautiful. If the planting is a bit late, then the harvest will also be later and not so high. I plant cabbage in a staggered manner with a distance of about 50 cm between plants. First, I dig a hole deeper, about 20 cm. At the bottom of the hole I put about a glass of humus or manure and a tablespoon of ash, sprinkle it on a layer of earth, and water it abundantly. So first I prepare all the holes and start planting. Seedlings gently put in the hole and sprinkle with soil to the cotyledon leaves. The soil around the plant is slightly compacted so that there is no void around the roots.
How to start growing cabbage seedlings? It is logical to assume that with the selection of seeds. Decide what you will grow cabbage for: early consumption of salads, for storage, for fermentation? Or for that and for another? Depending on this, choose proven, good varieties of cabbage. I usually buy 1 bag of early cabbage, 1 bag of sauerkraut and 1-2 for storage. A family of 3 people is enough for us.
In the first days for seed germination, it is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than +20 degrees, then it is reduced to +10 degrees for about a week, then the temperature should be + 17-19 degrees during the day and + 7-10 degrees at night. Watering plentiful, carry out settled water at room temperature as the soil dries.
Ways to plant cabbage seeds for seedlings
There are two ways to grow cabbage seedlings - without picking and followed by picking.
- On beds, in an open ground, seedling is planted in the middle of May. Do not be afraid of possible frosts.
- To get quality seedlings from seeds and a good harvest, you need to choose the right soil for planting. Cabbage - is one of the few garden crops, which is very demanding on the composition of the soil. So, the soil for sowing seeds should be necessarily light and loose, so one of its main components is peat. As for the optimal composition of the substrate, then the views of gardeners are divided. Most gardeners prefer to prepare a substrate of 75% peat, 20% of sod land and 5% of coarse sand. However, in order to properly prepare the soil for this formula, it is necessary to strictly observe the proportions.
Seedlings color and Brussels - in the period from 45 to 50 days.
Seeds are carefully sorted out, selecting only healthy, high-quality material for planting.
In this case, the large leaves of white cabbage will slightly cover our plant from direct sunlight, thereby reducing the temperature of the surrounding air to the required level and providing increased humidity. It is under these conditions that the heads of cauliflowers will begin to tie and form as quickly as possible.
The timing of such planting is directly dependent on the weather, how quickly the snow in your region and how quickly the soil thaws. Usually the first crops are carried out at the end of April, although in more severe places in early May.
If you have had a poor seedling in past years, then there is an easy way to fix it. With the drug Kornevin (root formation stimulant), any seedling survives almost 100%. Before planting the seedling in the hole, lightly powder its roots with this preparation. That's the whole trick, but the seedlings will take root easier.
Seedlings of early varieties are planted in open ground from the middle to the end of May, late varieties - from the end of May. A week before planting, seedlings are no longer watered, and two hours before planting they are watered thoroughly so that plants can be removed without damaging the roots.
Landing in open ground
If a picking is done, the seeds are sown in prepared containers with soil to a depth of 1 cm, at a distance of 1-3 cm from each other and 3 cm between the rows.
Properly grown cabbage seedlings perfectly withstand temperatures down to -5 degrees.
A simpler and more affordable way to prepare the soil for sowing seeds is to mix in equal parts humus, peat and sand.
How to plant cabbage seeds for seedlings
Kohlrabi are planted at the age of 35 days.
After sorting it is necessary to perform seed disinfection. To do this, they are placed for 15 (but not more than 20) minutes in very warm water (+50 C), and then quenched in cold water (minutes 2, not more).
In order to properly grow this vegetable, it is necessary to constantly and carefully take care of it throughout the entire time, starting from sowing seeds and ending with harvesting. For this plant, planted in the ground, it is necessary to regularly water and feed organic fertilizers. Trace elements are also important - especially this vegetable needs molybdenum and boron.
Then from March 30 to April 10,
It is believed that such seedlings will be more hardened, and therefore less prone to diseases and pests. Immediately after transplanting to a permanent place of cultivation, you will practically not need to take care of it, it is enough to water and weed in a timely manner and if it is bad soil, fertilize it!
After planting seedlings in the ground, each planted plant should be watered with 1 liter of water. It is necessary to water carefully so as not to wash the seedling from the ground. If, after watering, the soil around the plant has subsided, you need to add it, and if the plant has collapsed, return it to the upright position. After an hour, pour the cabbage again and again with the same amount of water - at least 1 liter for each plant. Then, so that a crust does not form around the plant on the soil, mumble dry soil or humus.
Early varieties of cabbage are sown from early March to 25-28 of the month, medium varieties from March 25 to April 25, late varieties from early April to the 20th of the month.
Seedlings are planted in the wells at a sufficient distance from each other (40-50 cm.), The distance between the rows should also be at least 40 cm.
When to plant cabbage on seedlings
For growing seedlings without picking, containers of a slightly larger size, approximately 8 cm deep, are used. The soil is filled with a layer thickness of 6-7 cm. In order not to damage the root system of the seedling while planting in open ground, it is possible to make partitions of cardboard or other harmless material in this way to form cubes.
Holes for planting shrubs placed at a distance of 40 cm from each other. Immediately before planting, about 1 liter of ordinary water is poured into each hole. Planting cabbage seedlings is carried out directly in the dirt formed in the hole. A young seedling sprinkled with dry soil to the level of the lower leaflet and a little compacted. This technique will protect the roots of the plant from possible loss of moisture, as well as prevent the formation of an earthy crust around a young plant.
Sowing cabbage seeds for seedlings
Before sowing cabbage on seedlings, gardeners are determined with the method of growing seedlings (with subsequent picking and without). During the use of the method of growing seedlings, followed by picking, the boxes are filled with a mixture for planting. The optimum height of the box is 5 cm. The soil is well moistened and divided into furrows. The depth of each of the grooves is about 1 cm. Seeding is done in steps (distance between the planting material) of 1.5 cm. After sowing, seeds are sprinkled with soil, which is then compacted a little.
