A spider mite is an animal that belongs to the type of arthropod, arachnid class, a subclass of mites, above the order acariform mites, a group of thrombidiform mites, the Tfranychoidea superfamily. This article describes the family of spider mites (they are also true spider mites) (lat. Tetranychidae).
The first reliable information about spider mites appeared in the XVI – XVII centuries, and their scientific description made by Karl Linnaeus has been known since the XVIII century. Females, larvae and nymphs of most tetranichid species secrete webs. With it, they protect their offspring, protect themselves from predators, wind blowing, temperature fluctuations, high humidity and dust. The web also helps them settle in areas remote from the place of birth.
Author photo: Gilles San Martin, CC BY-SA 4.0
What feed spider mites?
Spider mites feed on plant cell sap. Their salivary glands secrete an enzyme that destroys the chloroplasts of plant cells. Most often, animals settle on deciduous trees or grasses, but there are also lovers of coniferous flora. Some species of spider mites (polyphages) can feed on hundreds of different plants, others (oligophages) have a limited set of preferred plants, monogoly (monophages) are found, drinking the juice of only one plant flora. Particularly affected by the proliferation of spider mites, cotton, soda, melons, ornamental plants of open ground, greenhouses and indoor crops.
Photo by: Tony Wills, CC BY 3.0
Where does the spider mite live in nature?
Spider mites live everywhere except in Antarctica. Over 100 species of these animals have been discovered in Russia. The boundaries of the habitat of the tetranichid family are limited only by an average annual temperature of 4.5 ° C. With outbreaks and lack of food, the mites migrate in search of fresh plant leaves. At the same time, they accumulate at the edges of the leaves, forming wriggling tangles with rapidly moving individuals. In open places in the resettlement they are helped by the wind.
As a rule, spider mites love dry and warm weather. With increasing humidity, they are depressed. Arthropods are not able to remove excess water from food, as a result of which physiological starvation occurs and intensive reproduction stops.
Author photo: Aleksey Gnilenkov, CC BY 2.0
Author photo: Aleksey Gnilenkov, CC BY 2.0
Reproduction and development of spider mites
The fertility of ticks depends on the climate, the season, the nutritional value of the plant on which they are found, the age of the females and much more. Spider mites especially actively breed in dry weather at temperatures above 25 ° C. In tropical latitudes and greenhouses, their reproduction occurs continuously throughout the year. These arachnids can produce up to 20 generations in 12 months. In temperate climates, the offspring of spider mites appears once a year, with favorable weather this number increases.
Fertilization in spider mites is not the same as in other acariform forms: it is internal and passes without putting off spermatofors (capsules filled with seminal fluid). Occurs and virgin development (without the participation of germ cells of the male). Only males with a single (haploid) set of chromosomes leave unfertilized eggs.
The development cycle of spider mites consists of the following phases:
The spider mite egg is round, translucent, with a diameter of 1 mm. On average, females lay 7 eggs per day with a stalk for attaching them to a leaf or web. In summer, in a temperate climate, they place eggs on the lower surface of leaves, and in the winter they hide future offspring in bark cracks or fallen leaves. Thus, at the egg stage, spider mites may well survive the winter.
- Hemispherical larva
The larva of the spider mite is similar in lifestyle to an adult, but unlike it has 6 legs.
It is somewhat larger than the larvae, with 4 pairs of legs and color characteristic of the species.
This stage can be traced only in females. Males have the same nymph stage.
- Adult ticksimilar to grub
Neoteny is a phenomenon in which the achievement of maturity and the end of ontogenesis occurs at early stages of development, for example, at the stage of the larva.
Adults spider mites become 10-20 days after the appearance in the form of eggs. At all stages, except the larval, they have 8 legs.
How do spider mites overwinter?
With the onset of leaf fall and a decrease in the length of daylight hours to 16 hours, many fertilized female spider mites go to the soil and hibernate there, falling into diapause. Diapause is a way of experiencing an unfavorable period with ticks and insects. At this time, the animals slow down all the vital processes. They barely move, consume 5.2 times less oxygen and do not eat anything. Since they spend little energy, the substances they store in the epithelium of the midgut are consumed very slowly. During diapause, the animal's body becomes resistant to temperature extremes, excess and lack of moisture, to the effects of poisons.
When the daylight lasts up to 14 hours, only winter females of ticks develop. In winter, they can tolerate lower temperatures to -28 degrees Celsius. Wintering species of spider mites die at -9 ° C, while summer females die at 0 °. In the spring, when the air temperature reaches + 12 + 14 ° С, the females of the spider mites go out, settle on the lower part of the leaves of the plants, twist them with cobwebs and lay eggs. The first spring generations develop on weeds - nettles, quinoa, plantain, etc. By the middle of summer, spider mites migrate to cultivated plants and continue to develop on them.
Author photo: Tracy Wootten, CC BY 3.0 US
Types of spider mites, names and photos
Below is a description of some species of spider mites.
- Common spider mite (lat. Tetranychus urticae) - widespread and extremely multifarious species. He lives on all continents except Antarctica. It feeds on hundreds of species of fodder, herbaceous and ligneous plants. Not seen only on coniferous trees. The common spider mite is a pest of berries, grapes, stone fruit, fruit, cereals, legumes, ornamental and houseplants. Intensively populates crops in July and August. The size of the spider mite depends on how much food it eats. Females reach lengths from 0.4 to 0.6 mm, males - from 0.3 to 0.45 mm. On the part of the body of the tick, containing the first pair of legs, there are 2 pairs of simple eyes.
Adult ticks are greenish-gray, dark green or yellow, with a convex upper and flat lower surface of the body. They inhabit the lower part of the leaflets, covering them with a thick layer of cobwebs. The common spider mites live in colonies. A female under favorable conditions lays over 100 greenish-transparent spherical eggs for three weeks. During the year, animals can leave from 8 to 18 generations. By the time the molt, spider mite eggs become pearl. Tick larvae are transparent, light green or greenish brown in color with two dark spots on the sides. Three weeks the young go from egg to adult, during this time there are new generations that overlap each other. In the colony at the same time there are common spider mites at all stages of development: eggs, larvae, nymphs, sexually mature females and males.
In the second half of summer, in the conditions of a temperate climate, fertilized females appear in the colonies. They acquire an orange-red color, stop feeding and go into the soil or under the exfoliated bark, leaving a trail of cobwebs in the way. They winter, gathered in dense groups, in leaf litter and soil. In southern areas, common spider mites multiply constantly and do not hibernate, bringing up to 20 generations per year.
The common spider mite especially damages cotton, soybeans, and cucumbers, but also other garden, garden and melon crops get from it. He loves apple trees, currants, strawberries, gooseberries, and all stone fruits. On the leaves of cotton purple-red spots are formed, they are abundantly covered with cobwebs, and over time the leaves completely change color and fall. The buds of the plant also fall, which significantly reduces the yield of cotton. Such a picture in Central Asia is called "Canas", "Urgamchak", and in the South Caucasus they call it "Chor".
Author photo: Gilles San Martin, CC BY-SA 2.0
- Atlantic spider mite (lat.Tetranychus atlanticus) the structure is close to the ordinary and lives in Russia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Yugoslavia, USA, Japan. It damages cotton, clover, alfalfa, strawberry, apple, pear. Its adults are distinguished by a yellow-green body color. The pest settles on shoots, fruits, branches, on the upper and lower parts of the leaf of palm trees, citrus. Atlantic spider mites are tolerant of high humidity, can multiply and develop in such conditions. Their length varies from 0.3 to 0, 45 mm.
- Red spider mite (lat. Tetranychus cinnabarinus) likes to live on many indoor plants. It is a frequent visitor to callahs, balsams, lemons, cinerarias, roses, solanaceae, and orchids. The purple-scarlet females are larger than the red males, their length reaches 0.5 mm. The size of the males is 0.3 mm. Animals do not tolerate moisture and prefer heat.
