Often gardeners and gardeners want to plant a plot to the maximum, to place both fruits, and vegetables, and flowers. Tagetis can be planted even among the beds. It will be beautiful and useful.
Watch the video! Marigold: Cultivation and Care
Introduction to the plant
Marigolds are representatives of the Astrov family. Their homeland is America: they are found from the south of the United States to Argentina. They brought the marigolds to Europe around the 16th century. They fell in love with gardeners for their decorative, unusually bright colors and unpretentious care. So they quickly spread throughout the mainland.
The marigold plant, or its other name "thales", has a very attractive appearance. Erect branched herbaceous stems form a neat compact or spreading shrub.
Juicy green of pinnately-cut leaves is a worthy frame for inflorescences of different shades of yellow, orange and scarlet color, but bright sun petals with brown brushstrokes look especially impressive (for more details on marigold flowers, see here). Marigolds bloom profusely from June to autumn frosts.
Next you can see the photo of the flower:
At the moment when marigolds are only sprouting from seeds or are picking up the first foliage, it is important to maintain a temperature regime of 22-25 degrees.
In summer, on the street marigolds are not whimsical to the temperature. But, It is important to protect plants from cold drafts. The main enemy of marigolds is frost.
During growth, watering should be moderate, and later it will need to be reduced so that there is no stagnant moisture, from which the plants get sick, rot and do not bloom. In the summer heat is better to water in the evenings.
Marigolds may well live without supplements, but will respond very gratefully to them. Fertilizers are applied three times: when the seedlings grow to 10 cm, when the first buds appear and by the beginning of flowering. For feeding you can use:
- Ready-made mineral fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The most common fertilizer among gardeners in this case is "Akrokola-7". The solution is prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
- Urea. ¼ tsp divorced in 2.5 liters of warm water.
- Nitrophoska. The solution is mixed in a proportion of 30 grams of the drug per 10 liters of water.
- Herbal infusions. Crush the grass (nettle) and cover it with water. Leave it in the sun for a couple of days to ferment the product. After a while, the obtained grass fertilizer can be poured over marigolds.
- Wood ash.
In order for the plant to absorb as many nutrients as possible during feeding, it is necessary to thoroughly moisten the soil before the procedure.
On how to feed marigolds for abundant flowering, read our article.
Planting and transplanting
Beginning of March - April is the most suitable time for planting marigolds on seedlings. In this case, in late May and early June, they will delight you with their flowering. For sowing seeds for seedlings, wide containers are suitable: plastic containers or boxes (for information on when and how best to plant seeds for seedlings can be found in our material).
When choosing a soil, pay attention to the acidity. The earth must be neutral. You can use the land from your garden plot, adding a little deoxidized peat and river sand. To prevent mistakes, you can purchase ready-made substrate in a flower shop.
Before planting, sanitize the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. or ignite it in the oven. Seeds are placed in shallow grooves at a distance of 3-4 centimeters from each other. Lightly sprinkled with earth. Then gently spill, so as not to erode the top layer of soil.
The optimum growing room temperature is 20-22 degrees. The first shoots appear on the third fourth day. When the marigolds release 2-3 true leaves, it is necessary to pick out the landing. At the new site, the plant is buried to seven-leaf leaves. This will allow to obtain a plant with a strong root system in the future.
This procedure is a serious impetus to plant growth. Already a week later he will have enough power to grow on the street, in a permanent place.
How to plant marigold seeds, we wrote here.
What to do? First, it is necessary to clarify the timing of flowering varieties of your choice. Duration of flowering in each class is different.
Secondly, pay attention to the place where the marigolds landed. They do not like shadow. Penumbra or diffused light tolerate flowers well, provided that at least a few hours a day they are fully lit. To solve this problem, it is enough to transplant the plant.
Thirdly, The problem may lie in the mode of watering. Marigolds love moisture, and if watering the budding time greatly reduces it will affect flowering. However, there is a downside to the medal; if the flowers are poured, they too will not pick up the buds and blossom.
And finally, do not forget about fertilizer and periodic soil loosening. It will benefit the marigolds.
This is a disease of young still fragile plants. Dark spots of rot appear on still thin stalks.then they turn into constrictions. As a result, the plant fades and dies. For the purpose of prevention, seeds are planted with a solution of fungicide or potassium permanganate before planting.
Observe the irrigation mode of planting, do not fill the tray and allow stagnant water.
What to do if the marigolds still get sick? First, reduce watering. Secondly, loosen the earth around and sprinkle with wood ash. But, if these methods did not help, then it is necessary to transplant seedlings into a new steamed earth As soon as possible.