Saplings of savoy cabbage - from 35 to 50 days.
At the end of this procedure, the seeds are dried to flowability (but not overdrying them).
After 2-3 weeks after planting, the shoots should be spud, and after another 15 days - repeat the procedure. In addition, during the period of plant growth, it is necessary as often as possible to carefully examine for various diseases and pests. При обнаружении паразитов их следует как можно быстрее вывести при помощи разнообразных специальных химических средств для борьбы с вредителями, которые легко купить на рынках или в садоводческих магазинах.
и, наконец, последний этап – с 25 апреля по 10 мая.
В последнее время люди становятся все более суеверными и зачастую прибегают к приметам, которые учитывали наши предки при высевки семян капусты на рассаду. Today it is an integral science, which is carried out by experts experienced in this matter, and in order to bring their work to the people, they make up the so-called “calendars of summer residents”. When compiling them, favorable and unfavorable days are taken into account, especially cabbage varieties, and, of course, the characteristics of the year itself, for example, whether it is a leap year or not.
When planting cabbage in open ground
At the time of planting of cabbage seedlings, each plant should have a well-formed and intact root system and 5-6 leaves.
You can also sow cabbage seeds in special seedlings. It is better to plant 2 seeds in one cell, and after they germinate, leave a stronger plant.
Top dressing cabbage
In the fall to collect a good harvest in the first few days after planting the seedlings on the garden, it should be pritenyat from falling on the leaves of direct sunlight.
Cabbage is a very demanding culture of light and temperature. Therefore, if we ensure that the seeds are sown the optimum temperature (+20 degrees), seedlings will appear very quickly - literally 4 days after sowing.
Considering these features, on which the landing depends, it is possible to calculate when to plant a plant for seedlings. In the middle lane, this is approximately the following time frame:
Determine the time of planting seeds independently
As soon as your plants begin to form strong heads of medium size, they must be immediately cut.
In addition, some gardeners are interested in whether it is possible to plant cauliflower on seedlings in June to harvest in the fall. This option is also possible, for this you should sow the seeds from 5 to 15 June and grow seedlings until the second half of July. Meanwhile, in such a situation, there is always a chance to lose heads in the case of early autumn frosts. For sowing, you need to select the largest seeds and place them in hot water heated to a temperature of about 50 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes.
When planting cabbage seedlings in open ground
It turns out that if the cottager is difficult to decide on the dates of sowing the seeds of early cabbage, he can use the same calendars that are sold at every step and do the "right" growing a rich harvest!
Cabbage loves organic fertilizer. But you need to start making them when the seedlings will have 6-7 true leaves. The best fertilizer for cabbage is manure and humus. But now you need to use only the slurry, that is, the infusion in the ratio of 1:10. If there is no manure, an infusion of nettle will do. For this, half of any container (such as a barrel) is half-clogged with nettles and filled with water. Nettle infused for several days (fermented). And then diluting this infusion with water we feed up the cabbage.
Looking at the favorable days for sowing cabbage, get down to business. I will note that cabbage seeds do not require any preparation, they should not be soaked or processed in stimulants. It is rather difficult to grow good cabbage seedlings at home, and this is because the culture is cold-loving and our room temperature does not suit it. The best seedlings are obtained in the spring greenhouse outside. To do this, immediately after the snow melted, build a small greenhouse in which the seedlings will grow. You can sow cabbage seeds at home, in ordinary wooden or plastic boxes. I cook soil mixture from sod land, humus and sand. In principle, you can take any ready-made mixture, as long as it is breathable and fertile. Cabbage seeds are buried about 0.5 cm deep. After sowing, the soil should be slightly compacted and carefully poured with room-temperature water from a spray bottle to prevent the soil from eroding. Until seedlings no longer water!
Summer Cottage Calendar
Grow a good viable seedlings of cabbage will, if properly perform all the necessary actions. Cultivation is carried out in several stages: seed treatment before sowing, soil preparation, planting itself and picking of plants.
The best soil for planting cabbage seeds is considered to be a mixture of sod land, peat and sand in equal proportions. As a disinfectant can be used potassium permanganate. There are many other options for the preparation of substrates. If you do not want to make certain substrates yourself, then you can buy in the store ready-made soil (universal for vegetables or specially prepared for cabbage).
Where is the best place to plant cauliflower?
Before planting cabbage on the seedlings, you should choose varieties. Cabbage of early varieties is used for fresh consumption or for cooking, middle-ripening varieties are used for salting and short-term storage, and later varieties are grown for long-term storage and consumption in winter.
But after the emergence of shoots, the capacity is transferred to a cooler room, the air temperature in which becomes no more than +10 degrees. At this temperature, seedlings are kept for 7 days. Such measures are taken in order to prevent the seedlings from pulling out.
Seeds of early white and red cabbage, as well as hybrid varieties, are sown from 10 to 25 March. But the middle and late varieties of these types of cabbage are sown on seedlings in the period from 10 to 15 April.
To increase the rate of germination, as well as frost resistance of plants, the seeds are soaked in a light solution of potassium permanganate just before planting. A container with seeds soaked in it is placed in a refrigerator (or carried outside) so that the ambient temperature is within 1-2 C. At this temperature, planting material is kept for about a day.
How to plant cauliflower seedlings?
It is not necessary to wait until the head is bigger, because it will quickly crumble and become tough and tasteless. Many gardeners refuse to plant cauliflower in their summer cottage, as they consider it very difficult to grow it. Indeed, this culture is quite capricious, but coping with its requirements is not difficult.
After that, they should be cooled slightly and soak for 8 hours in a solution of potassium permanganate. In the box for seedlings you need to make grooves 15 mm deep at a distance of 2.5-3 cm. Cauliflower seeds should be planted at the same distance from each other, at which the furrows are located.
- If you plan to plant this vegetable in open ground, try to choose the most warm and sunny place.