The laid eggs of red spider mites are reddish, shiny, attached to a leaf or web. As they develop, they grow turbid, through the translucent shells, red dots begin to be visible - the eyes of the embryo. Before molting, eggs become opal-shaped. Six-legged larvae hatch from them. First, they feed, and then freeze in the form of chrysalis, from which the nymph I, the protymph, hatch. She also feeds and then freezes in the form of nymphochrizalides I. When molting, a nymph II comes out of her - a deuterronymph. After a period of feeding, she turns into nymphochrizalide II, from which an adult female or male subsequently emerges.
Author photo: Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner, and P.A.C Ooi, CC BY 3.0 US
- Hawthorn tick (lat. Tetranychus viennensis) - the usual inhabitant of Germany and Austria. It is also found in other European countries and in the Middle East. Found in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia (in Primorsky Krai), Moldova, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, China, Korea, Ukraine, etc.
The hawthorn mite lives on Rosaceae: plum, cherry plum, hawthorn, mountain ash, apricot, irghe, apple, etc. The leaves of fruit trees are first covered with yellow-gray spots, and then fall. Fruits on damaged shoots grow smaller than usual. Crop losses can reach 40%, especially in dry years.
The females of this species are dark red ticks with white legs and white gnatosome, their length is 0.5–0.6 mm. The life span of females is about 3 weeks, during which the animals lay up to 100 eggs on the surface of the leaves, covering them with cobwebs. They overwinter under the bark of trees.
Author photo: Art-de-Viant
- Date spider mite (lat. Oligonychus afrasiaticus) prefers heat and dryness, therefore it lives in tropical areas of our planet: in North Africa, Iran and Saudi Arabia. It feeds on the juice of melons, eggplants, date palm, various cereals. From May to September he lives in palm trees, melons and garden crops, because during this period their fruits are very juicy. The rest of the time, the palm mite propagates and feeds on cereals (on Bermuda grass, sugar cane, sorghum).
Pale green females reach a length of 0.3 mm. In favorable conditions, animals give up to 10-12 generations per year. In summer, females live 2-3 weeks, in winter - a few months.
- Turkestan spider mite (lat.Tetranychusturkestani) - wide polyphagus, damages various plants of both open and closed ground. The typical habitat of this spider mite is Uzbekistan. But a pest was found in 25 other countries on 207 species of forage plants. Turkestan spider mite is found in Japan, North America, Europe, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia. Most often it settles on such plants as: Abutilon (Teprastra hop ordinary, white willow, cane, plum, nightshade, clover, eggplant, corn, grapes, elm.
Bulged above and below the ovate body of the tick is 0.3–0.6 mm long, colorless and covered with soft cuticle. A greenish color appears in the Turkestan spider mite because it eats plant cell sap with chlorophyll. The spots on his body are remnants of indigestible food, translucent through the integument.
Wintering females are red. They spend the cold season under fallen leaves, maintaining a temperature of -25 ° C, but dying at -29 ° C. In summer, female Turkestan spider mites live an average of 30 days, up to a maximum of 80 days. They lay 3-20 eggs per day, and in total they make at least 400. Of the fertilized eggs, both males and females emerge, from parthenogenetic only males.
In the photo: A. Egg, V. Lichinka, S. Protonymus, D. Deutronimfa, E. Adult female, F. Adult male. Author of the photo: Systematic & Applied Acarology Society, all rights reserved. www.bioone.org
- Petrobia is a multi-tier (lat. Petrobia latens) - Cosmopolitan, who lives everywhere. It attacks more than 200 economically important plants for humans, including various cereals, onions, garlic, asparagus, strawberries, cucumbers, spices, clover and other legumes. Pest settles on indoor plants. Ticks feed only on leaves, which are covered with yellow spots and fall prematurely. Mass reproduction of these arachnids is possible in dry and hot weather. Multicore petrobias are carriers of the barley tobacco mosaic virus. The virus also infects wheat.
The tick has a red-brown or black body 0.5 mm long with yellow paws, the front ones of which are much longer than the others. During the growing season, it brings up to 3 generations of juveniles. In the fall, the female lays eggs on the soil that will hibernate.
Author photo: Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, CC BY 3.0 US
- Red fruit mite (lat. Panonychus ulmi)mainly found in Germany on elms. It affects more than 144 forage plants. It lives in Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Latvia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, the Caucasus, Finland, Sweden, Japan, South Africa, New Zealand, North America, Australia, and the island of Tasmania.
Settles mainly on deciduous trees of the Rosaceae family, also infects grapes, alder, elm, mulberry, oak, and linden. It is most numerous on apple trees at the beginning of summer. In summer, ticks have a green torso; by autumn, females turn red.
A predatory mite (left) attacks a red fruit mite (right). Photo author: CSIRO, CC BY 3.0
Red fruit mite eggs on an apple tree. Author photo: University of Georgia Plant Pathology Archives, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org, CC BY 3.0
What garden plants does spider mite infect?
- The common spider mite (lat. Tetranychus urticae) loves berries, grapes, stone fruits, fruits, grains, legumes, decorative street and indoor crops.
- Atlantic spider mite (lat. Tetranychus atlanticus) damages cotton, clover, alfalfa, strawberries, apple trees, pears.
- The red spider mite (lat. Tetranychus cinnabarinus) is a frequent visitor to balsam, lemons, nightshade, callas, roses, cineraria and orchids.
- The hawthorn mite (lat. Tetranychus viennensis) is found on rosaceae: plum, cherry plum, hawthorn, apricot, mountain ash, irga, apple.
- Date spider mite (lat. Oligonychus afrasiaticus) eats juice of melon, eggplant, date palm, various cereals.
- Turkestan spider mite (lat. Tetranychus turkestani) often settles on the abutilone (teplum), theophrastus, cuff, acacia, cotton, sunflower, lucerne, burdock, field bindweed, swan, melon, cucumber, and oregano, and arcanum, and red beetroot, and red beetle, and red beetle. quince, hop ordinary, white willow, rush, plum, steed, clover, eggplant, corn, grapes, elm.
- Petrobium is a multicore (Latin Petrobia latens) affects more than 200 economically important plants for humans, including various cereals, onions, garlic, asparagus, strawberries, cucumbers, spices, clover and other legumes.
- Red fruit mite (lat. Panonychus ulmi) is mainly found on deciduous species of trees of the Rosaceae family, and also attacks grapes, alder, elm, mulberry, oak, and linden.
- Red citrus mite (lat. Panonychus citri) prefers tangerines, lemons, oranges and other citrus crops.
Sign: The photo shows how the spider mite looks on indoor and garden plants: cucumbers (1), rose (2), cactus (3), lemon (4). Photo 3 is taken from www.cactusnursery.co.uk. Author Photo 4: Paramecium, CC BY-SA 3.0.
What plants does not like spider mites?
Spider mites are not found on wormwood, pharmaceutical chamomile, celandine, mustard, cyclamen, yarrow, aloe, basil, parsley, marigold, calendula, dandelion, tansy. Not very fond of the parasite and pubescent species: Saintpaulias, Gloxinia, Calceolaria, Colonies.Placing pots with “tasteless” plants on the windowsill will protect other flowers from spider mites, and the pest will not attack them.
Symptoms of spider mites on plants
Spider mite damages the plant by piercing the parenchymal cells of the photosynthetic tissue and damaging the chloroplasts. The reaction to such an invasion in plants may differ somewhat. Symptoms of a spider mite are as follows:
- Light or brown spots appear on the underside of the leaves, over time they merge, the leaf dries out completely and falls off.
- Leaf blades turn red, take on a bronze or marble look.
- The web weaves around the underside of the leaves or other parts of the shoot.