Due to unfavorable conditions, adult plants outdoors are subjected to root rot. If you notice that: the plant is stunted in growth, in growth retardation, the stem and leaves turn yellow, then pay attention to these symptoms.
Ignoring such changes will lead to the death of the plant. For prevention, periodically loosen the ground around, do not let water stagnate.
Nor should marigolds be fed with manure in order to protect against root rot.
In the summer on the shoots of adult marigolds, one can observe the appearance of spots from yellow to dark brown on the leaves and stem. Also, the plants could pick up the buds and not how can not open it. So these plants were viral diseases, and these diseases are not treatable. Therefore, as plants with such signs are found, they should be immediately removed and burned.
More information about marigold diseases and pests can be found here, and how to deal with spider mites on flowers can be found in this article.
Marigold rather unpretentious in the care of plants. It is possible to sow marigolds on seedlings in the conditions of an apartment and in the summer cottage for shelter. They should be planted in a well-lit place, ensure regular watering, so that the soil is constantly wet, but do not allow stagnation of water.
The main enemy of marigolds is frost. Fertilize marigolds for the entire period of growth and flowering is necessary three times. To do this, suitable mineral fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus or urea, wood ash. The main pests and diseases that attack marigold blackleg, root rot and viral diseases. Fighting them is not difficult.
We hope that our simple advice will help you to achieve a lush bloom of healthy marigolds and they will delight you throughout the summer.
What are these flowers and their photos?
Marigold is an herbaceous ornamental plant of the Aster family, or Compositae. The Latin name of these plants is Tagetes, they are also called Chernobrivtsy or, thanks to the English, marigold (“Mary's Gold”). Their velvety flowers are yellow, orange or red-brown. They have a developed root system and strong upright stems.
Their leaves are all tones of green. Depending on the species and varietal accessories bushes are both low and high, ranging in height from 20 cm to 2 meters. There are marigolds from America, from where in the 16th century conquistadors were brought to Spain. Then they spread in Europe, Russia, Asia Minor and other countries, almost all over the world. There are about 53 species of these plants.
Now marigolds are the permanent inhabitants of most of the garden plots of Russia and Ukraine. This flower is very beautiful and unpretentious, so even beginners can grow it. Also, in addition to decorative purposes, they are used as a medicinal plant and spice. In folk medicine, flowers are suitable for improving digestion and immunity.
This is how marigold flowers look:
The necessary conditions
Marigolds prefer fertile light soils with low and medium PH. In general, the soil they are picky.
For marigolds on the site should be warm and sunny, while they can tolerate drought and partial shade. But they are afraid of frosts. With a cold snap, the trunk and foliage turn black and cannot recover anymore.
Can grow along the roads, as well tolerated exhaust gases. Long rains have a bad effect on the state of these flowers, because they originally come from arid areas. The period of their flowering lasts from June to late autumn.
If it is not possible to grow seedlings, flower seeds are sown directly in the ground. It is better to do it in the middle or at the end of May. Make a furrow depth of 5 cm, shed it with water, sow the seeds and sprinkle with earth. In a couple of weeks sprouts will appear. The marigolds will bloom by mid-summer. It should be planted in the sun. Borders can be made of them and planted along the beds, as they deter pests.
How to care for Montenegrin at home?
Seeds for sowing can be taken from a faded bud or bought in a store. The soil needs to be heated. Land for growing mixed with sand.
In the hot season they need to be watered every day. At another time as the soil dries. The marigolds tolerate drought well, but their appearance will be spoiled. The plant will grow better and bloom if the soil is regularly loosened. In this case, the root system will be provided with moisture and oxygen.
Buds that wilted gently removed. This gives room for new ones.
Since the soil in the pot is quickly depleted, the plant needs feeding. Mineral fertilizers for this can be found in specialized stores.
Pests and diseases
The fragrant aroma of marigolds and their root secretions protects against fusarium and other fungal diseases for both the flowers themselves and for everything that grows nearby. Therefore, many grow these flowers throughout the site. The health of marigolds is highly dependent on their care.
- In dryness a spider mite may appear (sprinkling and spraying act against it).
- From dampness fungus and decay (treated by drying and heat).
- From low temperature, humidity and too thick planting on the stems gray mold can appear in the form of dark brown wet spots.
Description of marigolds
The plant is a small bushes with a thick stem and powerful branches. Depending on the variety, the height also varies. If the flower grows on the garden plot, then the height can reach 1 meter. When growing marigolds on the balcony, the bushes can vary from 10 cm to 130.