- You can alternate dressing infusion of mullein and nettle, then the cabbage is nothing more unnecessary for full growth. All care for it will consist in timely watering (frequent) and as heads are formed (so that they do not fill up), it will be necessary to rake up the soil to the stem, that is, to do hilling the cabbage.
- Shoots of cabbage appear in 10-12 days. Before the emergence of shoots, the boxes with crops can be kept at home, at a temperature of + 20- + 22 degrees, but after the shoots, you need to transfer them to a greenhouse on the street. Some gardeners grow cabbage seedlings in greenhouses, keeping the temperature there within 10-15 degrees.
For a good harvest, the seeds must be properly treated before planting in the ground. It will not be superfluous to conduct tempering procedures, as well as to treat the seeds with drugs that will help speed up germination. You can purchase seeds in the store that have already been processed.
It is very important to consider the acidity of the soil. Normally, it should be close to neutral (pH 6.0-6.5).
Cabbage is a light-loving plant, it needs a long light day for fruiting. Therefore, before planting a crop, it is necessary to know when to sow cabbage on seedlings.
How to plant cauliflower seeds in open ground?
When the seedlings reach the age of 14 days, they are transplanted into individual containers. But these tanks must be chosen correctly. For example, early ripe varieties dive in 8x8 cm tanks. And for 6x6 cm picks of late varieties, tanks with a size of 6x6 cm can be used. After picking, the tanks are placed in a room with a temperature of 18 degrees for several days. And then again lower the air temperature to +14 in the daytime and up to +12 at night. This is called the hardening process of seedlings. If all actions have been performed correctly, the cabbage seedlings will not stretch, will be hardened, healthy and of high quality for planting in the ground in the garden. This method is often used for forcing cauliflower.
Broccoli and cauliflower seeds are sown in several crops, between which the interval of 15-20 days is observed. The first seeding is carried out in mid-March, and the last - at the end of May.
Today there are so-called inlaid (painted) seeds on sale. These seeds are a bit more expensive than usual, because they have already undergone full preplant preparation. They are sown in the previously prepared dry soil.
Can I plant cauliflower along with white cabbage?
After spending quite a bit of time and effort, you get a surprisingly tasty and healthy vegetable, from which you can cook a lot of wonderful dishes for all members of your family.
Approximately 12-14 days after the first shoots, shoots need to be transplanted one by one in small pots. If the plants are weak, it can be done in several pieces. Finally, 5-6 weeks after planting, seedlings should be carefully planted in open ground at a distance of at least 5 cm from each other.
How to care for plants?
If the bed is located in the shade, the entire growth of the plant will go to the leaves, and the head you want will not form. In protected ground it is also very important to maintain high air temperature and good illumination.
If you have your own methods of growing white cabbage seedlings, please share them with us. And what do you feed cabbage?
Cabbage is a moisture-loving culture, water it with settled water with a temperature slightly warmer than the environment. With timely watering, good lighting and optimum temperature, cabbage seedlings turn out to be strong and stocky.
Prepare the soil - it should consist of equal portions of peat, humus, sod land, sometimes add a little river sand and sawdust. Experienced gardeners store ground in autumn and freeze them out in winter. Then you need to steam it to destroy viruses and bacteria. To prevent seedling diseases, pour the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. A store bought soil is useful to steam in a water bath (you can not use a microwave or oven for this), as well as pour potassium permanganate or any disinfectant that is commercially available. Go
For the cultivation of white cabbage seedlings of different varieties there are no separate recommendations. The only difference is only in the time of sowing seeds and subsequent planting in open ground. When sowing seeds should be aware of the timing of the cultivation of seedlings.
It is better to use seeds, the size of which is more than 1.5 cm. First of all, before planting, you need to properly prepare the seeds, for this 15 minutes they are placed in hot water (45-50 degrees), then quickly cooled in cold water for 1 minutes The next 12 hours, the seeds should be in a solution of trace elements, and then a day in the refrigerator.
What kind of cabbage when plant
Cabbage is unpretentious culturewhich requires a lot of light and moisture. If the seeds are planted too early, the seedlings may die from lack of sunlight. This is the main reason why housewives and gardeners are interested in when to plant cabbage on seedlings, especially since there are many types of this vegetable.
Sowing cabbage on seedlings usually begins in mid-March. The seeds of white cabbage are sown every few days to extend the time of harvest.
When sowing, early ripeness of the variety is taken into account:
- age 30-40 days for early ripening varieties,
- 40–50 days old for mid-season
- age 50−60 days for late ripening varieties.
By this time, it is necessary to add 4–5 days, which will be necessary for the cultivation of seeds, and approximately 4 days for rooting seedlings for transplantation. Thus, it is easy to calculate when to plant early cabbage of various varieties.
The cultivation of all garden and garden plants should begin with the selection of a suitable variety for the area. It is necessary to take into account why and when the crop is needed, since this information will help you choose the right variety and determine the time of sowing the seeds for the subsequent production of seedlings of the desired age.
- if it is necessary to get early cabbages for cabbage lettuces in the middle of summer, then you need to plant a variety of Kazachok F 1 or June,
- if the crop goes to ferment, then it is better to sow mid-season varieties, for example, Amager or Belorusskaya,
- In order for cabbage to be able to lie in the cellar in its original form, it is necessary to plant late varieties - Kolobok, Geneva.
Keep in mind that early cabbage is often barren. Most varieties produce loose and small cabbages, up to 2 kg of weight. Such a harvest gardener will receive a 90−100 day.
Middle-late varieties are used in food in the summer, they can be salted or stored. Middle-late variety will give a crop for 160−170 day after planting. There are medium varieties that complete the formation before, only 130-140 days.
Late white cabbage is ideal for long-term winter storage. Many varieties can lie until spring without the appearance of specks. A head of cabbage at such varieties forms about 180 days.