- With a strong reproduction of the parasite, the plant is completely covered with cobwebs, and at the tips of the leaves a mass of actively moving mites accumulates. So they are going to switch to new, food-rich plant species.
- The leaves are deformed: their edges are rolled up, the scapes twist.
- Spider mite can also be determined by withering buds and slow growth of the plant.
Spider mite on orchid
Where does the spider mite on plants come from?
The female spider mite and the eggs it laid overwinter in the soil and under the bark of trees. In the spring, they colonize nearby suitable weeds, and later cultivated plants.
A spider mite is an animal, which means it has the ability to move actively. Even if he leads a sedentary lifestyle, sooner or later food ends at his old place, and he sets off in search of a new place of residence. Spider mites travel on their webs with the help of the wind, slowly creeping over short distances.
How does the spider mite appear in the apartment? We bring the pest with new saplings, soil, with things to indoor and greenhouse plants. Spider mites can get into the apartment and independently: through the open sash windows, descending from the upper floors or closely spaced trees.
Author photo: Olllli, CC BY-SA 3.0
Prevention of spider mites
If you take some precautions, you can prevent the appearance of a pest. And yet, home plants are much easier to protect from the attack of the tick, in the open field it is more difficult to do.
When buying new types of plants, they need to be held separately for some time (in quarantine), having followed their safety.
Sills, tables, shelves and pots that are in contact with or are in close proximity to houseplants should be wiped with alcohol or another disinfectant.
The soil mixture for planting crops must be disinfected. It can be spilled several times with boiling water, calcined in the oven, steamed on a stove or a water bath.
It is necessary to maintain high humidity in the room. To accomplish this task, you can purchase an aerator or continuously spray plants from a spray bottle.
In the garden and gardens you need to remove all the weeds, dig up the soil in the fall, remove crop residues, and follow other agricultural practices.
In a greenhouse, you need to establish a climatic regime in which pests do not live: humidity 80-90%, temperature up to 25 degrees.
As a preventive measure, it is possible to treat plants with acaricidal preparations, as well as plant a number of flowers on which spider mites never settle.
Is spider mite dangerous for humans?
This arachnid brings only indirect harm to man. It does not bite him, does not infect with diseases, but destroys the plants he planted. At the same time crop failures can reach catastrophic proportions. Spider mites promote the dispersal of spores of gray rot, viruses that infect the flora, thereby causing additional damage to the crop.
Destruction of spider mites by mechanical means
If one plant is affected, it is necessary to isolate it from others or only to remove damaged organs. At the initial stage of infection, you can manually remove the spider mites from the leaves or wash them with soapy water. Ticks do not like excess water, which means water procedures and an increase in the humidity level up to 80-90% will help to get rid of them. To do this, the plant should be dipped in warm water or spray well with a spray bottle, not forgetting the underside of the leaves, and placed for 2-3 days in a transparent plastic bag, securing it above the pot with the ground.
Biological agents from spider mites
- Using natural enemies that spider mites fear
The enemy of spider mites in nature is the predatory phytoseiulus (Latin: Phytoseiulus persimilis) mite from the family of parasitiform mites (Latin: Phytoseiidae). This predator feeds exclusively on spider mites. It usually lives in the tropics, from there it was introduced to other countries, including Russia in 1963. It is actively used in order to get rid of spider mites in the greenhouse.
In addition to phytoseiulus, spider mites destroy Amblyseius (Latin Amblyseius), western metasaulus (Latin (Metaseiulus occidentalis), ladybugs (Latin Coccinellidae), etc.
Author photo: Mick Talbot, CC BY 2.0
- Biological preparations
Today, the most popular active drugs to combat spider mites, produced using strains and spores of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. They are safe for humans, plants, warm-blooded animals, birds and beneficial insects. Domestic drugs produced on the basis of this soil bacteria are called Entobacterin, Dendrobacillin, Biotlin, Fitoverm, Bitoxibacillin. Foreign analogues - Trikhodermin, Bicol and others. By the way, these funds also help in the fight against various caterpillars that eat the leaves of plants.
Folk remedies to combat spider mites
Fruiting plants should not be treated with chemicals. If during this period they are plagued by a spider mite, you can apply effective folk remedies that are easy to make at home:
- 2-4% solution of household or green soap.
- an infusion of some plants - garlic, red pepper, onion, horseradish, chamomile, alder, dandelion, black henbane, tobacco, horse sorrel, cyclamen, orange peel, potato tops and others.
Below are a few recipes:
- Recipe for vegetable extract of garlic or onion
Half a teaspoon of chopped garlic or a full spoonful of finely chopped onion pour a glass of boiling water, cover and stand for 24 hours. To remove spider mites from indoor plants, this infusion needs to be sprayed or washed on the plant several times.
- Bitter pepper infusion
100 grams of pepper pods cut and boil in 1 liter of water for an hour. Close and hold the day. Filter and cork in bottles with tightly ground stoppers. For the treatment of indoor or garden plants from spider mites mixed 8 grams of broth, a liter of water and 4 grams of grated laundry soap. Spray or wash the affected plants with this mixture.
200 grams of tobacco or tobacco are poured with 5 liters of cold water and kept for 24 hours. Then boil for 2 hours and filter. The infusion is diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio and 50 g of household soap is added to it per 5 liters of liquid. This solution is necessary to process indoor plants from spider mites.
- Infusion of potato tops
For 4 hours infuse 250 g of tops in 1 liter of water. A plant infected with a spider mite needs to be sprayed with this decoction.
Most of the broths are similar in composition to chemicals and are not harmless to human health. During their use, you must take all precautions to avoid poisoning and allergies.
Chemicals from spider mites
It is possible to rid the garden of the spider mite with a group of chemicals called acaricides, although other classes of pesticides also have a wide spectrum of action and will help to cure plants.
To use poisons for the treatment of plants is necessary only as a last resort, as this also causes the natural enemies of ticks to die, which may later become the reason for the more widespread reproduction of pests. Spraying is required when there is a possibility that you will not be able to control the spread of a dangerous pest. Currently, insecticides and acaricides are more often sold as emulsions or suspensions. Open-dwelling sedentary mites can be destroyed with system-acaricidal agents of systemic action or with special acaricides safe for insects. Parasites are killed by substances containing phosphorus, sulfur, lime or tin. There are 2 groups of chemical agents that are effective, among other things, and against spider mites:
- substances to destroy the stages of animals preparing for wintering,
- drugs to combat the defeat of fruit and vegetable crops during the growing season.
We give examples of some well-known tools.
- Nitrafen - a drug with the smell of carbolic acid. It contains alkylphenols made from resins. Helps to remove spider mites and their eggs. It also destroys aphids, ticks, chervets, scab, moth, etc. Currently, the tool is rarely used, as it can persist for a long time in the soil.
- Malathion(Malathion) - thick light brown liquid with a pungent odor, well soluble in water. It refers to insect acaricidal pesticides. Kills larvae and adult spider mites. To get rid of eggs, it is necessary to make several treatments in a row. The drug also treats plants for aphids, suckers, weevils, garden moths, whiteflies, etc. At the moment, the drug has been supplanted by more effective and safe pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and diazinones. Karbofos is toxic to bees, bumblebees, wasps and other beneficial insect pollinators.
- Acartan - reliable against all stages of the spider mite. It consists of 2 active substances - karatan and keltan.
- Antio - organophosphate drug. Protects plants for 12-15 days.
- Apollo - acaricide that kills eggs and larvae. Safe for humans and insects.
- Benzophosphate - substance of contact action. It is used to combat spider mites on garden and garden crops. Protects plants from pests up to a month.
- Tedion - A specific acaricide, effective against tick larvae.
List of effective drugs
Is there a better remedy for spider mites? List most effective chemical and biological preparations from spider mites.
On the use of agents against spider mites Fufanon and Actellic An experienced gardener will tell you about this video:
Description of drugs
Aktara anti spider mite remedy contains neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and is not an acaricidal agent.
