Lovers of nature often have to watch around the reservoirs as the rocks, swaying near the shore reed. The sound of this plant resembles a quiet night rustling. Fluffy tops seem to look into the lake surface in a mirror. Many village kids use them for their fun. And today we talk about the plant, which is called reed. You will learn about the types of plants, properties, applications, interesting facts about it. Photos of reed plants clearly show you its main features.
What is reed, known to almost everyone. Reed belongs to the perennial and annual coastal aquatic plants of the sedge family. There are 300 species of this plant. It grows all over the planet, but most often occurs in the temperate and subtropical zones. On the territory of the Russian Federation can be found 20 of its species.
To those who do not know what the reed is, we remind that it is a perennial, rarely an annual plant with a creeping or shortened rhizome. Differs in cylindrical or trihedral leafy stems. Foliage is often scaly. Inflorescences may consist of one, several or many capitated or paniculate spikelets. The flowers are bisexual.
The word "reed" has the spoken form - "rogoz". The most common is the reed, which has triangular rigid stems with seated, linear, folded leaves resembling sedge. It has spreading and umbellate inflorescences. In the damp places of the middle band there is a lot of the most common forest reeds. Description of the plant you will find further in the article.
We will tell you about the six main species of this plant. You do not know what is reed? Fans of reservoirs easily imagine it immediately. Many people confuse it with broad-leaved cattail, but it is a completely different plant of the sedge family.
Places of growth
The reed growing area is Europe, Asia, the Caucasus, the Middle and Far East, Hindustan, North Africa. Especially its many in the Columbia River Basin. His favorite places are the coast, river deltas, swamps, ditches. The Japanese even learned to cultivate it, to be used for weaving.
Most suitable for planting reeds neutral and slightly acidic moist soil. He loves shallow water and full sunshine. Some species can grow in the shade.
Often, the shores of lakes, streams, and shrivets of temperate zones of Siberia, Europe, North America, and the Caucasus are decorated with lake reeds. Lake species refers to a perennial plant, having a height of from 1 to 2.5 m. It has a creeping hollow rhizome. Characterized by cylindrical stalks and scaly leaves. Inflorescences have a corymbodiform paniculate form. Spikelet size - 8-12 mm in length. They are brown in color. Near the flowers can be 1-2 leaves. Flowering occurs at the end of spring, the beginning of summer.
The plant is often used for decorating ponds. Its variegated form is used for design. Lake view is distinguished by pale yellow stems up to 1.5 m.
After our description you will be more clear what a reed is. Another of its kind is the thyroid. He likes wet sandy places, the shores of ponds. The zone of its growth is Europe, the Caucasus, the south-west of Siberia, Central and Western Asia, and India.
The bristle-shaped cane is an annual plant, reaching a height of only 20 cm. It is characterized by numerous thin narrow leaves. On the stalks may be from 1 to 4 small panicles collected at the top of the stem. Near the flower there is one leaf that is higher than the inflorescence itself. Spikelets have a dark purple hue. This species blooms in late May.
Although this species is called forest, in the forests it can be found least of all. He loves swamps, overgrown lakes, ponds, swampy banks of rivers, reservoirs. Also forest cane prefers raw meadows, lowlands with stagnant water. This species has a creeping rhizome and can reach about a meter in height. The top of the stem resembles a lush panicle. The stem has a triangular shape and is covered with long leaves, which at the edges have a rough structure. Flowering reed begins with the end of June. The plant eventually forms extensive thickets.
The close view is sea reed. It is also referred to as a new separate genus. Its peculiarity is that it is adapted to saline soil and water. It has a creeping rhizome, stems up to 1 m and leaves 3-6 cm wide. The top of the sea view is similar to a star-shaped inflorescence of brown color.
Stems have a triangular shape. It differs from other species in thickened at the ends of underground shoots, resembling small tubers. They are suitable for food because they contain a lot of starch. Tubers are boiled or eaten raw.
Red Brown Tabernemontana
Very similar to the lake view of the original Tabernemontan reed. He has reddish-brown, covered with scales and small warts spikelets. He loves saline water. It grows on the banks of rivers and lakes. Most common in the cold-moderate zone of Eurasia. Why does this species have such a strange name? The fact is that the pseudonym Tabernemontana was worn by the German botanist Muller. This reed is named in his honor.