Seed and soil preparation for sowing
Before planting need to prepare the seeds. This process destroys bacteria and accelerates the germination of seedlings. In order to decontaminate the seeds, you must first soak them in water with a temperature of 50 degrees, then put them in a container, and soak for 12 hours in the refrigerator under a moistened napkin.
Seedlings of this culture does not require a garden soil, so it is recommended to independently prepare a nutrient mixture. To do this, take an equal amount of turf soil and coarse sand. The mixture should be poured with hot water, then sieved. This is necessary in order to destroy harmful bacteria that can further harm the seeds. After processing the mixture, wood ash should be mixed in, at the rate of 10 tbsp. l ash per 10 l of the mixture. Ash is also needed to destroy microorganisms in the soil, reduce the risk of disease and reduce acidity.
Sow the seeds should be in pots or boxes, which will be pre-filled with mixed soil.
Other soil mixes made by themselves will do. Basically they differ in common component. If in the first variant turf was added, in the second one you can use peat. In the selection of componentsIt is important to choose air-intensive fillers that have an adequate supply of nutrients. After mixing, the entire composition is necessarily treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
You need to know that you can not use the soil from the beds from under the cruciferous crops, because such plants infect the soil with bacteria that affect the cabbage crop. If you neglect this moment, you can remain without any crop at all, since all the seedlings will die.
Before sowing the soil with seeds, it should be well moistened. Seeds are sown grooves, the space between the seeds should be at least 1 cm. Early cabbage is sown at the beginning of May, mid-ripening at the end, and later in the first half of April.
Tanks that are designed for seedlings, you need to wash in advance and then disinfect. For this, potassium permanganate is ideal.
White cabbage: sowing seeds
At the bottom of a shallow box it is necessary to lay out a drainage layer 1 cm in thickness. Expanded clay, eggshell or small pebbles are good for this. After that you should pour the soil, watering it well. Small neat grooves are cut in the soil with a distance of 3-4 cm, after which the seeds should be buried 1 cm into the soil. Too close placement of seeds is fraught with further breakthrough seedlings. After that as the seeds are covered with soil, it needs to be compacted and moistened with a spray bottle.
Containers with future seedlings should be covered with glass or plastic film, placing the box in a bright place with a temperature of 18-20 degrees. The first shoots will be noticed after 3-5 days.
It is important to bear in mind that the seeds constantly need moisture, otherwise the already swollen seeds simply dry out. To irrigate the land must be constantly using a spray. Too much moisture also does not lead to anything good, but only provokes seedlings rotting and disease.
As soon as the shoots appear, you should begin the procedure of hardening young seedlings. To do this, a box with them must be brought into a room with a temperature of about 8−10 degrees. Such a step will prevent the pulling out seedlings. Already in 7−8 days it can be returned to the usual warm room (room, greenhouse, warmed balcony). Теперь важно поддерживать правильную температуру: днём от 14 до 17 градусов, ночью при высокой влажности до 9 градусов.
Пикировка ростков и уход за рассадой после посева
После того как на проростках капусты проклюнется первый настоящий листик, их нужно пересадить в общий ящик по схеме 5×5 см. Перед такой пикировкой почву необходимо обработать раствором тёплой марганцовки.
Когда проростки распикированы, их следует разместить в комфортном помещении, в котором будет поддерживаться достаточно тёплый климат — от 19 до 21 градуса. In such comfort, seedlings will quickly take root and take root. After 2 days you need to repeat the hardening process, but this time in a room with a temperature of 13−15 degrees during the day, and 9−10 degrees after sunset.
In March, with a lack of sunlight, cabbage sprouts need additional lighting with fluorescent lamps or special fitolamps. With additional lighting, plants will grow faster.
If the pickling of the seedlings was not done, then the plants should be immediately transplanted into a separate container. With such a transfer you can not be afraid injury to the root system. It is forbidden to use too moist soil, as in such conditions the risk of black leg disease is too high. In order for the seedlings to develop well and quickly, with the help of additional lighting, it needs to extend daylight hours to 15–17 hours per day.
Do not forget that in order to get a good harvest, seedlings need to be fed all the time. The first feed is given on the 9th day of the life of the plant, then after 2 weeks. The last seedling dressing is carried out immediately before transplanting into open ground, this will provide plants with good immunity to diseases and environmental conditions. Liquid ready-made formulations that are suitable for seedlings are perfect for feeding seedlings. They should be used strictly according to the instructions.
In no case it is impossible to violate the temperature regime of seedlings. They must also be constantly watered, maintaining a comfortable level of moisture. Only in this way will it be possible to grow strong and healthy seedlings.
How to plant in open ground
When the cultivation of cabbage seedlings left behind, the plants need to be planted along the beds. 14–15 days before the event, the seedlings need to be tempered once more, accustomed to external temperatures, wind, and the sun’s rays, which constantly affect plants in open-air conditions. Even if the time has come to plant the seedlings, and the air temperature has so far been lowered, it is impossible to transfer the cabbage to the open ground. Under these conditions, the plant will quickly release the flower arrow.
Quality cabbage cabbage can not be obtained without fertile soil. Cabbage loves well-ventilated areas with loamy soils. Do not forget that for planting cabbage into the soil it is necessary to fertilize it from the autumn. For every square meter of bed you need to intervene half a bucket of manure. If the soil is acidic, 1–2 tbsp is added to each well. l wood ash, mixed with 2-3 glasses of compost. In one hole it is allowed to plant several bushes with seedlings, and after a couple of weeks, the weak plants are simply removed, leaving the strongest seedling.
Seedlings of early cabbage should be planted on the beds according to the scheme 45 × 25 cm, and later varieties - 35 × 60 cm. Since cabbage likes moisture, it is better to plant it on the bed in overcast evening weather, and cover the first days from the sun's rays.
After planting a gardener's seedlings waiting for a continuous series of necessary procedures for the care of the future harvest. There are several important rules to remember and learn the following procedures:
- Systematic feeding of seedlings in the future will ensure the growth of strong and healthy heads. For the feed, only high-quality balanced solutions, diluted with his own hands, or purchased in specialized stores, are used.