After treatment with Aktar, not only insects are killed, but also phytophagous mites.
Biological insectoacaricide, belongs to the 4th generation of biological products. Phytoverm from spider mites has a very wide range of effects, works against ticks and many insects.
- Release form. Emulsion concentrate, packaged in ampoules of 2, 4, 10 ml and 5 l cans.
- Composition. Aversektin S is a complex of streptomycetes mushrooms, including the products of their activity. Concentration -2 g per liter.
- Impact mechanism. The path of penetration - intestinal and contact. In the body it affects the nervous system, causing convulsions, then paralysis and death of ticks. Appetite disappears after 7-9 hours, death - for 3-5 days. Protection lasts no more than 20 days.
- Compatibility with other means. It is best combined with pyrethroids, which increase its effectiveness and reduce the time of onset of effect. Tank mixes with other chemicals, growth enhancers and fertilizers are also possible. Can not be mixed with alkaline agents. Loss of sediment signals incompatibility.
When to apply? In the absence of wind and any precipitation, with reduced solar activity (in the evening or when it is overcast). The higher the temperature, the more effective the drug. Humidity reduces the effectiveness of the tool. Low toxicity allows the use of the drug for the treatment of indoor plants at home.
How to prepare a solution? To kill ticks, mix 1 ml of the product with a liter of water and pour it into a bucket to get 10 liters of solution. This is enough for 100 square meters of landings. The working solution can not be stored.
Anti-mite and Fufanon
- Release form. Emulsion concentrate, packaged in 10 ml vials and 5 ml ampoules.
- Composition. Malathion at a concentration of 530 g per liter.
- Mechanism of action. Malathion enters the body of ticks by contact and intestinal tracts and becomes malaoxone. It has a very high physiological toxicity, and especially for ticks and insects.
- Duration of action. In greenhouses and greenhouses, malathion is valid up to 7 days, in open soil - up to 10 days.
- Compatibility. They are combined with many chemicals, but it is recommended to pre-test for compatibility before preparing tank mixes.
- When to apply? With low sun activity - with cloudy weather or in the evening. There should be no wind and precipitation, even fog. When using in the house to observe all security measures.
- How to prepare a solution? Against ticks use 10 ml of the drug dissolved in 10 l of cold water. To process 1 tree or shrub will need from 2 to 5 liters of solution. To handle 10 square meters of space is required 1 l.
Mode of application. Spraying affected plants with a spray bottle. For maximum effect, plants should be uniformly moistened with a solution that will not drain to the ground.
- Composition. The main agent is pyrimiphos methyl, in a concentration of 500 g per liter.
- Release form. Emulsion concentrate, packaged in 2 ml ampoules and 5 l cans.
- Impact mechanism. After penetration into the body by intestinal and contact methods, acaricide inhibits the functioning of acetylcholinesterase, which helps the transmission of impulses along the nerves. As a result, the work of many organs is disrupted, paralysis and death of ticks occur.
- Duration of action. Protection can last up to two weeks.
- Compatibility. It is combined with the majority of products, excluding the Bordeaux mixture.
When to apply? Actellic is used when there is no wind and precipitation. The activity of the sun should be low, so the treatment is carried out in the evening or in cloudy weather. At home, you should not use because of the high toxicity of the drug. Affected plants are recommended to take out on the street and carry out processing in the fresh air in compliance with all safety rules.
How to prepare a solution? To pour out 2 ml of means in liter - two waters and to stir.
This volume is sufficient for spraying 5-10 square meters. m. or one tree.
Mode of application. Spraying evenly and abundantly all the available parts of the plant, preventing the flow of funds on the ground.
- Release form. Suspensions concentrate, packaged in bottles of different sizes.
- Composition. The main substance - clofentezin, concentration of 500 g / l.
- The mechanism of action. It passes through intestinal and contact methods into the body of ticks and sterilizes them, disrupting the normal functions of the reproductive system. On eggs and larvae has a highly toxic effect, destroying them.
- Duration of action. It works 2 times longer than other acaricides - the protective period is about a month.
- Compatibility. Combined with non-alkaline growth accelerators.
- When to apply? In standard conditions - in the absence of precipitation, wind and high activity of the sun. Home use is not forbidden, it is recommended to use a respirator and gloves when working with the drug.
- How to prepare a solution? Pour 2 ml of the product into 5 l of cold water and stir. This is usually enough to handle 10 sq.m. landings.
- Mode of application. Careful spraying of all surfaces of plants, trying to process even hidden areas. The better the bush is wetted by the means, the more chances to destroy the entire colony of the pest.
- Toxicity. Apollo is almost harmless to bees and other insects, toxic to people and animals, but very weak. Belongs to the 4th class of toxicity.
Innovative drug, guaranteed to reduce the colonies of any ticks - vegetarians.
- Release form. Emulsions concentrate packaged in 2 and 5 ml ampoules.
- Composition. The main substance is bromopropyl. Concentration of 500 g per liter.
- Impact mechanism. Used for contact penetration, after which disrupts the activity of many body systems of the tick.
- Duration of action. It depends on the tick species and varies from 10 to 40 days.
- Compatibility. It goes well with modern fungicides and insecticides. It is not recommended to mix with other acaricides and alkaline agents.
When to apply? At the time of application of acaricide and 3-4 hours after that there should be no wind, precipitation, high humidity and strong solar activity.Perfect for use in the home, but before processing it is necessary to protect the skin with clothing and remove animals and children from the room. After the procedure - make a wet cleaning, to prevent contact of the drug with the skin.
How to prepare a working solution? Depending on the number of pests use from 10 to 20 ml of the drug dissolved in a bucket of water. This amount is enough to handle 10 bushes, 2-5 trees or 100 square meters. m landing area. Storage of the solution is allowed for no longer than 2 hours.
Omite 30 and 57
For the treatment of large areas and many plants, the emulsion is diluted in 5 liters of cold water, increasing the flow rate up to 10-15 ml.
The amount of powder increases to 50 g. The solution is used immediately, without storing it for longer than a couple of hours. Plants to process for 20 days before eating fruits and vegetables.
An experienced florist in this video will tell you how to use drugs against spider mites correctly:
We reviewed the insecticide rating of spider mites.
And an extensive range of modern tools for ticks allows you to choose the best tool for each consumer.
Spider mite: pest description
The spider mite is a representative of the arachnid class. It is resistant to the effects of insecticide preparations, chemicals from a common mite hardly have an effect on a spider mite. The pest is red, yellow or orange. Spider's web is one of most common pests garden and vegetable garden.
A cobweb is a very small mite, a small insect, having an oval shape and reaching a size of 0.4-1.0 mm. Some individuals with a good appetite can reach 2 mm. The body of the pest is covered with small setae, placed very rarely.
Pests settle on the underside of the leaf. You can determine the defeat of a plant by insects by light points on the leaf surface. After some time, they move to the upper side of the sheet. Reproduction of pests occurs when daylight is more than 14 hours and the air temperature is from 12 to 40 degrees. In harsh conditions, females hide in shelters and fall into diapauseduring which life processes in the body slow down, which allows insects to exist for a long time without food.
The female of the pest comes to life immediately after the conditions become favorable, and begins to absorb a large amount of food and reproduce. These insects do not tolerate moisture, so in the premises a favorable environment is dry air.
Spiderweb lives in gardens and in gardens, but can easily get into the room — it can fly in with a gust of wind through an open window. Spider mite in this case is placed on the room flowers and feeds on them. Also, a flower mite can appear in the house on a bouquet of flowers or with a ground for planting, and the question arises: how to get rid of it. If the spider mite appeared on indoor plants, you need to know how to deal with it correctly.
What harm to plants can cause spider mites, signs of a pest?