The peculiarity of this species is that in spring it turns brown-red. In summer, the leaves turn green. He has very unusual fruitless stems. They are long and beautifully bent. These bends cause the plant to touch the water, and a new shrub begins to sprout. There are many other types of reeds. Among them - spiky, bristle, decorative.
Reproduction and care of the plant
In nature, reed multiplication occurs with the help of seeds. It also very often comes out by dividing the rhizome. To propagate a particular plant variety, use the division of the bushes. Make a transplant in early May or September.
Reed does not require special care. It grows strongly, and its long rhizomes themselves give self-seeding. A rooting look is quickly adopted. For a month or two, he gives a lot of new stems.
The use of reeds, interesting facts
This plant is used to design gardens in a natural style. It complements the vegetable composition of shallow water. Bulrush is an excellent backdrop for showy lily pads, pods and other plants that float on the water. Shady gardens also make out certain types of reeds. Often it forms an impassable wall of stems, resembling a two-meter hedge. Inflorescence pollen is transferred from one plant to another by wind. For water bodies, it is very useful, because it prevents water pollution.
Reed is good because of it weave shopping bags, baskets, mats, rugs. They decorate wickerwork from the vine. The most used leaves. For products of green color they are cut off in July, and for yellow - in September. To be elastic, drying is carried out in the shade. Sometimes used as a fuel. In the twentieth century, reed concrete was made of it for rural construction.
The plant was used not only by Russians, but also by other nations. The British they insulated castles and huts. He made the air dry. Reed thickets were a favorite place for hunters, because wild birds like to hide there.
The reed was also popular among the Egyptians. The Old Testament says that the Prophet Moses was found in a reed wicker basket. And in many myths, babies were saved in such a wicker basket. The Romans sent by water in a similar container of reeds toddlers Romulus and Remus (the founders of Rome). The reed flute is mentioned in one of the hymns to Yama, the god of death.
In Central Asia, the plant was added to make gypsum. It is well suited for the construction of floors of buildings in seismically hazardous areas. In Russia, it was used as thermal insulation. In pre-revolutionary times, special reed slabs were made, which were installed in the walls of railway cars.
Healing properties of the forest species
Quite widely in folk medicine used forest cane. Healers apply its pollen, stems, leaves, rhizomes. It is believed that it restores blood well and heals wounds. For this purpose even his down is used. Ointment is made from it with added oil and lubricated with burns. Diabetes mellitus, gastritis, enteritis, dysentery, diarrhea, copious menstrual flow with pain, insomnia are treated with the leaves of the plant.
Reed is an excellent diuretic and diaphoretic remedy that normalizes kidney function, reduces puffiness, supports blood sugar levels. Broth rhizomes treat colitis and increase immunity. From reed inflorescences brewed tea, which reduces heart pain and shortness of breath. It is worth recalling once again that it contains a lot of starch and ascorbic acid.
Reeds can be found in almost every corner of the earth, but they are most common in tropical and subtropical latitudes.
They choose their reservoirs and swamps as their habitat. Some species of reeds swim on the water surface.
The length of the reed stem is usually three meters. The stem of the reed thin. For him characteristic cylindrical or triangular shape.
In the cross section of the stem, one can see voids that play the role of air passages.
Trihedral stems can be covered with linear leaves that are similar in shape to the leaves of sedge. Cylindrical stalks of leaves usually do not have, but at their base scales up to three millimeters in length can be located. Some types of reeds are equipped with filamentous leaves that form a rosette.
The underground part of this representative of the sedge family is represented by a rhizome, which can be creeping or shortened.
Can I keep at home?
However, there are other opinions about reeds. For example, the inhabitants of ancient Egypt associated this plant with power, because it grew only near water bodies of great value for a dry country. A dry reed, set near the entrance to the dwelling, helped scare detractors.
Medically swampy may be dangerous after fading, as they begin to disintegrate into the smallest fluff, which can provoke the occurrence of allergic reactions. In addition, reeds brought from the swamp can have on themselves traces of life of various animals that are carriers of dangerous diseases.
Reed is unpretentious planthowever he prone to very rapid growththerefore requires regular pruning with a pruner designed to form a beautiful shape.
Pruning is best done in late autumn. Pruned as overgrown roots and wilted leaves.
Since the reed is a marsh plant, it loves humidity. In this regard, it is recommended to water it abundantly.
During the cold season, watering of reeds is slightly reduced, but we should not allow the top layer of soil in which this representative of the flora grows to dry out. For irrigation, use separated soft water.. Once every three days, reed leaves must be irrigated with water.