Stems are erect or deviated from the trunk. On the branches are flowers. Which outside have petals, and the inner part is tubular. Depending on the variety, they are terry and simple. It happens that several baskets of inflorescences adorn one bush. The plant blooms for a long time, from the first days of summer, until autumn frosts.
After flowering the fruit with seeds. They can spread independently. Given that the plant is highly germinating, young shoots can grow in the spring. The shrub has a peculiar smell to repel pests, however, it comes more from the leaves. Flowers have found use in traditional medicine.
Types and varieties of marigolds
The plant has up to 60 species, which are subdivided:
- Simple, which is also called yellow marigold. Marigold erect very reminiscent of chamomile.
- Semi-double, consisting of 2 or 3 petals.
- Terry, in which the petals are tubular and reed.
In addition, marigolds are annual and perennial.
However, more often use another classification:
- Upright, they are also called African.
- Marigold rejected. Another name is French. They got their name because the branches deviate from the trunk.
- Thin-leaved or Mexican.
Shrubs are annual species. Their height ranges from 30 to 120 cm. Based on the height, the flowers are grown at home or in a flower bed. At the base of woody shrub. Further the trunk stretches strong and thick with strong branches. On them are spherical flowers of yellow or deep orange color. The yellow look is very unpretentious. It tolerates low temperatures.
To this kind include varieties:
- Antigua Height reaches 20 - 30 cm. Inflorescences are yellow, 10 cm in diameter.
- Kalimanjaro. Height is 70 cm, and the inflorescences are white, with an admixture of cream color.
- Eskimo. The variety is short with white flowers.
- Aztec. Lime. Green Differ in a peculiar shade of inflorescences - lime-green.
Received its name due to the fact that from the main trunk depart many shoots. Due to this, the shrub has a very sprawling look. Flowers growing on it are small - 4-8cm.
Place of landing is determined by the growth of the bush. It is dwarf, short and tall. The flowers are in the middle of a yellow shade, and from the sides there are red with yellow color. Variety resistant to frost.
Varieties of marigold deviation:
- Carmen Low-growing plant to 30cm. Flowers have a yellow heart, and from the edges of red-brown petals.
- Queen Sophia. They have one row of red petals.
Thin leaf marigold
The height of the bushes 40cm, branched stems. The leaves are openwork, narrow and between them looks a scattering of inflorescences. Flowers are small with a yellow tinge, but their number is large.
- Red gem. Inflorescences have red petals and a yellow core.
- Dwarf. The shrub is low, and on the branches weigh yellow flowers with a red core.
- Lemon Jam Bushes are short, with yellow inflorescences.
Growing sowing seeds in the ground
It is possible to grow, sowing seeds in the ground in those areas where climatic conditions allow. Winter temperatures should not fall below -7 degrees. Spring pass without frosts. Sowing is carried out in late April or early May. Blossoming flowers are obtained in 2 months.
Wherein need to work:
- Soil preparation is underway in order to obtain a nutrient soil.
- Seeds are sown dry or germinated. To do this, put them on a plate, cover with a wet cloth and put in a warm place. After 2 days sprouts appear. Such seeds are ready for planting.
- In the soil is a recess of 5 cm or the same size of the groove.
- Sow seeds at a distance so that there is a possibility of development.
- The holes and grooves are filled with earth and poured water from above.
- Appeared seedlings break through, leaving the most healthy.
For early flowering, seedlings are grown:
- You can start the process in March in order to get blossoming flowers by June.
- The soil is prepared in advance from humus, peat, sod land and sand.
- A container is taken, a broken brick or expanded clay is placed on the bottom to ensure drainage. From above the prepared soil is filled up.
- In the soil are made for seed grooves.
- Disinfected in potassium permanganate seeds are planted in the ground to a depth of 3 cm. The distance between them is 2 cm.
- Seeds are poured on the ground and watered.
- The container is placed in a place with a temperature of 25 degrees and within 3 days the seeds germinate.
- The next time the container is located in a lighted place, but not in direct sunlight.
- Care is carried out by airing and watering.
- With the advent of the third leaflet begins the process of diving.
- At the end of May, transplanting to open ground takes place.
Marigold, planting and care in the open field
The plant is very unpretentiousbut loves moist soil and shade. If vegetables grow in the country, then you can plant between them. Pests will be deterred by smell. Marigolds grow on loamy soils, which need to be dug up on a bayonet, mixed with mineral fertilizers.