The most common types are common and red spider mite. Normal damages flowers, fruit, ornamental and vegetable crops. Cellular sap is the insect's favorite food. They pierce the surface of the leaves and infect the flora, sucking the juice and disrupting the structural integrity - the leaves dry out and crumble. Since the insect is very small, it is difficult to detect it. A sign that the plant is sick is web. If insects accumulate in large numbers on the leaves, light spots are found that form large white areas and increase in size.
On an infected flower, leaves and buds fall, flowering stops. Most often you can find spider mites on a rose or chrysanthemum.
In the affected leaf, the intensity of photosynthesis slows down, this makes the flower painful and susceptible to infectious diseases. The pest itself is a distributor of infections: gray mold, viral diseases.
How to deal with spider mite
Let's look at how to deal with a spider mite.
After the spider mite has appeared on plants, it is necessary to immediately begin to combat it.
To begin with, treat the plant with a solution of detergent or laundry soap. Use warm solution. If you use this method, you will not get rid of the pest completely, but you will be able to destroy a significant part. If the cobweb appeared on single colors, they need to be removed. The fight against spider mites on indoor plants is primarily correct watering, after which you should cover the plants with plastic bags for three days.
Chemical methods of struggle, how to get rid of spider mites with drugs
To get rid of the pest completely, spray the leaves. To do this, use phosphorus or sulfur preparations. Sulfur and phosphate preparations from spider mites need to alternate.
The following substances are also effective in fighting insects:
These high-quality drugs are able to effectively destroy the pest. It is required to spray the plantings several times with a break of a couple of weeks, since insecticides cannot kill insect eggs, it is necessary to wait until new pests are born.
Means "Fitoverm" can destroy pests even indoors, because the drug has low toxicity. Keep in mind the means of protection: wash hands thoroughly after handling, change clothes.
The drug "Aktellik" - an even more effective remedy for pests. It is much more toxic and kills insects almost immediately. "Actellic" is recommended when other means no longer help, with a massive defeat of plants. Treatment with this drug is carried out only in open space, observe all precautions and keep away from pets.
Neoron destroys both adult individuals and their eggs after two treatments.
Folk methods of dealing with spider mites
If it is not possible to purchase a chemical remedy for pests, use folk home remedies to combat ticks. Rather effective method of dealing with spider webs - dousing with cold water. Conduct dousing only if the plant is able to withstand it. Fighting a spider mite with folk remedies is possible even when the plant cannot be sprayed - you must place a jar of turpentine or finely chopped garlic next to it. A shrub with the specified means is covered with an oilcloth and left for several hours.
Garlic can also be used to make a drug that is sprayed with an infected plant. Take about 200 grams of finely chopped garlic and cover with a liter of water. Tightly close the container with the mixture and leave for 24 hours. To spray affected flowers, take only 6 grams of solution per liter of water.
In a similar way you can make a solution of onions, which is not required to be diluted.
Very effective in the fight against insects medicinal dandelion. In finished form, this tool is sold in any pharmacy. 30 grams of dandelion roots chop and fill with a liter of water. Let the solution stand for a few hours. Strain and use for spraying. Another popular remedy is cyclamen: boil several tubers of cyclamen for about three-quarters of an hour. Cool the mixture and let it brew for several days. After that, spray the insect-infected flower. After five days, repeat the procedure.
If hard-leaved plants are affected, use regular medical alcohol. Moisten a cotton swab in it, rub the leaves with a thin layer so that the alcohol does not cause burns. Before you carry out the procedure, try the method on one sheet.
Preventive measures, how to protect plants from spider mites
Before you think about the destruction of Putin's mite, you should talk about preventing its occurrence, since it is much more difficult to remove the spider mite than to protect the plants.
The pest is viable. He experiences the most severe conditions in secluded places, and then appears again on the sheet and begins to multiply. However, you can protect the plant from the pest, if you follow simple tips on prevention.
- It is necessary to regularly spray the flowers and wipe them with a wet sponge.
- When heating is turned on indoors, the plants should be more frequently inspected, especially room chrysanthemums and roses.
- Carefully study the flowers brought to the house and indoor plants - observe for several days, as the pest could hide in the unblown sheets.
- Before planting the soil must be etched.
A spider mite is a serious pest capable of hitting the entire landing as soon as possible. Now you can use effective remedies against spider mites - both chemical and popular, made at home.
How the spider mite looks and how it spoils the plants
Tetranychus urticae - an insect so small that it just does not work out, it is only 0.5 mm in size. To see the pest, you will need a magnifying glass into which you can contemplate an oval body, covered with rare bristles, as well as several pairs of legs, with the help of which it deftly runs through the plants and moves from them to the neighboring ones.
The color of spider mites can be different - green, yellow, red, orange, it largely depends on the environment and on which plants it lives. But most often has a green color.
The plant chosen by the tick becomes his home, and he begins to braid him with his thin cobweb. It is one of the signs (symptoms) of the presence of a spider mite in a culture. Food for the pest is the plant sap, so it bites into the leaf, and can bite into the petals of flowers. As a result, the inner side of the leaves after the attack of the spider mite is covered with small white dots, and this is the second sign of the presence of an insect on the plant.
After the leaf is damaged, a failure occurs in a plant such as photosynthesis. Culture does not receive all the nutrients that must accumulate, as a result of which it weakens, begins to ache, and then may die. As for the flowers, the mite inexorably spoils the entire flower, destroying it from the inside, naturally, there is no longer any aesthetic appearance and it cannot be. It is worth noting that the tick, leaving the already “gutted” plant, and moving to another, suffers various diseases.
The difficulty of identifying a pest by symptoms is further complicated by the fact that when the leafed leaf surfaces begin to turn yellow and the foliage falls off, inexperienced plant growers think that this is a manifestation of fungal diseases and spend valuable time on fungicide treatments. But once again we emphasize: on lemons, roses, yams and cucumbers, spots first appear, where a tick clings.
Look here for a wonderful video, where close-ups showed the symptoms of a spider mite defeat (to speed up viewing, click on the gear and set the viewing speed to 1.5):
Pest multiplication occurs almost at lightning speed - in one, maximum two weeks, an adult individual emerges from the egg. Only low temperatures and sufficient humidity can restrain this process — in these cases, reproduction occurs rather slowly. But instead, a little later, when a favorable atmosphere is established, you can get an anomalous outburst of mite fertility, and then it will be just everywhere. It is noteworthy that under room conditions the pest occupies the territory more quickly, and if one plant gets sick, then very soon the whole flower corner can get sick.
Peculiarities of spider mite behavior
To deal with the tick is quite difficult, for this you need to know the features of its behavior. For example, in the intense heat, the pest leaves the garden, heading for dark places, and there freezes, or, in another way, falls into short-term hibernation (diapause). Such places are most often premises. After a drop in abnormal heat, the spider mite returns to its activities.
Similar behavior in insects can be observed in the autumn. With the onset of cold weather, the female also falls asleep, and not all individuals seek shelter, some remain to spend the winter right on the flowers.
During these periods - when the pest "leaves" - it is useless to process plants with some preparations, because the tick will return safe and sound.
Folk and preventive measures to counter spider mites for indoor plants
As you know, it is easier to prevent a disease than to cure, in which case this saying is 100% valid. When growing indoor plants, you should apply preventive measures so that the flowers do not experience the invasion of spider mites:
- Ground treatment for plants. Before you carry out the planting / transplanting flowers into the newly acquired soil, it should be processed - fry in the oven or cook in a microwave. Similarly, to do with other components - sand, stones for drainage, etc. But we are not fond of “cooking” useful soil microbes, therefore, we most often use water procedures.
- Periodic "shower" for plants. These procedures will reduce the likelihood of a tick, because it does not like moisture. Once a week, plants can be taken to the bathroom and just wash them all the leaves under trickles of lukewarm water.
30-40 ° C.