- Constant watering of white cabbage is needed to increase the vegetative juicy mass of leaves, which will later form dense and elastic heads. Without regular watering it will be impossible to get a good harvest.
- Be sure to treat the plants with special protective solutions, for prophylactic purposes. Such procedures will strengthen the plant, making it inaccessible for diseases.
- Weeds in the beds should be regularly destroyed.
- Planting seedlings should not be thicker than 40−50 cm from each other. In this case, the wells should be made suitable for the root size. The wells are watered before planting bushes. Each well is filled with 1 liter of water, after which the plant is immediately planted. Stalk should be sprinkled so that the lower leaves are not under the ground.
Tip: Cabbage seedlings are best planted after cereals and legumes. White cabbage grows well and gives a quality crop, if its predecessors were pumpkins or root vegetables.
In order to get rid of the root rot (as well as the black leg), the seedlings should be treated with rhizoplan or trichodermin. These products are environmentally friendly and safe for harvest. The principle of action of the drug is in the mycelium, which develops on seedlings, and in the process of vital activity, it emits substances harmful to pathogens.
When treating TrichodermineAn antimicrobial zone is created around the roots. Processing rhizoplan allows seedlings to absorb iron as much as possible, and they develop immunity to bacteria, including black leg and root rot.
Trichodermin is introduced into the soil immediately before picking the cabbage seedlings in pots. Calculation: per 1 plant 1 gram of the drug. Together with Trichodermin, 1 barley kernel per 1 plant is introduced into the substrate. Drug is dripped on the kernel and on the same seed microgriby begin to multiply. Everything is much simpler with a rhizoplan - the usual treatment of plants with a method of watering or spraying with a diluted preparation in water at the rate of 1 gram of rhizoplan per 100 ml of water.
Every gardener must know when to sow cabbage, because this vegetable can feed the whole family all year round, delighting with spring green salads after sowing early varieties, pies and borscht in the summer, sauerkraut when sowing late varieties.
Cabbage seedling preparation
What types grow our gardeners?
- Red - has a high content of vitamins and carotene compared to its white relative.
- Color - rich in proteins and microelements, good as a dietary product.
- Broccoli - a storehouse of vitamins - with her begin to feed the babies.
- Savoy - friable, curly kochanchiki very tender cabbage, beautiful in everything, but rarely grown.
- Kohlrabi is an overgrown stalk with a very delicate and sweet taste, ideal for summer salads, late varieties are well kept.
- Brussels is a champion in beneficial substances, however, due to the long period of cultivation it is a real rarity.
- Beijing - resembles a lettuce, leaves are soft and loose, very early.
- Chinese - cabbage-free cabbage, eating young leaves with petioles.
- Kale - kale, can be used as a decorative because of the unusual curly leaves.
All species can be grown through seedlings, some varieties are sown immediately in the ground. However, each species has its own requirements for the soil and planting conditions.
Preparing for planting in open ground
In 7–10 days, greenhouse seedlings need to be tempered and accustomed to open air. The first 2 days you just lower the temperature in the greenhouse for 3 hours, this can be done by opening the window or lifting the edge of the film, it all depends on how the seedlings are grown.
The next 3 days you need to teach the plant to the sun, bringing it to the open air under the sun's rays, while on the first day it is better to shade the plants with gauze. The time of sunbathing is 1.5–2 hours, gradually increasing the duration.
From the fifth to the sixth day, we reduce watering a little and leave it for the full day and night, of course, watching the weather. The temperature should not fall below zero degrees, and in this case it is better to bring cauliflower seedlings into heat or cover them.
Strong and good seedlings should have 4–5 true leaves. It is advisable to grow each seedling in an individual cup or cell.
Cabbage seedlings are best grown in small cells
Terms of planting seedlings
Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant, it can withstand even slight frosts up to -3–5 degrees, therefore, it can be planted in the ground rather early, but you should plant cauliflower only when there is no threat of return frost. In any case, if you cover plants planted in the ground with lutrassil, you will not only save them from sudden frosts, but also protect them from the cruciferous flea.
For the earliest harvests, early ripening varieties are planted: white, red, colored, broccoli and kohlrabi. After 2 weeks, middle-ripening varieties are planted, and after another 2 weeks - late-ripening varieties.
In the cold summer of kohlrabi you can plant all summer, regularly getting fresh cabbage to the table
Some varieties of kohlrabi can be sown in mid-summer, getting good stalks for long-term storage by the end of autumn. Also, in 2 terms of planting, you can grow early Beijing cabbage.
Place for garden beds
Choosing a place for gardening, it should be noted that it cannot be planted after cruciferous plants, which include the cabbage itself, radishes, radish, as well as such siderats as mustard, rapeseed, oilseed radish and rape. By planting cabbages without a crop rotation, you can get a bad crop because of diseases and pests: keels and cruciferous flea.
Cabbage root, damaged by a keel - plant withers, does not grow
It is advised to return the cabbage to such beds not earlier than in 2-3 years. But if it is not possible to grow in a new place, then 1–2 buckets of compost are poured into the seedling wells.
The best predecessors for cabbage are: potatoes, tomatoes, onions, all pumpkin (cucumber, zucchini, squash and pumpkin). Good predecessors: potatoes, carrots and beets, beans and peas, pepper and eggplant.
Plot for beds, choose open and sunny with loamy soil.
Preparation of beds
Each type of cabbage requires a certain space, depending on the size to which it grows. This should be considered when forming beds.
From large plants grow large large cabbage, so do not feel sorry for them.
The best width for cabbage beds - from 70 centimeters. On narrower beds it is good to plant Kohlrabi or Peking.
Table - the distance between the holes for different types of cabbages
The cabbage planting dates vary from the end of April to the beginning of June. It is better to choose a cloudy day, and if it is clear weather - then plant in the evening.