Planting marigolds begins in late May:
- The soil should contain turf soil, sand, humus, peat and mineral fertilizers.
- Holes are dug, and the seedling is recessed by 2 cm.
- Drainage in the form of expanded clay is placed at the bottom of the hole in order to prevent water stagnation at the root system.
- The seedlings placed in the hole are dropped on the ground.
- For several weeks, there is continuous watering.
Care for marigolds in the open field
Care is easy and any newbie can handle it:
- Watering. During the growth period, the flowers need watering. After the appearance of flowers, the amount of liquid is reduced, so as not to fill the roots with water. If the summer is dry, it is better to water the flower in the evening.
- Soil loosening. Culture needs a constant loosening of the soil, since the root system needs a constant supply of oxygen. The land around the plant is also subject to care. All weeds must be removed.
- Top dressing. In the care of marigolds unnecessary fertilize the land is not required.However, the required amount of fertilizer should be applied. This will give flowers an extra push to grow. Exclude only the need for manure, which is not necessary to make the soil. Fertilizing culture takes place in 3 stages. At first, it is held during the growth of shrubs. The second - during the formation of buds. The third - during flowering.
- Pruning. Shrubs should look good, so this form of care is required. It is held in the summer. All withered buds are to be removed. Instead, it is possible the emergence of new ones.
- Seed collection. The most healthy shrub is selected and the buds are cut from it. After drying, the seeds are selected from them. When planting, it is possible to receive a flower of a different color. This happens because all the plants are hybrid.
In the fight against pests plant helps smell that scares them. However, follow the rules of care it is necessary:
- In rainy weather, slugs and snails appear in the flowerbed or in the garden. They need to be collected by hand and destroyed. Near the bush you can put a container with chlorinated water.
- At high humidity, it is possible the attack of spider mites. They are struggling with folk remedies using solutions prepared from onions and millennials.
- With the wrong watering mode, gray rot can attack the shrub. Effective measures to combat this disease does not exist. Shrubs to be removed and destroyed.
Despite its smell, marigolds are the decoration of any site. Due to the lush flowering, they make out garden paths or flower beds. According to the recommendations, the bushes with flowers can be planted in garden plots around vegetable crops. Thus, the vegetables will be protected from diseases, because the smell of flowers scares off pests. Dwarf bushes are actively grown on balconies or in greenhouses, being their ornament. If you approach the use of this plant correctly, then beautiful flowers will delight both in the garden plot and at home.
Description and features of the plant
Tagetes (marigolds, Chernobrivtsy, lights) are bushes that can reach up to 130 cm in height. Leaves pinnate-separated or pinnately-excised, in various shades of green. The plant blooms from early summer until the first frost. His flowers are large, yellow, orange or with a brown tint.
In addition to decorating the beds, marigolds have many useful properties:
- their smell scares off insect pests,
- lutein, which is contained in flowers, reduces the likelihood of developing cataracts and improves visual acuity,
- infusion of flowers marigold relieves inflammation of internal organs, relieves stress,
- dried raw materials are seasoning for food.
Planting marigolds in open ground and caring for them is a simple task. It is enough to buy seeds 1 time, and then you can collect them from adult plants. If you do not take part in the reproduction of taggetes, new flowers will sprout independently from the seeds.
Rules for planting in open ground
Seeds of marigolds can be purchased in the store or collected from the plants you like, which have already faded. In the future, they remove their boxes, which are formed on the site of flowers. Next, they must be dried and stored at room temperature until spring.
Planting marigolds in open ground and care for them does not require prior preparation. Seeds can be planted in one of the ways:
- Dry seeds are placed in previously prepared and watered furrows with a depth of not more than 3 cm at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other.
- Seeds can be germinated 2-3 days before planting. They are soaked for 10 minutes, then left in any container and cover with a napkin with water. When the first shoots appear, they are transferred to the bed in the same way as the dry seeds.
Marigolds protect nearby plants from insect pests
When planting marigolds in open ground depends on the region and the type of soil. In any case, it is better to plant them in spring, after warming, so that the seeds do not freeze and rot over the winter. The sooner they are planted, the sooner they will ascend and begin to bloom. The flowering period lasts until the first frost.
Planting marigolds in open ground in autumn is not always possible. They will survive the winter only in the southern regions, where there is no severe frost. In addition, these plants quickly absorb moisture and can rot when a large amount of snow melts.