Low toxic purchase of spider mites
- Treatment with insect-acaricides of biological origin. These are “Fitoverma”, “Actofit” and “Vermitek” substances. They are safe for humans and animals, but for spider mites - destructive. But, unfortunately, as for the whitefly, such spraying has absolutely no effect on asleep individuals, eggs and larvae, so the treatment should be carried out regularly. If the temperature in the room fluctuates around 20 degrees, then it is necessary to process it once every 10 days, and if it is much higher, then the treatment takes place twice a week. But for these drugs there is one caveat - if the room is colder than 18 degrees, they are useless, they have no effect on the pest.
- Hormonal drug "Apollo" contact action. It has minimal toxicity, but it destroys the egg-laying and does not allow adult ticks to reproduce. Use according to the instructions.
Here is a rather detailed video review of preparations for protection against spider mites:
Biological methods of protection against spider mites
From biological means of struggle in greenhouses and winter gardens, predatory entomophagous insects are used mainly - golden-eyed, phytoseiulus, metasseiulus of the West and Amblyseius (MacKenzie and Californian). It is more convenient to use phytoseiulyus, since they multiply rapidly and gladly destroy another sapsucking pest, the whitefly.
In conclusion, I would like to note that although it is difficult for the symptoms to detect the presence of a tick in time, the cobwebs are poorly visible, and the mite itself is too small, but it is much easier to cope with it than with the whitefly. So the use of any of the above measures to combat the spider mite will surely give a result, and quite quickly - just pay proper attention to this, since a single treatment due to the presence of egg-laying is not enough.
Spider mite morphology and external signs of plant damage
Spider mites are small arthropods, with a rounded or oval body, the length of which does not exceed 1 mm. It is easy to distinguish them from insects by the number of limbs: in adult ticks there are four pairs of legs, that is, eight pieces. While in an adult insect there are always three pairs of legs.
Note: insect larvae may have a different number of limbs (6 or more).
Spider mites, unlike their relatives, have only two pairs of eyes. A characteristic sign - the selection of the web, which served as the name. The color can be different - red, brown, green, spotted - these are their specific features (for example: red, or two-spotted spider mite).
При появлении паутинного клеща на комнатных растениях начинается увядание листьев, молодые побеги и листовые пластинки желтеют и скручиваются. На листьях появляются сухие желтые пятна, и серебристый оттенок.
При сильном заражении появляется паутина, листья, а иногда и цветы, становятся деформированными, на них появляются полоски, пятна, иногда части растения полностью засыхают. At the same time, new buds cease to develop, since pests are also destroying them.
Prerequisites for the appearance and methods of infection
Spider Mite Likes:
- dry air
- lack of drafts,
- lack of watering (this leads to an increase in humidity),
- high temperature
- greenhouse plants (they are affected several times stronger than their relatives growing outside).
Mite not only crawls from one plant to another, its microscopic dimensions allow it to move through the air. Caught up in a gust of wind, the pest can travel tens of kilometers. Very often, the infection is promoted by a person or pets: a tick from an infected plant gets on clothes, wool or feathers, and then moves to a healthy plant. The substrate from under the infected plant, in which pests or their eggs remain, as well as poorly washed or not disinfected before planting flower pots, will lead to infection of healthy plants.
Methods of struggle
The fight against ticks - plant pests has been going on for a long time. Leading manufacturers of pesticides and chemicals from year to year create and modify various means of spider mites. But the problem is that these pests do not just multiply quickly, but quickly adapt to poisons. Just a few generations of ticks need to increase the concentration of the active substance, or change the drug. This applies to all chemicals from spider mites that parasitize houseplants.
Initial stage of infection
How to deal with spider mite on indoor plants in the initial stages of infection:
- isolate the plant from others
- if a plant with smooth leaves is thoroughly washed under running water (in the shower), special attention should be paid to the lower surface of the leaf,
- if the plant blooms, then remove the flowers,
- if you can leave the plant in the fresh air.
These preliminary measures will not get rid of the tick, but will slow down its development and distribution. Next, you should treat the plant acaricidal drugs. In the case of the initial stage of infection, you can use non-toxic plant-based drugs (cinnamon stone, rosemary oil or feverfew). The disadvantage of these drugs is that they leave pest eggs viable. Therefore, the treatment should be carried out 6-8 times with an interval of 2-3 days.
Note: acaricidal preparations made specifically for ticks, not to be confused with insecticides - anti-insect drugs.
At the initial stage of infection, you can wipe the surface of the leaf with alcohol (96%), but you need to keep in mind that plants with delicate leaves can get burned.
The best means in the fight against ticks on houseplants were and remain chemical preparations. The only drawback of these products is that many of them are very toxic, both for people and for pets. But in the case of a strong infection, there are only two ways out - to throw away the plant or use such drugs.
Before processing you need to cut the most affected parts of the plant (leaves, shoots, you can small twigs). Treatment with acaricidal preparations should be carried out in the first half of the day, the optimum temperature of 22-28 degrees. The plant must be dry. After 3-4 days, repeat the treatment.
Description of spider mite
Spider mite is one of the most dangerous pests for cultivated plants.
Mite refers to phytophages (an insect that feeds on plant matter). Small individuals are one of the most dangerous and resistant pests. There are a huge number of species of spider mite family Tetranychidae. Insect can be divided by various parameters:
- The size. Representatives from one to two millimeters are known.
- The site of the lesion. Depending on the place of settlement - bulbs, buds, buds, leaves, rhizome.
- The number of limbs. There are pests with two and four pairs of limbs.
- Degree of impact.
The tiny size of the insect is often misleading. The first signs of the appearance of pests are confused with improper care. An increase in tick populations causes significant damage to the plant.
Insect pierces, and then gnaws tissue culture. Ticks suck up vital cell sap. Subsequently, the plant metabolism is disturbed. Culture is gradually fading. Total inaction can destroy the green space.
The pest is able to survive in the most adverse conditions. For insects, the ideal temperature in the range of + 12 to + 40 degrees. One female is able to lay about two hundred eggs. Within one year more than fifteen generations can hatch.
In dry and hot weather, pests are particularly active. The onset of adverse conditions does not destroy the pest.
Under unfavorable conditions, the tick can lurk for a long time.
Ticks are able to wait out a critical time in a shelter. To do this, insects are moved to the top layer of the substrate, under plant debris or in openings. Into a state of diapause (slowing down all the life processes of the body) insects fall after certain signals:
- Reducing the duration of daylight hours to fourteen hours.
- Sharp temperature drop.
- Not enough food.
Ticks are able to return to the former way of life after the normalization of all conditions.
Spider mites first settle on the underside of the leaves. In the future, the pests spread to the upper areas, fruits and shoots. The defeat of large colonies is hard to miss. The plant is completely shrouded in cobwebs. On the threads you can see tiny insects of red or green color. On the body of pests are dark spots.
Mites can spread through the air. Flower growers often accidentally transfer the pest to other crops. It is important to remember that ticks can move independently to another plant.
First, the spider mite damages the underside of the leaves.
Pests move in search of food or a new breeding ground. Mites attack different varieties and subspecies of flora representatives. Therefore, the infected plant must be isolated from other cultures.
Most often in conditions of moderately continental climate there is a red spider mite. The common and Atlantic insect species is less common.
The common mite is a great threat to ornamental crops, fruit trees and vegetables. Insect recognized as a global pest. Mite is able to destroy more than 950 species of plants. Most often appears in greenhouses and indoor cultures. Differs in high protective reaction. The pest no longer responds to many chemicals.
At home, mites often damage chrysanthemums, roses and crotons.
Preventive measures and methods to combat spider mites
Need to regularly inspect the plant. Special attention should be paid to new (acquired or donated) cultures. The plant must first be placed on antiparasitic quarantine.
The rapid development of the tick occurs in a dry, hot environment. Therefore, it is desirable to air the room daily. You can also install a humidifier.