It is usually planted on the marshy shore or directly into the reservoir itself. Species of reeds with leaf-covered stems are immersed in the water when planted for twenty centimeters, and reeds with bare stems per meter.
For bulrush characterized by rapid aging and dropping leaves. For this reason, the plant needs a transplant every spring.
During transplantation, reed separation is also performed, as well as the removal of yellowed leaves.
IMPORTANT! It is not necessary to divide the reed into too many parts, since weak roots on small bushes may not take root.
In the summer, reed is considered to be the most favorable temperature not exceeding twenty degrees of heat, and in winter it is necessary to ensure that it does not fall below eight degrees. Although reed is cold-resistant plantwhich can withstand a temperature of five degrees above zero, but still he prefers warmth.
The reed will feel most comfortable in the lighted areas, but it does not tolerate direct sunlight. The most favorable place for him is considered to be a penumbra.
Growing from seed at home
The process of growing reeds from seeds is quite time consuming.
Seeds should first be wet stratified at low temperatures above zero for two months. To carry out their landing is best in February or in March.
Seeds are distributed over the surface of a moist soil consisting of a mixture of sand, peat and humus in equal parts. To preserve soil moisture and air, it is recommended to cover the seed container with glass and place it on a pallet filled with water.
After five to seven days you will notice the emergence of shoots that after a couple of months will need to dive. In June, young reeds need to land on a permanent place.
Best reed will feel in wet neutral or slightly acidic soilwhose pH level is from 5.0 to 7.0.
The soil may consist of two parts of sod, one part of humus or leaf earth, as well as one part of sand.
Reed grows well in hydroponics.
Reed need to feed mineral fertilizerswhose proportion should be one gram per meter. Most often, compost, humus or wood ash is introduced into the soil. In moderate quantities it is allowed to feed reeds with potassium salt and superphosphate.
In the first months of spring, it is recommended to enrich the soil with urea, and in order for the plant to grow and develop properly, it must be fed every month with fertilizers that do not contain calcium.
Previously, people used reeds as fuel and feed for livestock. Alcohol and acetone were obtained from it, as well as glycerin and lactic acid.
This plant was also a raw material for paper production. In lean years, shoots of reeds saved people from starvation, being used as a raw material for filling soups.
They ate them raw, and made flour from rhizomes. In campaigns, the rhizomes of this plant are baked on coals.
Soft and supple stalks of reeds are used for weaving baskets and carpets.
Medicinal properties of the panicle reeds
Reed contains many nutrients, thanks to which it can be used for the preparation of healing infusions and decoctions. It has an antiseptic, diuretic, bactericidal, wound-healing, diaphoretic and hemostatic effect.
Reed is an unpretentious plant with many useful properties. In addition, it can perform a decorative function and be used for practical purposes.
Reed lake: description
It is a perennial herbaceous one hundred to two hundred fifty centimeters high with a hollow creeping rhizome. Stems - a cylindrical shape, with scaly leaves.
The thyroid-paniculate inflorescence, less often compressed, resembles a spiky spike brush. Brown spikelets have a length of eight to twelve millimeters; at the ends of the peduncles, three or four are clustered (less often to eight).
Floral leaves slightly longer than inflorescence, awl-shaped. Covering scales - with a single warts or smooth.
Reed lake blooms in late spring and early summer. In its preparation are engaged in September-October.
People call this plant kuga. Yes, the lake reed, the photos of which are presented in the article, is the same Kuga, from which you can weave a soft mat suitable for a bed. Such a wicker product is called, accordingly, a small button. You can also make a very light float for fishing from another Kugi.
Reed in beekeeping
The plant, among other things, is held in high esteem by beekeepers. When the reed of the lake blooms, and it happens in June-July, the bees take the pollen from its spikelets - flower pollen, without which they can’t grow a baby. During the season, a strong bee family consumes up to twenty kilograms of perga, collected from various plants, including not only reed, but also elm, alder, hazel, oak, burdock, broad-leaved rogoz, and weeds - nettle, quinoa, sorrel.
Reed lake has several varieties, the main of which are:
- Albescens - a plant with yellow striped stems, reaching a height of 150 centimeters,
- Golden spears - reed, in which in spring time the stems are bright yellow, and in summer - green,
- Zebrinus - a decorative variety characterized by the presence of horizontal yellow stripes on green stalks.