An hour before transplanting, seedlings are well watered, you can add the drug HB 101 (1 drop per liter of water) or dilute heteroauxin or rootberry according to the instructions - it helps to restore damaged roots.
- In accordance with the table digging holes for seedlings. Water is poured.
Mark up a bed for cabbage, make holes in it
Seedlings grown in the same container are often damaged when transplanted into the ground.
Hardened cabbage grown in individual cups continues to grow without getting sick
Cabbage planted in the ground, deepening to the cotyledon leaves
When planting seedlings from the common box, damage to the roots is unavoidable, so watch for folded plants, shading them for several days.
Video - planting early cabbage
Cabbage is a fairly unpretentious plant, the main steps to a good harvest are timely watering, feeding, loosening, and pest control. For cauliflower, shading of the resulting head is also important; for this, it is usually covered with a broken leaf.
Cabbage is very demanding on moisture in the soil. Watering it in the first week after planting should be every day for a liter for each plant. In the next 2 weeks water every 3 days, focusing on the weather, consuming 8 liters of water per square meter. In the future, need watering 1 time per week for 10-15 liters per meter. In hot weather it is very good to make a sprinkling of watering can, refreshing the plant in the morning and evening. Be sure to check how deep you were able to wet the soil. In a rainy summer, watering is less.
Drip irrigation cabbage allows you to maintain the necessary humidity
Such actions as mulching and drip irrigation have proven themselves very well. As mulch used various organic parts of plants: chopped weeds or siderata, hay, straw, wood chips. Drip irrigation helps maintain moisture in the soil constantly.
For cabbage spend 3 or even 4 dressing for the season. Be sure all fertilizing done on wet soil, that is, first shed a plant, and then fertilizer was poured under each root, otherwise just burn the roots.
The first fertilizer starts 2 weeks after planting the seedlings in the ground. Usually at this time apply nitrogen feed: diluted mullein or bird droppings in the ratio of 1:20. Under each plant you need to make at least half a liter of solution.
If there are no organics, then mineral supplements are used, diluting 10 grams of urea and 15 grams of potassium monophosphate in a bucket of water.
The second additional feeding after 2 weeks with the same fertilizers, but already in large volumes - up to 1 liter per plant.
The third feeding is carried out only for medium and late varieties after another 2 weeks (45 days from planting in the ground). In 10 liters of water, 0.5 liters of mullein, chicken manure or Organavita (horse manure) are added with the addition of 15 grams of potassium monophosphate. Under each plant poured already 1.5 liters of solution. This helps the head to grow fast.
For the latest spend fourth feeding after 2 months from planting. The composition and amount of fertilizer - as the previous one.
After each watering should loosen the upper crust of the earth. However, a mixed soil with a sufficient amount of organic matter does not need this process. Therefore, to facilitate the cultivation of cabbage is better to use mulch.
Mulching beds do not loosen them after each planting with cabbage
Cabbage is loved not only by us, but also by a large number of pests.
In the spring, a cabbage fly and a cruciferous flea sit on the seedlings, in the summer - a cabbage whitetail and its offspring - caterpillars, and in the fall we fight with the aphids.
From all pests, it is recommended to spray the tobacco with a drink or with drugs, for example, Fitoverm.
Cabbage diseases - kila and black leg, the prevention of which is crop rotation.
To reduce the number of pests, as well as to increase the yield from a certain area of land, it is advised to carry out joint planting.
Small and early species such as kohlrabi, Peking can be planted with cucumbers in the same bed. Early cabbage is well planted with late-ripening crops: root celery, beetroot. Late-ripening varieties condense on the contrary, early crops: lettuce, radish, peas. It is very important to select plants with the same moisture requirements.
Most often they put velvet ribbon with cabbage, with their pungent odor these flowers drive away many pests.
For example, garlic is a very good neighbor for cabbage - it drives away many pests, but it is better to plant it on the edge of the bed, so that once again it will not be watered.
Good repellents of pests are dill, marats, celery leaf, fennel, spinach, calendula, basil. They can be planted right among the seedlings.
Video - Secrets of care
To be healthy, you need to eat cabbage every day. The very first at the beginning of the summer appears cauliflower, kohlrabi, cabbage. Behind them you can enjoy broccoli, Peking, savoy cabbage. Using different varieties, the ripening time of cabbages is stretched for all summer and autumn, and kohlrabi, Brussels and Beijing can be sown in summer, getting a fresh crop in the fall and storing it until winter. Brussels sprouts ripen most recently, it grows even when the temperature drops to -5 degrees.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. When to plant cabbage on seedlings in 2019
- 3. Growing seedlings
- 3.1. Priming
- 3.2. Training
- 3.3. Planting seeds
- 3.4. How to grow in pills
- 3.5. Seeding in cassettes
- 3.6. Cabbage seedlings in the greenhouse
- 4. Buy seedlings - is it worth it?
- 5. Care of seedlings
- 5.1. Growing conditions
- 5.2. Backlight
- 5.3. Watering
- 5.4. Top dressing
- 5.5. Pickup (transplanting)
- 6. Diseases and their treatment
- 6.1. Why does it turn yellow?
- 6.2. Why rots
- 6.3. Why pulled out
- 6.4. Diseases
- 6.5. Pests
- 7. Planting seedlings
- 7.1. When to plant
- 7.2. How to land
Soil for cabbage seedlings.
For seedlings of all varieties of cabbage, a loose and light substrate is needed, therefore peat should be its main component. Here are some recipes for cabbage seedlings:
- - 75% peat, 20% sod land and 5% sand,
- - equal parts of peat, humus or compost and sod land should be mixed with a small amount of sand,
- - Mix equal parts of sod land and humus with wood ash and add one tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizer per 1 kg of soil mixture.
For the cultivation of cabbage seedlings can be used and store soil.