In an open area, it is necessary to promptly destroy all weeds and plant residues. It is very important to water and feed all cultures regularly. Before the first cold spells should carefully dig up the soil.
Spraying and hygiene
Spider mite does not live in conditions of high humidity.
Spider mite does not tolerate high levels of humidity. Therefore, in the first place, you should periodically spray water on the plants. It is possible to leave an open container filled with water near the culture.
At the first signs of damage, it is necessary to mechanically assemble all the parasites. To do this, you can wash all areas of the plant with soap and water at room temperature. It is important to use a non-oxidizing agent. It is advisable to prepare a solution based on soap.
Perform the procedure is not recommended large, small-leaved, as well as pubescent plants. Washing does not rid the culture of spider mites. The insect may remain in the crevices and substrate. After treatment, the pest will continue to eat the plant.
Spider mite on indoor plants can not withstand ultraviolet rays. In the natural environment, the pest is hidden from the sunlight under the leaves. Enough two minutes of processing plants ultraviolet lamp. The device will not only prevent the occurrence of a tick.
Before treatment with ultraviolet light, it is necessary to remove all the affected areas.
Ultraviolet increases the resistance of the culture to diseases of various origins.
Argued that the lamps have a negative impact on the development of indoor cultures. Lamps made for home use, provide plants with a sufficient level of exposure to the rays.
At the first manifestations of spider mites, it is necessary to wipe the leaves with alcohol (96%). For processing, prepare a small spray or fleece. Excessive use can harm the plant.
It is easy enough to apply the drug to the affected areas. Alcohol should evaporate quickly. The forums often recommend diluting alcohol. In fact, the tool will lose its effectiveness. Prolonged evaporation can cause leaf burns.
With the help of alcohol you can get rid of pests in window crevices. In case of mass destruction of all indoor crops, all window sills and flowers should be thoroughly washed and processed. It is necessary to wash all the curtains and wash the shutters (blinds).
Hand-pick small pests will not work. Inactivity or insufficient treatment can lead to the complete destruction of all crops. It will be required to reuse all means.
Treatment alone is not enough. It will take several courses. Single lesions can be destroyed with the help of biological herbal remedies.
Additional recommendations can be found in the video:
Very poisonous plant. Can be found in the natural environment in the fields, gardens and littered areas. The culture is also grown for medicinal purposes. Helen contains many alkaloids. A high level of toxicity has an annual plant. It is advisable to collect the culture in late autumn or in April. Plucked plants in a package or containers quickly lose their therapeutic functions. To destroy spider mites, you can prepare powder, tincture or decoction.
For broth should prepare 3 kg of fresh flowering grass. It is necessary to boil the bleached cloth for two hours in an enamel saucepan. To the filtered means you need to add boiled water. The total amount of broth should be ten liters. Powder crushed henbane can be used to dust culture.
Infusion can be prepared for spraying. Ten liters of liquid will need one kilogram of dry henbane. In the filtered infusion you need to add about 30 grams of shavings of soap.
In a bucket of warm water must be placed a pound of fresh leaves. After three hours, strain the tincture. It is possible to use means right after production. The first treatment for prophylaxis can be carried out after the winter rest period. The plant is also treated after the withering of the inflorescences. To destroy settled pests need to repeat the procedure every two weeks.
Dandelion roots can be saved in winter. To do this, it will be necessary in a dark cool room to fall asleep areas of the plant with moist clean sand.
Tincture helps to get rid of not only the spider mite. Dandelion has an effective effect on the shield and aphids.
For the manufacture of infusion should choose one kilogram of dried plants. Crushed areas need to fill with ten liters of warm water (not more than 60 degrees). After 16 hours, you can strain the infusion.
Before use, you will need to double the amount of liquid (forty grams of soap per 10 liters of water). You need to add detergent to the infusion. Means does not cause burns of leaves. Therefore, you can use the infusion in a non-diluted form.
Tobacco and shag tobacco
To destroy spider mites, you need 400 grams of dry leaves and a stem of plants. The decoction can be used for spraying, fumigating and dusting affected crops.
Tobacco present and shag.
Raw materials must be poured with 10 liters of water and infused for 24 hours. Then you need to boil the infusion. After cooling, you can filter the broth. You need to add ten liters of water and fifty grams of laundry soap.
For the preparation of infusion will need leaves and shoots. Raw materials need to be minced. It is necessary to fill the bucket with the resulting mass. From above it is necessary to fill in with warm water. Need to insist within 60 minutes.
You can use the root to kill the tick. Concentration should be reduced by half. Ten liters of water will need one kilogram of roots. Need to insist horseradish for two days.
Then you need to boil the infusion and leave for another 48 hours. The resulting liquid must be filtered. The finished product can be bottled. The tool will retain its properties in a cool dark place.
A pound of garlic must be chopped. The mass should be poured 3 liters of water and insist for five days.
For spraying the affected plant it is necessary to dilute 60 ml of filtered infusion in ten liters of warm water. It is advisable to add fifty grams of laundry soap.
For the preparation of infusion will need three hundred grams of chopped roots. Particles need to fill with ten liters of hot water.
Infusion must be kept for three hours. In the strained liquid, you must add 40 grams of soap. Spraying will help get rid of aphids, spider mites and thrips.
Tubers must be cut. The resulting segments should be boiled for forty minutes. Cold broth need another 24 hours to insist. Then it should be decanted means.
Requires re-spraying. It is advisable to carry out the procedure after 5 days.
If the plant is severely affected, it is necessary to use chemicals.
The drug is also known as "Akarin." A very effective remedy for the destruction of insects contact-intestinal effects. The drug is narrowly aimed at defeating pests. Does not cause pollution of the natural environment. Means quickly split in the substrate and water.
After processing, it is not recommended to harvest fruit and berry crops for 3 days. To prepare the solution will need 2 milliliters of the drug and one liter of water. The consumption rate per liter - per 100 square meters. It is advisable to treat the plant on a dry, windless day.
It is recommended to carry out the procedure in the morning or in the evening. The temperature should be between + 18 and +34 degrees. Mixing with other drugs can harm the plant. The prepared solution should not be stored for future use.
Effective insectoacaricide. Destroys aphid, whitefly, shield and mites. The drug is produced in ampoules of two and four milliliters. For processing plants need to dissolve one ampoule (2 ml) in two liters of water at room temperature. It is necessary to spray the liquid evenly on all affected areas.
The drug is dangerous to humans. Do not use the tool indoors. It is necessary to limit the contact of children and animals.
A specific drug destroys young larvae and spider mite eggs. Sterilizes adults.
The tool can be combined with other fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. Does not affect bees and other beneficial insects. For careful processing, it is necessary to dissolve one teaspoon of the drug in ten liters of water. Leaves need to be processed from above and below.
Contact acaricide very effectively removes the plant from adult spider mites. Increasing the concentration will help get rid of the pest at all stages of development. The effect of the drug lasts for two months.
The tool does not cause toxic effects on bees and birds. It is not recommended to carry out treatment near aquariums.
For reprocessing, select acaricides of another group. Ideal “Omite 30 SP”. "Demit" can be combined with other drugs. Not recommended for simultaneous use with Bordeaux mixture.
To destroy the pest can also be used:
- Karate insecticoacaricide,
- drugs "Bicol" and "Bitoxibacillin",
- Bio-insecticide "Bona Forte Bio",
- acaricide "Neoron" and "Nissoran",
- “Omait 30 SP” and “Omait 57 CE”,
- "Fufanon (Fufan)",
Fighting spider mite entomophages
To get rid of pests, you can use predators.
Mites Amblyseius Californian, Western Metasaulus and Phytoseiulus are able to destroy all insects.
The number of spider mites can also be reduced with the help of a golden-eyed predatory insect.