Lake reed belongs to hydrophytes - plants of coastal waters and swamps that lack moisture. Their roots are in viscous heavy sludge, where there is almost no oxygen. Hydrophytes would be doomed to death if they did not have special devices. The fact is that the roots of such plants receive the oxygen necessary for respiration, not through the soil surface, but according to the ereenchime - a special air-bearing tissue.
In the lake reeds in the cross section of the stem behind the outer cells you can see the airways - voids, separated by films, which are a network of narrow cells connected in chains. These chains converge and form aerenchyma - air-conducting beams. There is always air in the tissues of such bundles. It is proved that the oxygen concentration is disturbed by mechanical damage to the stem, and this suggests that the bog plant saturates the intercellular air with oxygen itself: it is absorbed by the green chlorophyll-bearing tissue during photosynthesis.
Since the air-conducting bundles are present not only in the stem, but also in the rhizome, oxygen flows freely to the roots, and it reaches the most distant underground organs, which are flooded with water and are deeply buried in the mud. Thus, thanks to aerenhime, the lake reeds receive enough oxygen for breathing.
Application in the national economy
Stems of lake reeds are suitable for weaving various products, serve as raw materials for paper production, are used as a heat-insulating, packaging and building material.
The plant is suitable for glycerin and alcohol. It is also of ecological importance, as an excellent biofilter for the purification of industrial waters. Reed plays a significant role in soil reinforcement.
Use in food
Young, not yet green stems and rhizomes are eaten. The shoots are eaten boiled, fresh, pickled, fermented. Previously, peeled dried rhizomes were milled with flour, which was then added to rye or wheat when baking bread. However, this is not done now, since it has been established that the use of such a mixture for a long time can be harmful to the body. At the same time, a completely safe sweet syrup can be prepared from rhizomes and stems. It is done simply: the raw material is finely chopped, boiled and evaporated to a certain density.
For spotted deer and aquatic fur animals, lake reed serves as a fodder plant.
Lake reed prefers slightly acidic or neutral soil. It can be planted in water, in shallow areas, or in the coastal marshland. The plant feels better in the sun, but in general is extremely low-demanding.
At the cottage lake reed looks great in the shallow waters of reservoirs, decorated in landscape style. The plant gives a natural flavor to the compositions with beanbags, water lilies, eykhorniyami.
Thickets of reeds need to be limited in growth, because the plant can be quite aggressive and able to capture the territory of the entire reservoir. Then it will be necessary to decide the question of how to get rid of lake reeds.
It is recommended to plant the plant in containers. In the autumn period, the stems must be cut.
Perennial This species has a shortened rhizome with a thickness of 2-4 mm. The stems are up to 1.2 m tall, thin, rough at the top, triangular, highly leafy. Leaves flat, linear, can be up to 2 cm wide, rough to the touch. The inflorescence is represented by a branchy sprawling whisk, consisting of a set of spikelets, black-green shade. Flowering time is from June to July. The fruit has the appearance of a triangular nut, its length is only 1 mm, it appears in July-August.
On the mainland, Eurasia is widespread, and in North America does not grow. On the territory of southern Siberia is a common plant. It is moisture-loving, it grows in swamps, it is found in forest wetlands, on the banks of standing bodies of water, in flood plains.
Growing on the plot. Omens and superstitions
Reeds love increased soil moisture. In areas of the plant are planted as decorations for ponds, streams in such a way that the lower part of the stems will be in the water. The varieties endowed with leaves are flooded to a depth of no more than 20 cm. Lake reed and Tabernemontana are planted with a submersion of shoots for 1 m. Other species are buried within 10-30 cm.
Almost all varieties love strong lighting. The exception is reed forest. This representative feels good in the penumbra. In winter, the stems are cut, leaving small hemp above the surface of the reservoir.
Bulrush - a controversial plant. Some ordinary people associate bad incidents with him, indicating that evil spirits live in the swamps. Others consider it a harbinger of happiness. The name of the coastal resident is associated with well-bending stems: scirpus - weave, knit. In the Old Testament it is described that the baby Moses was sent over the water in a reed basket, as in Egypt, reed is called. To this day, for the inhabitants of that region, the long stems symbolize power. In ancient Greece, panicle inflorescences were specially brought into the house if they wanted to conceive a child. Slavic peoples kept reeds in front of the house. It served as a talisman against failure.
Tip If animals live in an apartment, it is better not to bring beautiful blossoms from the marsh home. In wet places, pathogens of infectious diseases can accumulate.