Whichever substrate you prefer, it must be disinfected before sowing - heat it for 5 minutes in the microwave turned on at full power, or calcine it for 15 minutes in an oven at 200 ºC. After that, the soil should be cooled, placed in a container treated with a one-percent solution of potassium permanganate and let stand in a warm place for a couple of weeks until the bacteria useful for seedlings reproduce in the substrate.
Planting cabbage seeds for seedlings with a pick.
In boxes of 4-5 cm in depth, a layer of soil mixture of 3-4 cm thick is placed and watered with a solution of two tablets of Gamair and two tablets of Alirin-B in 10 liters of water. Make it better a couple of days before sowing. В день посева в почве делают на расстоянии 3 см друг от друга бороздки глубиной 1 см, в которые раскладывают семена на расстоянии 1-1,5 см, после чего присыпают бороздки почвой. Затем поверхность слегка уплотняют, посевы помещают на подоконник и содержат при температуре 18-20 ºC. Всходы появляются обычно через 4-5 дней.
Как вырастить рассаду капусты в таблетках.
If you do not want to injure the roots of cabbage seedlings by picking, grow them in peat tablets. Tablets consist of pressed peat with the addition of trace elements and nutrients necessary for plants, so you can not feed the seedlings until the landing on the bed. The pills are in a mesh soaked with a fungicide that will protect your seedlings from fungal diseases.
Planting cabbage for seedlings is carried out in tablets with a diameter of at least 4 cm, which are pre-made into a deep container and filled with warm water until they are completely swollen. When the tablets grow 7-8 times, the excess water must be drained, the seeds of 2 pieces spread out in the recesses on the surface of the tablets and fill the holes with peat. After that, the container with the tablets is placed in a bright place and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ºC until germination. When the seeds germinate and the seedlings grow stronger, cut a weak seedling in each pill under the root, but in no case pull it out so as not to damage the roots of the more developed seedling.
Cabbage seedlings in the greenhouse.
Good cabbage seedlings are obtained when grown in a greenhouse, because the sun's rays penetrate well through its transparent coating without harming the seedlings. Yes, and moisture from the soil in the greenhouse evaporates not as quickly as in the conditions of the apartment, where at this time of the year heating devices operate at full capacity. Growing cabbage seedlings in a greenhouse also has the advantage of creating a microclimate that is optimal for seedlings.
Seeds for sowing in the greenhouse must be dry. Early varieties sown from late March to mid-April, mid-season and late varieties from early to late April.
Make several lines on the bed at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other and pour them abundantly, then scatter the seeds into the grooves so that there is no more than 3 seeds per cm². Seed to a depth of at least 1 and no more than 2 cm.
When the emerged seedlings acquire the first true leaves, it is advisable to treat them with insecticide from cruciferous flea, and at the developmental stage 4 leaves, in order for the seedlings to form a smooth stem, sprinkle 3-4 cm thick soil on the bed. or cutting less developed seedlings under the root, after which it is necessary to water the garden.
Buy cabbage seedlings - is it worth it?
Growing cabbage seedlings is not binomial Newton, as they say, but if for some reason you could not or did not want to do this, you will have to buy seedlings. How not to make the wrong choice of seedlings? Listen to our advice, and do not be fooled. Seedlings are chosen according to the following external features:
- - the stems of seedlings should not be light green, as when overfeeding with nitrogen, but green with a lilac shade,
- - the root system of seedlings must be well developed,
- - Do not buy seedlings collected and bundled.
Keep in mind that if the seedlings have round leaves, the cabbages will subsequently also be round or slightly flattened. The seedlings with oval oblong leaves form oblong heads. You should also know that if the leg (the distance from the root collar to the lower leaves) of seedlings is short - it is seedlings of early cabbage, and thick and long stem and large leaves are seedlings of late varieties.
When you buy seedlings, pack them in a damp cloth or sturdy paper, being careful not to squeeze the roots. And keep in mind that if the quality of seedlings can be determined by eye, then you can only find out what kind of variety you have from the seller, so buy seedlings not at the market, but at fairs, and only from reputable manufacturers.
Growing conditions cabbage seedlings.
As soon as sprouts appear in the common box, the crops are moved to the most illuminated place, and the temperature of the content is lowered to 10-12 ºC, otherwise the seedlings will begin to stretch. After a week, the temperature is raised to 15-17 ºC, and after another 3-4 days, the seedlings swoop in individual cups or pots. As soon as the seedlings take root after the picking, they establish such a temperature mode: during the day - 13-14, and at night - 10-12 ºC. At first, cabbage seedlings grow very slowly, but gradually their growth is gaining momentum, and three weeks after picking, they will form three leaves each. Keep in mind that cauliflower seedlings require a temperature regime of 6-8 ºC higher than seedlings of white cabbage and other varieties.
Seedlings grown in tablets or in cassettes do not dive, otherwise the conditions for growing seedlings of cabbage are the same as for seedlings grown in a common box. Do not forget to thin out the seedlings, leaving in each container one more developed seedling.
Highlighting cabbage seedlings.
For normal development, cabbage seedlings need good lighting, and at the end of winter and early spring it dawns late and darkens early. How to grow seedlings of cabbage in a short daylight hours and not allow it to stretch out? It is necessary to install an LED or fluorescent lamp or phytolamp above the seedlings at a height of 20-25 cm, which should work at least 12, and better - 15 hours a day. Do not use incandescent lamps for artificial lighting - they do not emit the light that plants need, and they also heat the air.
Watering cabbage seedlings.
Cabbage seedlings at home need watering as the topsoil dries. Dangerous for the seedlings as insufficient soil moisture, and excessive, and in order not to have too much watering the seedlings, do not neglect the loosening of the soil. To moisten the soil using separated water at room temperature. Be sure to ventilate the room after each watering.
Top dressing of cabbage seedlings.