Planting marigold seeds in open ground and caring for them does not seem difficult even for novice gardeners. The main thing is to remember that the plant is very thermophilic, and make sure that the soil has warmed up before planting. Planting marigolds and care in the open field with frosts is not always possible. In cold regions they are propagated by seedlings. Seeds are germinated at home or in a greenhouse, and transferred to the street only when the soil warms up.
Plants require frequent and abundant watering. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the soil remains loose and permeable to air. Otherwise, individual inflorescences and leaves will begin to rot. They must be carefully removed with scissors and the soil loosened.
Tagetes grows well in any light. The difference is that in open, lighted areas, the bushes will reach maximum height, and the flowers will be larger. In the shade marigolds will grow low, but they will not lose their beneficial properties.
Marigolds grow on any type of soil. They can be planted even on depleted or sandy areas, but on condition of additional feeding. For these purposes, suitable organic fertilizer - compost or humus.
Diseases of the marigolds
Chernobrivtsy very resistant to pests. Phytoncides, which they secrete, scare away insects, protecting not only these plants, but also neighboring ones. For infectious and fungal diseases, they also retain immunity.
The variety of varieties allows you to create whole compositions of Chernobrivtsev.
There are several dangers to which these flowers are exposed:
- In the period of prolonged drought - spider mite. To get rid of it, plants are pollinated with a solution of colloidal sulfur or use it for fumigation.
- With abundant watering flowers attract slugs. To combat them, it is enough to place containers with bleach between the beds of the beds.
Diseases of marigolds in the open field can be easily avoided. If you control the soil moisture and pay attention to the pest invasion in time, Chernobrivtsy will grow tall and healthy. Their flowers will decorate the beds and treat the owner for a variety of different diseases, and the plants on the neighboring beds will be under reliable protection from insects.
Growing marigolds in the open field
Varieties of marigolds:
- Upright marigolds - they are characterized by large double flowers with a diameter of up to 15 cm. A large bush up to a meter in height can grow.
- Rejected or undersized marigold low The bush is from 20 to 40 cm. Flowers can be terry and not terry, their diameter is 5-7 cm.
- Thin leaf or Mexican marigold, the smallest view of all the marigolds. Their main feature are bright small inflorescences with lace-lace leaves, as well as a pleasant aroma. They form whole balls of flowers - about 100 flowers can bloom at the same time. The height of its bush is 20 cm, and the size of the inflorescences is up to 2 cm in diameter. About 70 hybrids of this species were bred.
How to grow marigolds from seed
- grow seedlings
- sowing in open ground
- summer care
- seed collection
Planting marigolds in open ground
If it is not possible to grow seedlings of flowers at home, then they are sown with seeds directly into the ground. It is advisable to do this in mid-late May, so that young shoots do not get frost. The flowers will be late for a couple of weeks, but they will still delight you until the autumn.
Decorate any place marigolds in the box
Choosing a landing site
Marigolds do not like to grow in shade and wet places. Plant them in the sun and they will delight you with their bright colors. It is good to make curbs of them and plant along the beds. In the garden I constantly make rows of marigolds near cabbage, potatoes, berries - they not only scare away various pests, but also decorate the garden with bright colors until the autumn.
After planting, young plants are watered regularly, and by adults they calmly tolerate drought.
Landing marigolds is better not to thicken, they love good ventilation. Therefore, planting in rows and along the edge of the beds is the best solution. High varieties are placed at a distance of about 40 cm, low closer to each other.
These are the most unpretentious flowers - only calendula is simpler than them. You can safely come to the country only on weekends and water them once a week - marigolds will greet you with flowers. They can withstand two weeks without watering.
For beautiful flowering do not leave the old inflorescences, and break them out after withering.
In order for the marigolds to bloom in beautiful bushes, pinch their crown to them, the lateral shoots from the axils of the leaves will actively grow.
Marigolds on a bed
Marigolds tolerate transplant at any age. You can plant already flowering bushes in any other place, or in the fall place it in a pot with a clod of earth - they will delight you with their flowering at home. But it is better to put them on a loggia or other cool place. After the street they will be hot at home.
Marigolds grow well without fertilizers, but if the area under the flowers is very poor, then it is better to feed them several times over the summer for better growth and flowering.
If you want to collect your seeds, then leave a few dried inflorescences - when they dry well - collect the seeds from them. They are well kept at home until spring.
Do not be surprised if the flowers from them grow different - not quite the same as the parent ones - because all marigolds are hybrids.
Watch the video about marigolds - a lot of useful information!
Now the cultivation of marigolds: planting and caring for them will be clear to you. Be sure to grow these healthy and beautiful flowers.