Oh, we suffered from this tick, when he began to spoil the home rose. И помогла нам обычная марганцовка, вернее её слабенький раствор, которую почему-то здесь не упоминают. Мы полили почву раствором, опрыскали саму розу, вот это и помогло. Но если бы я знал про чеснок, то использовал бы его. Спасибо за совет.
Мне понравилось как клин клином вышибают- завести одних клещей, чтобы уничтожить других))
Агротехнические меры борьбы с паутинным клещом
- Глубокая вспашка
To destroy the wintering stages of spider mites, deep plowing is carried out. In the gardens they dig up the land next to fruit bushes, in the beds, near the berry bushes. This technique contributes to the activation of predatory insects - stafilinid, ground beetles and others, able to climb into the soil and destroy their victims (ticks, including). The positive impact of plowing on the restriction of harmful species is also that spider mites, located in the surface layer of the soil, will die in winter from low temperatures (-29 ° C).
- Soil disinfection
To get rid of spider mites in greenhouses and greenhouses, in the spring they disinfect the soil with bleach or sulfur checkers.
- The distance between the beds
If last year there were recorded cases of infection of plants in open ground, then it is desirable to leave a considerable distance between the beds: it is more convenient to deal with the spider mite in one place, preventing the spread of the pest.
Crop change (crop rotation) is another method to limit the number of pests. Constant cultivation of the same crops in one place leads to the spread of parasites. You can change places cucumbers and tomatoes with cabbage, on the last plants ticks settle reluctantly.
- Planting resistant varieties
Currently, all crops have varieties and hybrids that are tolerant or resistant to certain types of pests.
In the open field, it is necessary to remove all the weeds so that in early spring the spider mites females have nowhere to breed.
- Sophisticated fertilizer application
On soils where nitrogen prevails over potassium and phosphorus, the number of spider mites increases 3 times. Conversely, if phosphorus-potassium fertilizers prevail, the pest reproduction rate is limited.
How to get rid of spider mites by physical methods
Physical methods of dealing with spider mites are based on the harmful effects of high or low temperatures on the pest: in the fall, the soil in the greenhouse is covered with a film, hoses are brought under it, and hot steam is released. Also, plants are treated with ultraviolet lamps: radiation detrimental effect on the spider mite and helps to remove it.
Spider mite is the most common pest of potted plants.
Small insect with elongated body, has 4 pairs of legs. The female mite is about 0.4–0.5 mm long, the male is much smaller. The body color of the parasite is off-white in summer and orange-yellow or reddish in early spring and autumn. Eggs of spherical shape, very small, pale green color. Larvae are paler in color than adult insects.
The entire development cycle of the mite from an egg to a mature individual proceeds for 10–24 days, depending on the temperature and humidity of the air.
The spider and its larvae feed on cell sap, they suck it out of plants, piercing the surface of the leaf with paired saw-like jaws and bristles.
Signs of defeat
Damaged by the spider leaves can be easily found among the home flowers - they are covered with yellow spots.
The first signs of plant mites damage - the appearance on the underside of the leaf between the veins of clusters of transparent cobwebs, in which you can see moving points. This is the spider mite spider.
With a strong infection, shiny white web-like membranes are formed between the stems and leaves of the plant.
The areas of leaves damaged by the pest are covered with pale yellow spots, which then merge into one spot, gradually discoloring the whole plant, which leads to its death.
Biological methods of tick disposal
The experience of growing indoor plants has shown that in order to combat spider mites, it is better to abandon chemical control agents in children's rooms and kitchens, in places of direct contact of plants with humans and domestic animals.
Good results are obtained by processing plants damaged by a mite with infusions and decoctions of insecticidal plants: onions, garlic, yarrow, pyrethrum, potatoes, white henbane, dope, decoction of cyclamen tubers, and Persian chamomile.
For the preparation of infusion using tops of only healthy potatoes. To do this, 1.5 kilograms of green mass insist in 10 liters of warm water for 3−5 hours.
In a freshly prepared solution add 40 grams of soap and immediately sprayed the plants on which the spider mite settled.
For this infusion both bulbous scales and bulbs are used:
200 grams of onion peel or finely chopped fresh onion (about 20 grams) is poured with 1 liter of hot water and infused in a closed vessel for 3-5 days. After this, the infected plant is filtered and sprayed 2–3 times abundantly with intervals of 4−5 days. And you can also wash the plant infusion of onions 2 times a day, spreading it in a ratio of 1: 2 with water.
To prepare the infusion:
80 grams of crushed dry raw materials are scalded with boiling water, made up to 1 liter of water and infused for 2–3 days. Before spraying, add 2 grams of laundry soap to each liter of infusion.
For cooking broth:
80 grams of crushed dry yarrow is poured with 1 liter of water and boiled for 0.5 hours, then filtered and cooled. Before spraying, add 20 grams of laundry soap to 10 liters of broth.
For the preparation of infusion of chamomile baskets are used inflorescences that are collected during flowering and dried in the shade in a draft.
1 kilogram of dried flowers insist in 10 liters of hot (70 C) water for 12 hours. In cooled and filtered infusion add water in the ratio of 1: 3 and 50 grams of laundry soap.
Through the meat grinder pass 25−30 heads of garlic, wring out, pour the first time with 5 liters of water, then filter. The remaining marc is poured a second time with water and filtered. The resulting liquids (10 liters) are drained together and immediately spray the affected plants with them.
The active principle in cyclamen is toxin saponin, an effective tool in the destruction of mites.
50 grams of fresh tubers are boiled in 0.5 liters of water until they are boiled soft. The liquid is cooled and filtered through gauze and infused for 24 hours, then applied with a brush on the affected leaves, twigs and stem of the plant.
Repeat treatment after 5−7 days, until complete disappearance of pests.
The solution from the Persian chamomile (P. carneum) and green soap has a detrimental effect on parasites.
For 1 liter of water you will need 5 grams of green soap and 5 grams of infusion of pyrethrum flowers. The solution is first sprayed with a plant, then after a day it is washed with water at room temperature. The procedure is repeated until the complete destruction of the parasite.
A soap solution in a mixture with a decoction turns the medicine prepared for pest control into an emulsion, which evaporates more slowly, which contributes to a more effective effect of the preparation on the plant. And parasites have the opportunity to eat and multiply.
And also good results are obtained by spraying the plants damaged by the mite with an alcoholic infusion of pyrethrum.
To do this, 8 grams of dry flowers of pyrethrum pour 50 grams of ethyl alcohol and insist 14−15 days. Before spraying the tincture is diluted in 20 parts of water and for every 6 parts of the solution, add 1 part of green soap.
Sulfur powder and tar soap against mite
Colloidal sulfur stops the vital activity and development of the spider mite, however, a positive result will be only when properly applied:
- Sulfur granules finely crush.
- Spray the plant with water mist until lightly misting leaves.
- Powder the leaves with sulfur powder.
- The temperature in the room must be above 25 degrees.
Dissolve 50 grams of therapeutic soap in a liter of warm water and spray the plants on which the mite settled.
Use of chemicals
To get rid of spider mites by 90−100% for several spraying help chemicals such as:
Thiofos - organophosphate insecticidal drug.
For an aqueous solution, 1–1.5 cm³ of the drug is taken per liter of water, the whole plant is sprayed from a spray bottle, and rinsed with water at room temperature after 20–30 minutes.
For 1 liter of water take 2 grams of anabazine sulfate, 4 grams of green soap and 3 grams of denatured alcohol. First, beat the soap to the state of foam, add the rest of the therapeutic emulsion to the water.
Using a brush, this liquid is used to lubricate the stems, branches, leaves, stem of the plant on all sides and leave the plant in a pot on its side (to prevent the solution from falling to the ground) for 3-4 hours, then thoroughly wash the solution with warm water. The procedure is repeated every 3−4 days for 2−3 weeks until complete destruction of the parasite.