The first time the cabbage is fed a week after picking with a solution of 2 g of ammonium nitrate, 1 g of potash fertilizer and 4 g of superphosphate in 1 l of water. Two weeks after the first feeding, a second one can be applied by doubling the amount of fertilizer with the same amount of water. The third dressing is applied a day or two before disembarking a garden bed, therefore it is called quenching: 4 g of superphosphate, 2 g of ammonium nitrate and 6-7 g of potash fertilizer are dissolved in one liter of water. An increased dose of potassium contributes to the rapid survival of seedlings in the open field.
Pickling cabbage seedlings (transplanting).
As we already wrote, only the cabbage, which was sown in a common box, dives. One and a half weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are seated in separate pots, watered with a solution of one tablet of Alirin-B and one tablet of Gamair in 10 liters of water and for 2-3 days, until the seedlings take root, maintain the temperature in the room at around 17-18 ºC . The seedlings are sunk by seedlings, and after planting, in order to prevent the black leg, the surface of the substrate is covered with a layer of washed river sand 2 mm thick. As soon as the seedlings adapt to the new packaging, the daytime temperature is lowered to 13-14 ºC, and the night temperature to 10-12 ºC.
Cabbage seedlings turn yellow.
This phenomenon may have several causes. For example, the leaves may turn yellow from a lack of some elements in the soil: if the seedlings lack phosphorus, the leaves turn yellow on the underside of the plate and may become reddish-purple, the tips of the leaves turn yellow from a lack of potassium, and if the plant lacks iron, then the leaves turn yellow the base.
Appears yellow and from excess nutrition - seedlings suffer from poisoning with too large doses of fertilizers. To remedy the situation, it is necessary to shed the soil with a large amount of water by setting the container so that the water flows freely from it. As a last resort, you can transplant seedlings to a new ground.
Sometimes the yellowness on the leaves appears due to the fact that you add sea sand to your soil mixture, which contains salt, which poisons the seedling root system. It is necessary to transplant the seedlings into a new soil, pre-washing their roots with water.
Another reason for the yellowing of the leaves can be an infection that has got into the ground along with the seeds that have not passed disinfection before sowing.
Cabbage seedlings rots.
Most often, seedling rotting occurs because of a black leg injury - a fungal disease that develops on the background of high acidity and high soil moisture and too high nitrogen content in it. The causative agent of the disease may be in the soil, which was not decontaminated before sowing. In the case of a diseased seedling, the lower part of the stem first darkens and rots - it becomes watery and turns brown. Then a constriction is formed at this place, the seedling dies and lies down. It is necessary to remove all diseased specimens and shed the soil with a pink solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 3-4 g per 10 l of water, after which not water the seedlings for a week.
Cabbage seedlings pulled out.
The main reasons for this phenomenon are lack of light and wrong temperature conditions. Moreover, seedlings can be pulled out even in good light, if the planting density is such that the plants have to literally wade into the light. And this is another argument in favor of sowing seeds in individual containers.
And, of course, the most important factor in the normal development of seedlings is compliance with the recommended temperature conditions.
Diseases of cabbage seedlings.
In addition to the black leg, it affects the seedlings of cabbage fomoz - a fungal disease that is carried by seeds. Prevent the development of the disease can be pre-sowing treatment of seeds in hot water or in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. The fomoz is manifested by the formation of black patches on the stalks and leaves of the growing seedlings, and since it is impossible to save the affected plants, it is necessary to replant the cabbage.
It affects the seedlings of cabbage kila - a disease of cruciferous and flower crops. The environment where the causative agent lives is heavy acidified soil, therefore it is so important to expose the soil before sowing to disinfection and liming. Kila affects the root system of plants, as a result of which the seedlings cannot feed themselves and die. Sick seedlings need to be destroyed, and the holes that remain after them should be treated with ash or charcoal.
When planting cabbage seedlings in the ground.
A couple of weeks before planting the cabbage seedlings on the flower bed, you need to start holding hardening procedures: seedlings are taken out into the open air under the sun's rays - on a balcony, veranda or in the garden. At first they are kept there for no more than an hour, but daily the duration of the hardening procedure is increased, and by the time of landing in the ground, the seedlings should be airborne around the clock.
A week before transplanting to a bed, watering of seedlings is reduced, but the seedlings should not be allowed to wither. A day or two before disembarking, a quenching dressing with a high content of potassium is carried out. The seedlings planted in the garden should be stocky, strong, with 6-8 leaves and a well-developed root system. Early cabbages are planted from late April to early May, mid-ripening varieties are planted in late May or early June, and it is time for late varieties from mid to late May.
How to plant seedlings of cabbage in the garden.
The area allotted for cabbage should be well lit. The soil must be prepared in advance: cleaned of weeds and plant residues, dig up with the introduction of 6-8 kg of rotted manure or compost and 100-200 g of wood ash for each m².
White and red cabbage are planted according to this scheme:
- - early varieties and hybrids - 30-35х40-45 cm,
- - mid-season cabbage - 50-60х60 cm,
- - late varieties - 60-70x70 cm.
Broccoli cabbage is planted for ripening of the main heads according to the scheme 20-30x50-60, and for the development of lateral shoots according to the 40-45x60 scheme see
Brussels sprouts seedlings are placed in a row at a distance of 60-70 cm with row-spacings 70 cm wide,
Kohlrabi seedlings are placed on the bed thus:
- - early ripening varieties according to the scheme 25-30х35-40 cm,
- - middle ripe according to the scheme 50х40-50 cm,
- - later - 50x60 cm
Savoy cabbage is planted, too, depending on the time of ripening:
- - for early ripe varieties, the scheme is 70x30 cm,
- - for mid-season and late - 70х50 cm.
Cauliflower is planted in staggered order 30-40 cm apart or according to the scheme of 20-30x50-60 cm.
Choose a cloudy day, dig holes in the garden at the right distance, pour no less than a liter of water into each one, spread the seedlings taken out of the container together with the earthy clod into the holes, dip them into the first real pair of leaves and water them. The first few days it is necessary to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight and spray the seedlings with water daily after 17 hours.